Coordinates: 49°25′0″N 27°00′0″E / 49.41667°N 27.00000°E / 49.41667; 27.00000
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Flag of Khmelnytskyi
Coat of arms of Khmelnytskyi
Khmelnytskyi is located in Khmelnytskyi Oblast
Location of Khmelnytskyi in Ukraine
Khmelnytskyi is located in Ukraine
Khmelnytskyi (Ukraine)
Coordinates: 49°25′0″N 27°00′0″E / 49.41667°N 27.00000°E / 49.41667; 27.00000
Country Ukraine
OblastKhmelnytskyi Oblast
RaionKhmelnytskyi Raion
HromadaKhmelnytskyi urban hromada
First mentioned1431
City rights22 September 1937
 • MayorOleksandr Symсhyshyn [uk][1] (Svoboda[1])
 • Total90 km2 (30 sq mi)
 • Total274,452
 • Density2,822/km2 (7,310/sq mi)
Postal code
Area code+380 382

Khmelnytskyi[a] (Ukrainian: Хмельни́цький, IPA: [xmelʲˈnɪt͡sʲkei̯] ) is a city in western Ukraine. Located on the Southern Bug, it serves as the administrative centre of Khmelnytskyi Oblast as well as Khmelnytskyi Raion within the oblast.[2] With a population of 274,452 (2022 estimate),[3] Khmelnytskyi is the second-largest city in the historical region of Podolia, after Vinnytsia.

The city was first mentioned in 1431 as a Polish military post, where it was known as Płoskirów under Polish rule. It was seized by Cossacks during the Khmelnytsky Uprising and later ruled by the Ottomans until 1699. It was passed to Russia in 1793, as a result of the Second Partition of Poland, and became part of the newly-formed Podolia Governorate, where it became known as Proskuriv or Proskurov. From 1917 to 1920, it was controlled by the short-lived Ukrainian People's Republic before becoming part of Soviet Ukraine. The city's Jewish population fell from 42 per cent in 1939 to 10 per cent in 1959 as a result of the Holocaust in Ukraine.[4] In 1954, it was renamed Khmelnytskyi in honor of the Cossack leader Bohdan Khmelnytsky.

Khmelnytskyi is the location of a rail junction and an important industrial centre, as well as a centre for higher education such as the Khmelnytskyi National University and the Khmelnytskyi Oblast Ukrainian Music and Drama Theater.


Khmelnytskyi had several names throughout history. In the oldest written evidence about this settlement, the name of the city was mentioned as Ploskirowce,[b] while later documents mentioned its name as Płoskirów,[c] which probably comes from the name of the Ploska River.[5]

In 1793, the city was renamed Proskurov,[d] which appeared on the decree to create Podolia Governorate. This toponym is very similar to the name "proskura", which is a bread in the liturgical service.[6]

On 16 January 1954, Proskuriv was renamed to Khmelnytskyi in honor of Bohdan Khmelnytsky, the Cossack hetman who rebelled against the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.


Bohdan Khmelnytsky

The city foundation date is uncertain. The territory where Khmelnytskyi is situated has been inhabited for a very long time. Many archaeological discoveries have been made in the city suburbs. For example, to the East of Lezneve district, there was a settlement from the Bronze Age 2000 B.C., and from Scythian times from 7–3 century B.C.[7] The first mention of the city was written with Cyrillic alphabet. The earliest known mention in historical sources was in 1431,[8] when it was known as Płoskirów (Ploskirov, Плоскиров) and was part of the Kingdom of Poland. It was a royal city.

Polish rule was briefly interrupted by the Ottomans between 1672 and 1699. During this period, it was nahiya centre in Mejibuji sanjak in Podolia Eyalet as Poloskiruf.[9] After the Second Partition of Poland in 1793, the city was annexed by the Russian Empire and was renamed Proskurov (Проскурoв). According to the Russian census of 1897, Proskurov with a population of 22,855 was the fifth largest city of Podolia after Kamianets-Podilskyi, Uman, Vinnytsia and Balta. In 1920 it became part of Soviet Ukraine. In 1954 the city was finally renamed Khmelnytskyi (Хмельницький) in the honor of the 300th anniversary of a treaty negotiated by Bohdan Khmelnytsky.

After new archival sources presented at the 2006 conference City of Khmelnytskyi in the Context of Ukrainian History post-dated the city’s earliest mention from 1493 to 1431, it changed its official 513th anniversary commemoration to its 575th.[10]


A series of anti-Jewish pogroms have been carried out in the region, known together as the Proskurov pogrom. According to Vinnytsia's city archives, the pogrom was conducted on the Friday night of February 15, 1919, by one of the otamans (generals) of the Ukrainian People's Army, Otaman Semysenko (also rendered as Semesenko). Estimates vary as to the number of victims, some putting the death toll at 1,500 Jews in Proskurov alone, with 600 more killed in nearby Filshtein.[11]

The Chief Otaman Petliura had been appointed head of state just two days prior to the tragedy, on February the 13th. Petliura issued Order 131 in which he mentioned the fact that numerous Jewish parties in Ukraine (Bund, Poale Zion, Folks-Partei, Unificationists) rose to defend the sovereignty of the Ukrainian Republic and were cooperating with the Ukrainian government. He condemned such pogroms, calling those initiating them deserters and enemies of the State that must be liquidated. The order was co-signed by the Chief of Staff, Otaman Yunakiv. The order was published in the Ukraina newspaper on February 20 (March 4, old style). Later, Petliura issued a special order to execute Semysenko for being the pogrom initiator. According to sources the order was carried out[12] on March 20, 1920.[citation needed] Other sources claim that he was released.[12]

During the Schwartzbard trial, at the end of which Petliura's assassin was pardoned on the grounds of self-trail (revenge), the main argument of the defense was that Schwartzbard had acted as an avenger of the Jews killed in pogroms perpetrated during Petliura's rule.

World War II[edit]

A street corner during the German occupation

The town was occupied by the German Army from July 8, 1941 to March 25, 1944. On November 4, 1941, 5300 Jewish inhabitants of the town and surrounding villages were shot by an Einsatzgruppe.[13] A ghetto was formed on December 14, 1941, where all surviving Jewish inhabitants had to resettle and were subjected to forced labor. They were subsequently killed in the fall of 1942. More than 9500 Jews were killed in the town in total.[14]

Cold War[edit]

Khmelnytskyi was home to the 19th Division of the 43rd Rocket Army of the Soviet Strategic Rocket Forces during the Cold War.[15] The intercontinental ballistic missile silos of the division that were housed there were removed and destroyed, partially with U.S. Cooperative Threat Reduction funding, during the 1990s.

Toppling of Lenin statue in Khmelnytsky park, Ukraine

Russo-Ukrainian War[edit]

Until 18 July 2020, Khmelnytskyi was incorporated as a city of oblast significance and served as the administrative center of Khmelnytskyi Raion though it did not belong to the raion. In July 2020, as part of the administrative reform of Ukraine, which reduced the number of raions of Khmelnytskyi Oblast to three, the city of Khmelnytskyi was merged into Khmelnytskyi Raion.[16][17]

Russian invasion of Ukraine[edit]

On 10 October 2022, during the Russian invasion of Ukraine, the city was targeted by Russian cruise missiles as part of a major retaliation strike for the Crimean Bridge explosion, causing a blackout in the city and limiting water supply.[18]

During a missile attack on 31 December, a gas station and a military facility inside the city was hit by two Russian cruise missiles, killing at least one civilian and wounding nine. The attack also caused a partial blackout and damaged more than a dozen cars and several residential buildings, including a kindergarten.[19][20]

On 23, February 2023, Russian forces hit Khmelnytskyi with 3 Iranian-made UAVs of the "Shahed type", killing one person and wounding four. Additionally, the attack caused a fire and damaged multiple buildings.[21]


Khmelnytskyi's riverside skyline on the Southern Bug, early 2010s.

Khmelnytskyi is the regional center of the Khmelnytskyi region which is located in the western part of Ukraine in the middle of Podillia, its total area makes up 8,624 ha (21,310 acres). Khmelnytskyi has a favorable geographical position. Khmelnytskyi is crossed by one of the longest rivers of Ukraine – the Southern Bug. Coincidentally, through the western portion of the city flows the small river Ploska.

The most abundant make up for the ground in Khmelnytskyi are layers of the following overburden: loess and loess-type rocks. The ground-climatic conditions of Khmelnytskyi are favorable for the cultivation of winter wheat and rye, sugar beet, potato and other crops. Khmelnytskyi is also ideal for the development of gardening and vegetable growing. In the territory of Khmelnytskyi there are the vegetations of two geobotanical zones of Ukraine: Polissya and forest-steppe. Khmelnytskyi and its greater region supplies many rock products, particularly building materials such as limestone, plaster, chalk, tripoli powder, crystal layers (granites, gneisses), sand, sandstones, and also graphite, saponite, kaolin, phosphorite, lithographic stone, and roofing slate. There are also deposits of peat, bitumen, shale, and oil.


The climate of Khmelnytskyi is moderately continental. The average temperature of Khmelnytskyi in its warmest month (July) is 20 to 22 °C (68 to 72 °F), and the average temperature in the coldest month (January) is −5 to −6 °C (23 to 21 °F). The maximum temperatures in the summer on average reaches 36 to 38 °C (97 to 100 °F), and the minimum temperatures in the winter on average is −24 to −30 °C (−11 to −22 °F). Khmelnytskyi's average annual temperature is 7 to 8 °C (45 to 46 °F). Khmelnytskyi's average annual precipitation is 510 to 580 mm (20.08 to 22.83 in).

Climate data for Khmelnytskyi (1981–2010, extremes 1955-2011)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 12.0
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) −1.4
Daily mean °C (°F) −4.0
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) −6.7
Record low °C (°F) −30.5
Average precipitation mm (inches) 31.1
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 8.2 7.9 7.7 8.0 8.9 10.9 10.8 7.9 8.3 7.0 8.0 9.2 102.8
Average relative humidity (%) 87.0 84.4 79.5 69.5 67.9 73.4 74.5 73.1 77.5 81.2 87.5 88.3 78.7
Source 1: World Meteorological Organization[22]
Source 2: (extremes)[23]


According to a 2017 survey, 94% of the population are ethnic Ukrainians and 3% are Russians.[24]


Distribution of the population by native language according to the 2001 census:[25]

Language Number Percentage
Ukrainian 221 920 88.39%
Russian 26 006 10.36%
Other or undecided 3 151 1.25%
Total 251 077 100.00%

According to a survey conducted by the International Republican Institute in April-May 2023, 88% of the city's population spoke Ukrainian at home, and 9% spoke Russian.[26]


Khmelnytskyi hosts 6 universities, 2 academies, 3 institutes, 12 colleges, 4 technical schools and 15 representative offices of other Ukrainian HEIs.[27][28]


Khmelnytskyi railway station

Khmelnytskyi has infrastructure for transportation connections with Moscow, Prague, Bratislava, Warsaw, Budapest, Belgrade and all major Ukrainian cities. The distance from Khmelnytskyi to Kyiv by railway is estimated to be 366 km (227 mi), by highway it is estimated to be 384 km (239 mi). The highways Kyiv-Lviv, Odesa-Lviv and Chernivtsi-Kyiv pass through Khmelnytskyi. The city is served by the Khmelnytskyi Ruzhychna Airport. Khmelnytskyi's airport has a 2,200 m (7,217.85 ft) concrete runway; at the airport there is a check point for crossing the state border of Ukraine.


Podillya Stadium

Khmelnytskyi is home to the competitive football team FC Podillya Khmelnytskyi.

Points of interest[edit]

  • Proskurivska street, a modern central pedestrian street of the city, preserved buildings of the end of the 19th - the beginnings of 20th century in the styles of modernist, eclecticisms, Baroque, stone (characteristic only for Proskuriv).
  • The house of the former Oleksiyivske real school (now it is the building of the City Executive Committee)
  • The house of O. Brusilov (now is the House of Ceremonial events)
  • The church of Nativity of the Virgin (the first stone construction in the city)
  • The Protection cathedral
  • St. George church
  • Andriy Pervozvannyi church in "Dubovo" district

Notable people[edit]

Anatoly Kashpirovsky, 2016
Oleksandr Ponomaryov, 2017
Ruslan Kostyshyn, 2011


International relations[edit]

Twin towns — Sister cities[edit]

Khmelnytskyi confidently sets a course for European integration. The city of Khmelnytskyi became the winner of The Europe Prize in 2021 – it is the highest honor Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, which is awarded to cities for spreading European ideals.

Khmelnytskyi develops and maintains cooperation with sister cities and twin towns from different countries around the world:

Khmelnytskyi has established official partnerships with the municipal district Prague 6 (the Czech Republic) and Sviancianski District (the Republic of Lithuania).

In January 2016 the Khmelnytskyi city council terminated its twinned relations with the Russian cities Tver and Ivanovo due to the Russian military intervention in Ukraine (2014–present).[29]


See also[edit]


  1. ^ Also rendered as Khmelnytsky, Khmelnytskyy and Khmelnitsky
  2. ^ Polish: [plɔskiˈrɔftsɛ]; Ukrainian: Плоскирівці, romanizedPloskyrivtsi
  3. ^ Polish: [pwɔsˈkiruf]; Ukrainian: Плоскирів, romanizedPloskyriv
  4. ^ Russian: Проскуровъ, Modern orthography: Проскуров, pronounced [prɐˈskurəf]; Ukrainian: Проскурів, romanizedProskuriv [proˈskurʲiu̯]


  1. ^ a b Small biography on Oleksandr Symсhyshyn, Civil movement "Chesno" (in Ukrainian)
  2. ^ "Хмельницкая громада" (in Russian). Портал об'єднаних громад України.
  3. ^ Чисельність наявного населення України на 1 січня 2022 [Number of Present Population of Ukraine, as of January 1, 2022] (PDF) (in Ukrainian and English). Kyiv: State Statistics Service of Ukraine. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 July 2022.
  4. ^ "Khmelnytskyi". Internet Encyclopedia of Ukraine. Retrieved 21 March 2023.
  5. ^ "ПЛОСКИРІВ - ПРОСКУРІВ - ХМЕЛЬНИЦЬКИЙ. ШТРИХИ ДО ІСТОРИЧНОГО ПОРТРЕТУ МІСТА". 17 April 2017. Archived from the original on 17 April 2021. Retrieved 17 April 2021.
  6. ^ "За історичну справедливість — обома руками". 18 September 2011. Archived from the original on 5 November 2013. Retrieved 5 July 2014.
  7. ^ ЮНЕСКО", Опубліковано Євроклуб "Кур'єри. "Волонтерська турбота про духовні скарби Хмельниччини: Участь європейського клубу "Кур'єри ЮНЕСКО" гімназії №2 м. Хмельницького зі статусом "Асоційована школа ЮНЕСКО" у проекті "Волонтерська турбота про духовні скарби Хмельниччини"". Retrieved 3 May 2016.
  8. ^ Mykhailovskyi, Vitalii (2004), "Source References about Proskuriv in the 15th Century", in Pavlo Sokhanʹ (ed.), Ukrainian Archeographic Yearbook, new series (in Ukrainian), Kyiv, New York City: Institute of Ukrainian Archeography, pp. 771–2, Wikidata Q12164093
  9. ^ Map of Podolia Eyalet
  10. ^ "За п'ятнадцять років Хмельницький постаршав на 63 роки -". Новини Хмельницького за сьогодні (in Ukrainian). 12 March 2006. Retrieved 30 June 2021.
  11. ^ David B. Green (15 February 2016). "1919: Cossacks Start Pogrom in Ukraine, Killing Jews but Sparing Property". Haaretz. This Day in Jewish History. Tel Aviv. Retrieved 31 January 2021.
  12. ^ a b (in Ukrainian) Proskurivsky pogrom. Petliura's fault? by Henry Abramson, Ukrayinska Pravda (25 February 2019)
  13. ^ Husson, Edouard (11 November 2008). "L'Ukraine et le début de la " solution finale de la question juive en Europe " - Le meurtre des Juifs d'Ukraine par les nazis et leurs collaborateurs - Introduction historique". Centre Européen de Recherche et d'Enseignement sur la Shoah à l'Est. Archived from the original on 13 February 2015. Retrieved 13 February 2015.
  14. ^ "До 70-річчя останнього розстрілу в'язнів проскурівського гетто". 30 November 2012. Retrieved 13 February 2015.
  15. ^ Feskov, V.I.; Kalashnikov, K.A.; Golikov, V.I. (2004). The Soviet Army in the Years of the Cold War 1945–91. Tomsk: Tomsk University Publishing House. p. 133. ISBN 5-7511-1819-7.
  16. ^ "Про утворення та ліквідацію районів. Постанова Верховної Ради України № 807-ІХ". Голос України (in Ukrainian). 18 July 2020. Retrieved 3 October 2020.
  17. ^ "Нові райони: карти + склад" (in Ukrainian). Міністерство розвитку громад та територій України.
  18. ^ "Новини Хмельницького "Є"". 10 October 2022.
  19. ^ "Новини Хмельницького "Є"". 31 December 2022.
  20. ^ "Новини Хмельницького "Є"". 31 December 2022.
  21. ^ "One person killed, four more injured in enemy drone attack in Khmelnytskyi". 27 February 2023. Retrieved 13 May 2023.
  22. ^ "World Meteorological Organization Climate Normals for 1981–2010". World Meteorological Organization. Archived from the original on 17 July 2021. Retrieved 17 July 2021.
  23. ^ "Khmelnytskyi, Ukraine Climate Data". Climatebase. Retrieved 25 November 2013.
  24. ^ "Public Opinion Survey of Residents of UkraineJune 9 – July 7, 2017" (PDF). August 2017. p. 83. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 August 2017.
  25. ^ "Рідні мови в об'єднаних територіальних громадах України".
  26. ^ Municipal survey 2023
  27. ^ "Higher education institutions raiting (Khmelnytskyi)". Retrieved 5 February 2017.
  28. ^ "List of higher education institutions in Khmelnytskyi". Archived from the original on 5 February 2017. Retrieved 5 February 2017.
  29. ^ (in Ukrainian) Chernivtsi decided to terminate the relationship with twin two Russian cities, The Ukrainian Week (February 27, 2016)

External links[edit]