Italian general election, 2018
All 630 seats of the Chamber of Deputies
All elective 315 seats of the Senate of the Republic
At the 2013 general election none of the three main alliances – the centre-right led by Silvio Berlusconi, the centre-left led by Pier Luigi Bersani and the Five Star Movement (M5S) led by Beppe Grillo – won an outright majority in Parliament. After a failed attempt to form a government by Bersani, then-secretary of the Democratic Party (PD), and Giorgio Napolitano's re-election as President, Enrico Letta, Bersani's deputy, received the task of forming a grand coalition government. The Letta Cabinet consisted of the PD, Berlusconi's The People of Freedom (PdL), Civic Choice (SC), the Union of the Centre (UdC) and others.
On 16 November 2013 Berlusconi launched a new party, Forza Italia (FI), named after the defunct Forza Italia party (1994–2009). Additionally, Berlusconi announced that FI would be opposed to Letta's government, causing the split from the PdL/FI of a large group of deputies and senators led by Minister of Interior Angelino Alfano, who launched the alternative New Centre-Right (NCD) party and remained loyal to the government.
Following the election of Matteo Renzi as Secretary of the PD in December 2013, there were persistent tensions culminating in Letta's resignation as Prime Minister in February 2014. Subsequently, Renzi formed a government based on the same coalition (including the NCD), but in a new fashion. The new Prime Minister had a strong mandate from his party and was reinforced by the PD's strong showing in the 2014 European Parliament election and the election of Sergio Mattarella, a fellow Democrat, as President in 2015. While in power, Renzi implemented several reforms, including a new electoral law (which would later be declared partially unconstitutional by the Constitutional Court), a relaxation of labour and employment laws (known as Jobs Act) with the intention of boosting economic growth, a thorough reform of the public administration, the simplification of the civil trial, the recognition of same-sex unions and the abolition of several minor taxes.
As a result of the Libyan civil war, a major problem faced by Renzi was the high level of illegal immigration to Italy. During his tenure, there was an increase in the number of immigrants rescued at sea being brought to southern Italian ports, prompting criticism from the M5S, FI and Lega Nord (LN), and causing a loss of popularity for Renzi. However, well into 2016 opinion polls registered the PD's strength, as well as the growth of the M5S, the LN and Brothers of Italy (FdI), FI's decline, SC's virtual disappearance and the replacement of Left Ecology Freedom (SEL) with the Italian Left (SI).
In December 2016 a constitutional reform proposed by Renzi's government and duly approved by Parliament was rejected in a constitutional referendum (59% to 41%). Under the reform, the Senate would have been composed of 100 members: 95 regional representatives and 5 presidential appointees. Following defeat, Renzi stepped down as Prime Minister and was replaced by his Minister of Foreign Affairs Paolo Gentiloni, another Democrat.
In early 2017, in opposition to Renzi's policies, some left-wing Democrats led by Bersani, Massimo D'Alema and Roberto Speranza launched, along with SI splinters, the Democratic and Progressive Movement (MDP). Contextually, the NCD was transformed into Popular Alternative (AP). In April Renzi was re-elected secretary of the PD and thus the party's candidate for Prime Minister, defeating Minister of Justice Andrea Orlando and Governor of Apulia Michele Emiliano.
In May 2017 Matteo Salvini was re-elected federal secretary of the LN and launched his own bid. Under Salvini, the party had emphasised Euroscepticism, opposition to immigration and other populist policies. In fact, Salvini's aim had been to re-launch the LN as a "national" or, even, "Italian nationalist" party, withering any notion of northern separatism. This focus became particularly evident in December when LN presented its new electoral logo, without the word "Nord".
In September 2017 Luigi Di Maio was selected as candidate for Prime Minister and "political head" of the M5S, replacing Grillo. However, even in the following months, the populist comedian was accused by critics of continuing to play his role as de facto leader of the party, while an increasingly important, albeit unofficial, role was assumed by Davide Casaleggio, son of Gianroberto, a web strategist who founded the M5S along with Grillo in 2009 and died in 2016. In January 2018, Grillo separated his own blog from the movement; his blog was used in the previous years as an online newspaper of the M5S and the main propaganda tool. This event was seen by many as the proof that Grillo was slowly leaving politics.
The autumn registered some major developments to the left of the political spectrum: in November Forza Europa, the Italian Radicals and individual liberals launched a joint list named More Europe (+E), led by the long-time Radical leader Emma Bonino; in December the MDP, SI and Possible launched a joint list named Free and Equal (LeU) under the leadership of Pietro Grasso, President of the Senate and former anti-mafia prosecutor; the Italian Socialist Party, the Federation of the Greens, Civic Area and Progressive Area formed a list named Together (I) in support of the PD; the Communist Refoundation Party, the Italian Communist Party, social centres, minor parties, local committees, associations and groups launched a far-left joint list named Power to the People (PaP), under the leadership of Viola Carofalo.
In late December the centrist post-NCD Popular Alternative (AP), which had been a key coalition partner for the PD, divided itself among those who wanted to return into the centre-right's fold and those who supported Renzi's coalition. Two groups of AP splinters (one led by Maurizio Lupi and the other by Enrico Costa), formed along with Direction Italy, Civic Choice, Act!, Popular Construction and the Movement for the Autonomies, a joint list within the centre-right, named Us with Italy (NcI). The list was later enlarged to the Union of the Centre, the Union of Democrats for Europe and minor parties. The remaining members of AP, Italy of Values, the Centrists for Europe, Solidary Democracy and minor groups joined forces in the pro-PD Popular Civic List (CP), led by Minister of Health Beatrice Lorenzin.
On 21 February, 2018, Marco Minniti, the Italian Minister of the Interior, warned "there is a risk of Italy's mafias "conditioning" the March 4 general election in some areas". Predominately the Sicilian Mafia have been recently active in Italian election meddling, the Camorra and 'Ndrangheta organisations have also taken an interest.
The first phase of the electoral campaign was marked by the statement of the President Mattarella to parties for the presentation of "realistic and concrete" proposals during the traditional end of the year's message, in which he also expressed the wish for a high participation in the ballot.
The electoral programme of the PD included, among the main points, the introduction of a minimum hourly wage of €10, a measure that would affect 15% of workers, that is those workers who do not adhere to the national collective agreements; a cut of the contributory wedge for permanent contracts; a relocation allowance and an increase in subsidies for the unemployed; a monthly allowance of €80 for parents for each minor child; fiscal detraction of €240 for parents with children; and the progressive reduction of the rates of IRPEF and IRES, respectively the income tax and the corporate tax. Regarding immigration, which had been a major problem in Italy for the previous years, the PD advocated a reduction in migrant flows through bilateral agreements with the countries of origin and pretended to a halt to EU funding for countries like Hungary and Poland that have refused to take in any of the 600,000 migrants who have reached Italy through the Mediterranean over the past four years. Among the PD's allies, the CP proposed free nurseries, a tax exemption for corporate welfare and other measures regarding public health, including the contrast to the long waiting list in hospitals, the abolition of the so-called "supertickets", and an extension of home care for the elderly. +E advocated the re-launch of the process of European integration and federation, towards the formation of the United States of Europe. This focus, regarding the European process of integration, was also strongly supported by the PD. More Europe also strongly advocated the social integration of migrants, quietly opposing the PD's policies implemented by the Minister of Interior Marco Minniti.
The main proposal of the centre-right coalition is a huge tax reform based on the introduction of a flat tax: for Berlusconi initially based on the lowest current rate (23%) with the threshold raised to €12,000, then proceeding to a gradual reduction of the rate; while according to Salvini the tax rate should be only 15%. The most notable Italian economic newspaper Il Sole 24 Ore estimated the cost of this measure at around €25 billion per year calculated with a 20% rate, or €40 billion with 15%. Berlusconi also proposed the cancellation of IRAP, a tax on productivity, the increase of minimum pensions to €1,000, the introduction of a "dignity income" to fight poverty, the decontribution on youth recruitment, changes to the Fornero law, which regulated pensions, and the launch of a "Marshall Plan" for Africa to reduce illegal immigration to Italy. Within FI there are some representatives of the Animalist Movement (MA) led by Michela Brambilla, whose main focus is in particular the banning of fur clothing and stricter controls in circuses, free veterinary care and the establishment of an ombudsman for animal rights. The League additionally proposed the complete replacement of the Fornero law and the possibility of retirement with 41 years of contributions, the "scrapping" of tax records for taxpayers in difficulty, an operation that should yield up to €35 billion to the State, the disbandment of Equitalia, the company that deals with the collection of taxes, the abolition of the limit on the use of cash, the regularization of prostitution; moreover, Salvini's main aim is a drastic reduction of illegal immigration, by reintroducing border controls, blocking arrivals and repatriating all migrants who have no right to stay in Italy. The FdI proposed free nurseries, a check for €400 per month for newborns up to the six years old, to increase population growth, parental leave paid to 80% up to the sixth year of birth, increase in salaries and equipment to law enforcement, the increased use of the Italian Army as a measure to fight crime and a new law on self-defense.
The M5S presented a programme whose main points are the introduction of an basic income, known as "income of citizenship", to fight poverty, a measure that would cost between €15 and €20 billion annually; the cut of the public debt by 40 points in relation to GDP in ten years; the adoption of measures to revitalise youth employment; a cut in pensions of over €5,000 net not entirely based on the contribution method; the reduction of IRPEF rates and the extension of the income tax threshold; the increase in spending on family welfare measures from 1.5 to 2.5% of GDP; a constitutional law that obliges members of Parliament to resign if they intend to change party, which by now is unconstitutional. Di Maio also proposed a legislative simplification, starting with the elimination of almost 400 laws with a single legislative provision.
LeU focused on the so-called "right to study", proposing in particular the abolition of university fees for students who take the exams regularly, with the estimated cost for the state budget of €1.6 billion. LeU also proposed the reintroducing the workers' statutory protections which were eliminated by the Renzi government's Jobs Act, fighting tax evasion, corruption and organised crime.
On 3 February 2018, a drive-by shooting event occurred in the city of Macerata in Central Italy when a 28-year-old local, Luca Traini, seriously wounded six African migrants. Traini also targeted local headquarters of the ruling PD. After the attack Traini reportedly had an Italian flag draped on his shoulders and raised his arm in a Fascist salute. Traini stated that the attack was a revenge for Pamela Mastropietro, an 18-year-old local girl whose dismembered body had been found few days earlier, stuffed into two suitcases and dumped in the countryside; for this, a 29-year-old Nigerian national and failed asylum seeker, Innocent Oseghale, had been arrested and charged. Oseghale had been denied asylum a year previously, but remained in Italy.
Traini was a member and former local candidate of the League, and many political commentators, intellectuals and politicians harshly criticised Salvini, accusing him of having spread hate and racism in the country. Particularly, Roberto Saviano, the notable anti-mafia writer who labeled the League's leader as the moral instigator of the attack. Salvini responded to critics by accusing the center-left government of responsibility for Mastropietro’s death for allowing migrants to stay in the country and having "blood on their hands", asserting the blame lies with those who "fill us with illegal immigrants". Prime Minister Gentiloni stated that he "trusts in the sense of responsibility of all political forces. Criminals are criminals and the state will be particularly harsh with anyone that wants to fuel a spiral of violence." Gentiloni added that "hate and violence will not divide Italy". Also, Minister of the Interior Marco Minniti harshly condemned the attack, saying that any political party must "ride the hate". Renzi, whose party was the second target of the attack, stated that calm and responsibility from all political forces will be now necessary.
Main parties' slogans
|Party||Original slogan||English translation||Refs|
|Democratic Party||Avanti, insieme||"Forward, together"|||
|Five Star Movement||Partecipa, Scegli, Cambia||"Participate, Choose, Change"|||
|Forza Italia||Onestà, Esperienza, Saggezza||"Honesty, Experience, Wisdom"|||
|League||Prima gli Italiani||"Italians First"|||
|Free and Equal||Per i molti, non per i pochi||"For the many, not the few"|||
|Brothers of Italy||Il voto che unisce l'Italia||"The vote that unites Italy"|||
|More Europe||Più Europa, serve all'Italia||"More Europe, Italy needs it"|||
|Together||Insieme è meglio||"Together is better"|||
|Popular Civic List||Il vaccino contro gli incompetenti||"The vaccine against the incompetents"|||
|Power to the People||Potere al Popolo||"Power to the People"|||
|CasaPound Italy||Vota più forte che puoi||"Vote as strong as you can"|||
Differently from many other Western countries, in Italy the electoral debates between parties' leaders are not so common before general elections; in fact the last debate between the two main candidates to premiership dated back to the 2006 general election between Silvio Berlusconi and Romano Prodi. In recent years, with few exceptions, almost every main political leader had denied his participation to an electoral debate with other candidates, preferring interviews with TV hosts and journalists.
However many debates took places between other leading members of the main parties.
|Italian general election debates, 2018|
|Date||Organiser||Moderator||P Present NI Non-invitee A Absent invitee|
|12 December||Rai 3
|16 January||Rai 3
|30 January||Rai 3
(Otto e mezzo)
|13 February||Rai 3
New electoral system
As a consequence of the 2016 constitutional referendum and of two different sentences of the Constitutional Court, the electoral laws for the two houses of the Italian Parliament lacked uniformity. In October 2017, the PD, AP, FI, the LN and minor parties agreed on a new electoral law, which was approved by the Chamber of Deputies with 375 votes in favor and 215 against and by the Senate with 214 votes against 61. The reform was opposed by the M5S, the MDP, SI, FdI and minor parties.
The so-called Rosatellum bis, after Ettore Rosato (PD leader in the Chamber), is a mixed system, with 37% of seats allocated using a first-past-the-post voting and 63% using the proportional largest remainder method, with one round of voting.
The 630 deputies will be elected as follows:
- 232 in single-member constituencies, by plurality;
- 386 in multi-member constituencies, by national proportional representation;
- 12 in multi-member abroad constituencies, by constituency proportional representation.
The 315 elective senators will be elected as follows:
- 116 in single-member constituencies, by plurality;
- 193 in multi-member constituencies, by national proportional representation;
- 6 in multi-member abroad constituencies, by constituency proportional representation.
A small, variable number of senators for life will also be members of the Senate.
For Italian residents, each house members will be elected in single ballots, including the constituency candidate and his/her supporting party lists. In each single-member constituency the deputy/senator is elected on a plurality basis, while the seats in multi-member constituencies will be allocated nationally. In order to be calculated in single-member constituency results, parties need to obtain at least 1% of the national vote. In order to receive seats in multi-member constituencies, parties need to obtain at least 3% of the national vote. Elects from multi-member constituencies will come from closed lists.
The voting paper, which is a single one for the first-past-the-post and the proportional systems, shows the names of the candidates to single-member constituencies and, in close conjunction with them, the symbols of the linked lists for the proportional part, each one with a list of the relative candidates.
The voter will be able to cast his vote in three different ways:
- Drawing a sign on the symbol of a list: in this case the vote extends to the candidate in the single-member constituency which is supported by that list.
- Drawing a sign on the name of the candidate of the single-member constituency and another one on the symbol of one list that supports him: the result is the same as that described above; it is not allowed, under penalty of annulment, the panachage, so the voter can not vote simultaneously for a candidate in the FPTP constituency and for a list which is not linked to him.
- Drawing a sign only on the name of the candidate for the FPTP constituency, without indicating any list: in this case, the vote is valid for the candidate in the single-member constituency and also automatically extended to the list that supports him; if that candidate is however connected to several lists, the vote is divided proportionally between them, based on the votes that each one has obtained in that constituency.
Coalitions and parties
The following table includes the coalitions and parties running in the majority of multi-member constituencies.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Elections in Italy (2018).|
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- l blog di Beppe Grillo è cambiato
- Grillo si riprende il blog e continua il suo distacco dal M5S
- I radicali alle elezioni da soli: la nuova lista si chiamerà “+ Europa”
- Liberi e Uguali, Grasso si presenta bene
- Ritorna, in piccolo, L'Ulivo e l'avversario è sempre lo stesso: "Siamo gli unici che hanno battuto due volte Berlusconi"
- Viola Carofalo, National Spokesman of "Potere al Popolo"
- Nasce Noi con l'Italia, la 'quarta gamba' del centrodestra
- Simbolo e liste: è pronta la «quarta gamba»
- Nasce "Civica popolare", lista centrista alleata col Pd: sarà guidata dalla Lorenzin
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- Mattarella, il discorso di fine anno: “I partiti hanno il dovere di programmi realistici. Fiducia nei giovani al voto”
- Il Programma del PD
- Porta a Porta, puntata del 10 Gennaio 2018
- Pd, Renzi ecco il programma elettorale: 240 euro al mese per figlio. "Taglio contributi tempo indeterminato"
- Italian election pledges: Pizza or pazza?
- Porta a Porta, puntata del 16 Gennaio 2018
- Radicali italiani, ecco la lista europeista di Bonino e Della Vedova
- Renzi: il futuro sono gli Stati Uniti d'Europa
- Migranti e legittima difesa, è campagna sulla sicurezza
- Dalla flat tax all’abolizione della legge Fornero, quanto costano le promesse elettorali dei partiti
- Porta a Porta, puntata dell'11 Gennaio 2018
- “Stop agli allevamenti per le pellicce e interventi nei circhi”: il programma animalista di Berlusconi
- Porta a Porta, puntata del 18 Gennaio 2018
- Immigrati occupano la Statale, Salvini: "Stanno male? Rispediamoli a casa loro!"
- Porta a Porta, puntata del 17 Gennaio 2018
- Porta a Porta, puntata del 9 Gennaio 2018
- M5S, Di Maio: "Ridurre la burocrazia, aboliremo 400 leggi". E lancia un sito ad hoc aperto a tutti
- Grasso: “Eliminare il canone Rai? Noi vogliamo abolire le tasse per l’università come in Germania. E cancellare il Jobs Act”
- ‘Racial Hatred’ Cited After African Immigrants Are Shot in Italy
- Raid razzista a Macerata, colpita anche la sede Pd
- Man shoots, wounds at least 6 ‘people of color’ in Italian city amid tensions
- Macerata, spari da auto in corsa, sei feriti: sono tutti di colore. Una vendetta per Pamela: bloccato un uomo avvolto nel tricolore
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- Macerata: Minniti, nessuno cavalchi odio
- Renzi: "Servono calma e responsabilità"
- Avanti, insieme
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- Partecipa, Scegli, Cambia
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- Coniato il primo manifesto di Forza Italia con lo slogan: "Onestà, Esperiezna, Saggezza"
- Prima gli italiani, Salvini invita Di Maio: “Vieni alla nostra manifestazione di Milano”
- Con il Governo Salvini, prima gli Italiani
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- Fratelli d'Italia: Il voto che unisce l'Italia
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- Più Europa – Con Emma Bonino
- Più a Europa, per un'Italia libera e democratica
- Comitati territoriali "Insieme è meglio!"
- Italia Europa Insieme
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- Le liste di movimento di Potere al Popolo!
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