|Place of origin||Korea|
|Associated national cuisine|
|Main ingredients||Various vegetables including napa cabbage and Korean radish|
|Variations||Baechu-kimchi, baek-kimchi, dongchimi, kkakdugi, nabak-kimchi, pa-kimchi, yeolmu-kimchi, gat-kimchi|
Kimchi (//; Korean: 김치, romanized: gimchi, IPA: [kim.tɕʰi]), a staple in Korean cuisine, is a famous traditional side dish of salted and fermented vegetables, such as napa cabbage and Korean radish, made with a widely varying selection of seasonings including gochugaru (chili powder), scallions, garlic, ginger, and jeotgal (salted seafood), etc.
There are hundreds of varieties of kimchi made with different vegetables as the main ingredients. Traditionally, kimchi was stored in-ground in large earthenware to prevent the kimchi from being frozen during the winter months. It was the primary way of storing vegetables throughout the seasons. In the summer the in-ground storage kept the kimchi cool enough to slow down the fermentation process. In contemporary times, kimchi refrigerators are more commonly used to store kimchi.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Ingredients
- 4 Varieties
- 5 Nutrition and health
- 6 Dishes made with kimchi
- 7 Production
- 8 Recent history
- 8.1 1996 Japanese kimchi dispute
- 8.2 1998 to 2007 motherland tours
- 8.3 2010 kimchi ingredient price crisis
- 8.4 2012 effective ban of Korean kimchi exports to China
- 8.5 Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity
- 8.6 2014 kimchi-making class for Vietnamese brides
- 8.7 Boycott in China
- 9 Gallery
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 Further reading
- 13 External links
- dihi (디히) > di (디) > ji (지)
The Middle Korean form dihi is found in several books from Joseon (1392–1897). In Modern Korean, the word remains as the suffix -ji in the standard language (as in jjanji, seokbak-ji), and as the suffix -ji as well as the noun ji in Gyeongsang and Jeolla dialects. The unpalatalized form di is preserved in P'yŏngan dialect.
Kimchi (김치) is the accepted word in both North and South Korean standard languages. Earlier forms of the word include timchɑi (팀), a Middle Korean transcription of the Sino-Korean word 沈菜 (literally "submerged vegetable"). Timchɑi appears in Sohak Eonhae, the 16th century Korean rendition of the Chinese book, Xiaoxue (in Korean, Sohak). Sound changes from Middle Korean to Modern Korean regarding the word can be described as:
- timchɑi (팀; 沈菜) > dimchɑi (딤) > jimchɑi (짐) > jimchui (짐츼) > gKimchi (김치)
The aspirated first consonant of timchɑi became unaspirated in dimchɑi, then underwent palatalization in jimchɑi. The word then became jimchui with the loss of the vowel ɑ (ㆍ) in Korean language, then Kimchi, with the depalatalized word-initial consonant. In Modern Korean, the hanja characters 沈菜 are pronounced chimchae (침채), and are not used to refer to kimchi, or anything else. The word Kimchi is not considered as a Sino-Korean word. Older forms of the word are retained in many regional dialects: jimchae (Jeolla, Hamgyŏng dialects), jimchi (Chungcheong, Gangwon, Gyeonggi, Gyeongsang, Hamgyŏng, Jeolla dialects), and dimchi (P'yŏngan dialect).
The English word "kimchi" perhaps originated from kimch'i, the McCune–Reischauer transcription of the Korean word Kimchi (김치).
The origin of kimchi dates back at least to the early period of the Three Kingdoms (37 BC‒7 AD). Fermented foods were widely available, as the Records of the Three Kingdoms, a Chinese historical text published in 289 AD, mentions that "The Goguryeo people [referring to the Korean people] are skilled in making fermented foods such as wine, soybean paste, and salted and fermented fish" in the section named Dongyi in the Book of Wei. Samguk Sagi, a historical record of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, also mentions the pickle jar used to ferment vegetables, which indicates that fermented vegetables were commonly eaten during this time. During the Silla dynasty (57 BC – AD 935), kimchi became prevalent as Buddhism caught on throughout the nation and fostered a vegetarian lifestyle.
The pickling of vegetables was an ideal method, prior to refrigerators, that helped to preserve the lifespan of foods. In Korea, kimchi was made during the winter by fermenting vegetables, and burying it in the ground in traditional brown ceramic pots called onggi. This labor further allowed a bonding among women within the family. A poem on Korean radish written by Yi Gyubo, a 13th century literatus, shows that radish kimchi was a commonplace in Goryeo (918–1392).
Pickled radish slices make a good summer side-dish,
Radish preserved in salt is a winter side-dish from start to end.
The roots in the earth grow plumper everyday,
Harvesting after the frost, a slice cut by a knife tastes like a pear.— Yi Gyubo, Dongguk isanggukjip (translated by Michael J. Pettid, in Korean cuisine: An Illustrated History)
Kimchi has been a staple in Korean culture, but historical versions were not a spicy dish. Early records of kimchi do not mention garlic or chili pepper. Chili peppers, now a standard ingredient in kimchi, had been unknown in Korea until the early seventeenth century due to it being a New World crop. Chili peppers, originally native to the Americas, were introduced to East Asia by Portuguese traders. The first mention of chili pepper is found in Jibong yuseol, an encyclopedia published in 1614. Sallim gyeongje, a 17‒18th century book on farm management, wrote on kimchi with chili peppers. However, it was not until the 19th century that the use of chili peppers in kimchi was widespread. The recipes from early 19th century closely resemble today's kimchi.
A 1766 book, Jeungbo sallim gyeongje, reports kimchi varieties made with a myriad of ingredients, including chonggak-kimchi (kimchi made with chonggak raddish), oi-sobagi (with cucumber), seokbak-ji (with jogi-jeot), and dongchimi. However, napa cabbage was only introduced to Korea at the end of 19th century, and whole-cabbage kimchi similar to its current form is described in Siuijeonseo, a cookbook published around that time.
Kimchi is a national dish of both North and South Korea. During South Korea's involvement in the Vietnam War its government requested American help to ensure that South Korean troops, reportedly "desperate" for the food, could obtain it in the field; South Korean president Park Chung-hee told U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson that kimchi was "vitally important to the morale of Korean troops". It was also sent to space on board Soyuz TMA-12 with South-Korean astronaut Yi So-yeon after a multimillion-dollar research effort to kill the bacteria and lessen the odor without affecting taste. On 22 November 2017 a Google Doodle was used to "Celebrate Kimchi".
Kimchi varieties are determined by the main vegetable ingredients and the mix of seasoning used to flavor the kimchi.
There are many different types of Kimchi dishes, and the most famous meal in this category is the cabbage Kimchi. This meal is pungent and largely seasoned, and illustrates the family pride source as well as a taste of a good home. Cabbages (napa cabbages, bomdong, headed cabbages) and radishes (Korean radishes, ponytail radishes, gegeol radishes, yeolmu radishes) are the most commonly used kimchi vegetables. Other kimchi vegetables include: aster, balloon flower roots, burdock roots, celery, chamnamul, cilantro, cress, crown daisy greens, cucumber, eggplant, garlic chives, garlic scapes, ginger, Korean angelica-tree shoots, Korean parsley, Korean wild chive, lotus roots, mustard greens, onions, perilla leaves, potatoes, pumpkins, radish greens, rapeseed leaves, scallions, soybean sprouts, spinach, sugar beets, sweet potato vines, and tomatoes.
Brining salt (with a larger grain size compared to kitchen salt) is used mainly for initial salting of kimchi vegetables. Being minimally processed, it serves to help develop flavours in fermented foods.
Commonly used seasonings include gochugaru (chili powder), scallions, garlic, ginger, and jeotgal (salted seafood) Jeotgal can be replaced with raw seafood in colder Northern parts of the Korean peninsula. If used, milder saeu-jeot (salted shrimp) or jogi-jeot (salted croaker) is preferred and the amount of jeotgal is also reduced in Northern and Central regions. In Southern Korea, on the other hand, generous amount of stronger myeolchi-jeot (salted anchovies) and galchi-jeot (salted hairtail) is commonly used. Raw seafood or daegu-agami-jeot (salted cod gills) are used in the East coast areas.
Microorganisms present in kimchi
The microorganisms present in kimchi include Bacillus mycoides, B. pseudomycoides, B. subtilis, Lactobacillus brevis, Lb. curvatus, Lb. kimchii, Lb. parabrevis, Lb. pentosus, Lb. plantarum, Lb. sakei, Lb. spicheri, Lactococcus carnosum, Lc. gelidum, Lc. lactis, Leuconostoc carnosum, Ln. citreum, Ln. gasicomitatum, Ln. gelidum, Ln. holzapfelii, Ln. inhae, Ln. kimchii, Ln. lactis, Ln. mesenteroides, Serratia marcescens, Weissella cibaria, W. confusa, W. kandleri, W. kimchii. W. koreensis, and W. soli.
Kimchi is one of the most important dishes in Korean cuisine. "Kimchi" is Korean terminology for fermented vegetables, and encompasses salt and seasoned vegetables. Kimchi is a traditional Korean dish consisting of pickled vegetables, which is mainly served as a side dish with every meal, but also can be served as a main dish. Kimchi is mainly recognized as a spicy fermented cabbage dish globally.
Variations are not limited, as Koreans "can make kimchi out of anything edible; a concept which extends toward infinite possibilities..." Variations of kimchi continue to grow, and the taste can vary depending on the region and season. Conventionally, the secret of kimchi preparation was passed down by mothers to their daughters in a bid to make them suitable wives to their husbands. However, with the current technological advancement and increase in social media use, many individuals worldwide can now access the recipe for kimchi preparation. It is highly nutritious and offers deeply-flavored and spicy meals favorable to many classes of people, and illustrates the Korean culture as well.
Kimchi can be categorized by main ingredients, regions or seasons. Korea's northern and southern sections have a considerable temperature difference. There are over 180 recognized varieties of kimchi. The most common kimchi variations are
- Baechu-kimchi (배추김치) spicy napa cabbage kimchi, made from whole cabbage leaves
- Baechu-geotjeori (배추겉절이) unfermented napa cabbage kimchi
- Bossam-kimchi (보쌈김치) wrapped kimchi
- Baek-kimchi (백김치) white kimchi, made without chili pepper
- Dongchimi (동치미) a non-spicy watery kimchi
- Nabak-kimchi (나박김치) a mildly spicy watery kimchi
- Chonggak-kimchi (총각김치) cubed chonggak "ponytail" radish, a popular spicy kimchi
- Kkakdugi (깍두기) spicy cubed Korean radish strongly-scented kimchi containing fermented shrimp
- Oi-sobagi (오이소박이) cucumber kimchi that can be stuffed with seafood and chili paste, and is a popular choice during the spring and summer seasons
- Pa-kimchi (파김치) spicy green onion kimchi
- Yeolmu-kimchi (열무김치) is also a popular choice during the spring and summer, and is made with yeolmu radishes, and does not necessarily have to be fermented.
- Gat-kimchi (갓김치), made with Indian mustard
Kimchi from the northern parts of Korea tends to have less salt and red chili and usually does not include brined seafood for seasoning. Northern kimchi often has a watery consistency. Kimchi made in the southern parts of Korea, such as Jeolla-do and Gyeongsang-do, uses salt, chili peppers and myeolchijeot (멸치젓, brined anchovy allowed to ferment) or saeujeot (새우젓, brined shrimp allowed to ferment), myeolchiaekjeot (멸치액젓), kkanariaekjeot (까나리액젓), liquid anchovy jeot, similar to fish sauce used in Southeast Asia, but thicker.
Saeujeot (새우젓) or myeolchijeot is not added to the kimchi spice-seasoning mixture, but is simmered first to reduce odors, eliminate tannic flavor and fats, and then is mixed with a thickener made of rice or wheat starch (풀). This technique has been falling into disuse in the past 40 years.
White kimchi are neither red in color nor spicy. It includes white napa cabbage kimchi and other varieties such as white radish kimchi (dongchimi). Watery white kimchi varieties are sometimes used as an ingredient in a number of dishes such as cold noodles in dongchimi brine (dongchimi-guksu).
- Geotjeori (겉절이) are fresh, unfermented kimchi.
- Mugeun-ji (묵은지), also known as mugeun-kimchi (묵은김치), aged kimchi
This regional classification dates back to 1960s and contains plenty of historical facts, but the current kimchi-making trends in Korea are generally different from those mentioned below.
- Pyongan-do (North Korea, outside of Pyongyang) Non-traditional ingredients have been adapted in rural areas due to severe food shortages.
- Hamgyeong-do (Upper Northeast): Due to its proximity to the ocean, people in this particular region use fresh fish and oysters to season their kimchi.
- Hwanghae-do (Midwest): The taste of kimchi in Hwanghae-do is not bland but not extremely spicy. Most kimchi from this region has less color since red chili flakes are not used. The typical kimchi for Hwanghae-do is called hobakji (호박지). It is made with pumpkin (bundi).
- Gyeonggi-do (Lower Midwest of Hwanghae-do)
- Chungcheong-do (Between Gyeonggi-do and Jeolla-do): Instead of using fermented fish, people in the region rely on salt and fermentation to make savory kimchi. Chungcheong-do has the most varieties of kimchi.
- Gangwon-do (South Korea)/Kangwon-do (North Korea) (Mideast): In Gangwon-do, kimchi is stored for longer periods. Unlike other coastal regions in Korea, kimchi in this area does not contain much salted fish.
- Jeolla-do (Lower Southwest): Salted yellow corvina and salted butterfish are used in this region to create different seasonings for kimchi.
- Gyeongsang-do (Lower Southeast): This region's cuisine is saltier and spicier. The most common seasoning components include myeolchijeot (멸치젓) which produce a briny and savory flavor.
- Foreign countries: In some places of the world people sometimes make kimchi with western cabbage and many other alternative ingredients such as broccoli.
Different types of kimchi were traditionally made at different times of the year, based on when various vegetables were in season and also to take advantage of hot and cold seasons before the era of refrigeration. Although the advent of modern refrigeration — including kimchi refrigerators specifically designed with precise controls to keep different varieties of kimchi at optimal temperatures at various stages of fermentation — has made this seasonality unnecessary, Koreans continue to consume kimchi according to traditional seasonal preferences.
After a long period of consuming gimjang kimchi (김장김치) during the winter, fresh potherbs and vegetables were used to make kimchi. These kinds of kimchi were not fermented or even stored for long periods of time but were consumed fresh.
Yeolmu radishes and cucumbers are summer vegetables made into kimchi, yeolmu-kimchi (열무김치) which is eaten in several bites. Brined fish or shellfish can be added, and freshly ground dried chili peppers are often used.
Baechu kimchi is prepared by inserting blended stuffing materials, called sok (literally inside), between layers of salted leaves of uncut, whole Napa cabbage. The ingredients of sok (속) can vary, depending on the different regions and weather conditions. Generally, baechu kimchi used to have a strong salty flavor until the late 1960s, before which a large amount of myeolchijeot or saeujeot had been used.
Gogumasoon Kimchi is made from sweet potato stems.
Traditionally, the greatest varieties of kimchi were available during the winter. In preparation for the long winter months, many types of kimjang kimchi (김장 김치) were prepared in early winter and stored in the ground in large kimchi pots. Today, many city residents use modern kimchi refrigerators offering precise temperature controls to store kimjang kimchi. November and December are traditionally when people begin to make kimchi; women often gather together in each other's homes to help with winter kimchi preparations. "Baechu kimchi" is made with salted baechu filled with thin strips of radish, parsley, pine nuts, pears, chestnuts, shredded red pepper, manna lichen (Hangul: 석이 버섯; RR: seogi beoseot), garlic, and ginger.
A 2004 book about vegetable preservation said that the preference of kimchi preparation in Korean households from the most prepared type of kimchi to less prepared types of kimchi was: baechu kimchi, being the most prepared type of kimchi, then kaktugi, then dongchimi and then chonggak kimchi. The book said that baechu kimchi comprises more than seventy percent of marketed kimchi and radish kimchi comprises about twenty percent of marketed kimchi.
Nutrition and health
A 2003 article in the Los Angeles Times said that South Koreans consume 18kg (40lbs) of kimchi per person annually. A 2015 book cited a 2011 source that said that adult Koreans eat from 50 grams (0.11 lb) to 200 grams (0.44 lb) of kimchi a day.
Some Koreans believe that kimchi helps them cope with their fast-paced lives. Kimchi is made of various vegetables and contains a high concentration of dietary fiber, while being low in calories. One serving also provides over 50% of the daily recommended amount of vitamin C and carotene. Most types of kimchi contain onions, garlic, ginger, and chili peppers, all of which are salutary. The vegetables used in kimchi also contribute to its overall nutritional value. Kimchi is rich in vitamin A, thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), calcium, and iron, and contains lactic acid bacteria, among those the typical species Lactobacillus kimchii.
During the 2003 SARS outbreak in Asia, many people believed that kimchi could protect against infection. While there was no scientific evidence to support this belief, kimchi sales rose by 40%.
However, kimchi may also contribute to stomach cancer, which is the most common form of cancer in South Korea. In 2011, three Korean scientists reported that, "Kimchi, which is allegedly believed to have anti-carcinogenic properties, accounts for approximately 20% of sodium intake [in South Korea]. Case-control studies on the intake level of kimchi and gastric cancer risk generally showed an increased risk among subjects with high or frequent intakes of kimchi."
|Nutrients||per 100 g||Nutrients||per 100 g|
|Food energy||32 kcal||Moisture||88.4 g|
|Crude protein||2.0 g||Crude lipid||0.6 g|
|Total sugar||1.3 g||Crude fiber||1.2 g|
|Crude ash||0.5 g||Calcium||45 mg|
|Phosphorus||28 mg||Vitamin A||492 IU|
|Vitamin B1||0.03 mg||Vitamin B2||0.06 mg|
|Niacin||2.1 mg||Vitamin C||21 mg|
|44.0 (35.4)b||41.6 (40.1)||47 (54)||0.09 (0.09)||781 (747)||25.0 (25.3)|
|32.0 (30.4)||70.9 (61.9)||110 (99)||0.19 (0.20)||928 (861)||27.8 (28.5)|
|26.6 (26.9)||79.1 (87.5)||230 (157)||0.25 (0.33)||901 (792)||23.6 (22.3)|
|21.0 (25.3)||62.7 (70.8)||35 (95)||0.20 (0.26)||591 (525)||16.7 (16.0)|
|24.2 (20.1)||53.3 (49.1)||40 (37)||0.10 (0.16)||11.16 (11.0)|
|aNaturally fermented baechu kimchi|
bAverage levels of four different kimchis; common kimchi +3 different starter inoculated kimchis
|Crude protein (g)||2||1.6||3.9||3.4||0.7||3.1||0.7||0.8|
|Crude lipid (g)||0.5||0.3||0.9||0.8||0.1||0.6||0.1||0.1|
|Crude ash (g)||2.8||2.3||3.5||3.3||1.5||3.2||2||1.5|
|Dietary fiber (g)||3||2.8||4||5.1||1.4||3.3||0.8||1.5|
|Vitamin A (RE)||48||38||390||352||9||595||15||77|
|Vitamin B1 (mg)||0.06||0.14||0.15||0.14||0.03||0.15||0.02||0.03|
|Vitamin B2 (mg)||0.06||0.05||0.14||0.14||0.02||0.29||0.02||0.06|
|Vitamin C (mg)||14||19||48||19||10||28||9||10|
|Vitamin B6 (mg)||0.19||0.13|
|Folic acid (μg)||43.3||58.9||74.8|
|Vitamin E (mg)||0.7||0.2||1.3|
|Not detected: vitamin A (retinol), pantothenic acid, vitamin B12, vitamin K|
Dishes made with kimchi
Kimchi is known to be a traditional side dish as it is almost always served along with other side dishes in most Korean family households and restaurants. Kimchi can be eaten alone or with white rice, but it is also included in recipes of other traditional dishes, including porridges, soups, and rice cakes. Kimchi is also the basis for many derivative dishes such as kimchi stew (김치찌개; gimchijjigae), kimchi pancake (김치전; gimchibuchimgae), kimchi soup (김칫국; gimchiguk), and kimchi fried rice (김치볶음밥; gimchibokkeumbap). Army base stew (부대찌개; Budae-jjigae) is a popular dish made with spam, sausage, and kimchi. It originated after the Korean war with ingredients that would be scrounged from the army.
South Korea consumes 1.85 million metric tons of kimchi annually, or nearly 80 pounds a person. It imports a significant fraction of that, mostly from China, and runs a $47.3 million kimchi trade deficit.
1996 Japanese kimchi dispute
In 1996, Korea protested against Japanese commercial production of kimchi arguing that the Japanese-produced product (kimuchi) was different from kimchi (in particular, Japanese kimuchi was not fermented so it was salted like sweet cabbage). Korea lobbied for an international standard from the Codex Alimentarius, an organization associated with the World Health Organization that defines voluntary standards for food preparation for international trade purposes. In 2001, the Codex Alimentarius published a voluntary standard defining kimchi as "a fermented food that uses salted napa cabbages as its main ingredient mixed with seasonings, and goes through a lactic acid production process at a low temperature", but which neither specified a minimum amount of fermentation nor forbade the use of any additives.
1998 to 2007 motherland tours
2010 kimchi ingredient price crisis
Due to heavy rainfall shortening the harvesting time for cabbage and other main ingredients for kimchi in 2010, the price of kimchi ingredients and kimchi itself rose greatly. Korean and international newspapers described the rise in prices as a national crisis. Some restaurants stopped offering kimchi as a free side dish, which The New York Times compared to an American hamburger restaurant no longer offering free ketchup. In response to the kimchi price crisis, the South Korean government announced the temporary reduction of tariffs on imported cabbage to coincide with the Kimjang season.
2012 effective ban of Korean kimchi exports to China
Since 2012, the Chinese government has effectively banned Korean kimchi exports to China through government regulations. Ignoring the standards of Kimchi outlined by the Codex Alimentarius, China defined kimchi as a derivative of one of its own cuisines, called pao cai. However, due to significantly different preparation techniques from pao cai, kimchi has significantly more lactic acid bacteria through its fermentation process, which exceeds China's regulations. Since 2012, commercial exports of Korean kimchi to China has reached zero, the only minor amounts of exports accounting for Korean kimchi are exhibition events held in China.
Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity
Kimchi-related items have been inscribed on UNESCO's Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity by both South and North Korea. This makes kimchi the second intangible heritage that was submitted by two different countries, the other one being the folk song "Arirang" which was also submitted by both the Koreas.
Submitted by South Korea (inscribed 2013)
Kimjang, the tradition of making and sharing of kimchi that usually takes place in late autumn, was added to the list as "Kimjang, making and sharing kimchi in the Republic of Korea". The practice of Kimjang reaffirms Korean identity and strengthens family cooperation. Kimjang is also an important reminder for many Koreans that human communities need to live in harmony with nature.
Submitted by North Korea (inscribed 2015)
North Korean kimchi-making was inscribed on the list in December 2015 as "Tradition of kimchi-making in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea". North Korean kimchi tends to be less spicy and red than South Korean kimchi.
2014 kimchi-making class for Vietnamese brides
A 2014 article in Tuổi Trẻ said that around 40 Vietnamese brides who had already married or who were going to marry Korean men spent two hours in a class in 2014 to make kimchi and kimbap at the Kim & Kim Company’s factory in the Tân Bình Industrial Zone of Ho Chi Minh City. The event was arranged by the Kim & Kim Company and the Korean Language Education Center in Ho Chi Minh City. The class is a free class that has been taught to 30 to 35 women once a month. Han Ji-sook, the director of the Korean Language Education Center in Ho Chi Minh City, said, "Kimchi is important for Korean people, so anyone who visits the country will experience kimchi or kimchi-making. Especially for the wives of Korean men, it's important to know how to make kimchi." Kim Tae-kon, director of the Kim & Kim Company, said, "All of these Vietnamese women who are going to live in Korea must eat kimchi every day, three meals a day. I'm pleased to give them the chance to learn how to make kimchi."
Boycott in China
A 2017 article in The New York Times said that anti-Korean sentiment in China has risen after South Korea's acceptance of the deployment of THAAD in South Korea, Government-run Chinese news media has encouraged the boycott of South Korean goods, and Chinese nationalists have vowed to not eat kimchi.
- Foods containing tyramine
- Jangajji – Type of Korean non-fermented pickled vegetable side dish
- Jeotgal – Korean salted seafood category
- Kimchi burger
- Korean radish
- Korean brining salt
- Morkovcha – A spicy marinated carrot salad – Koryo-saram variety of kimchi made of carrots
- List of cabbage dishes
- List of English words of Korean origin
- List of pickled foods – List of links to Wikipedia articles on pickled foods
- Pao cai – A type of pickle in Chinese, and particularly Sichuan cuisin
- Sauerkraut – Finely sliced and fermented cabbage
- Torshi, also known as Tursu – The pickled vegetables of the cuisines of many Balkan and Middle East countries
- Lee, Young C. (1991). "Kimchi: The famous fermented vegetable product in Korea". Food Reviews International. 7 (4): 399–415. doi:10.1080/87559129109540920.
- "Kimchi". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1 October 2008. Retrieved 23 March 2017.
- Chin, Mei (14 October 2009). "The Art of Kimchi". Saveur. Retrieved 9 August 2010.
- McAninch, David (14 October 2009). "A World of Kimchi". Saveur. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- Pettid, Michael J. (2008). Korean Cuisine: An Illustrated History. London: Reaktion Books. pp. 47–51. ISBN 978-1-86189-348-2.
- 이, 태영 (23 May 2006). "[고장말탐험] '김치'와 '지'". The Hankyoreh (in Korean). Retrieved 27 March 2017.
- Hong, Giok (2016). "Study on the Lexicon Related to Gimchi -Based on Survey of Ethnic Living Words in 2008-". The Korean Association for Dialectology (24): 61–99. doi:10.19069/kordialect.2016.24.061.
- Uichim; Jo, Wi; Yu, Yungyeom; Yu, Hyubok; et al., eds. (1632) . Bullyu Du Gongbu si Eonhae 분류두공부시언해(分類杜工部詩諺解) [Poems by Du Fu, Korean Translation]. 3 (reprint ed.). Joseon Korea.
長安앳 겨 디히 싀오 고
- Garye Eonhae 가례언해(家禮諺解) [Vernacular Edition of the Chia-li]. 10. Translated by Sin, Sik. (from the original Jiālǐ 家禮 by Zhu Xi). Joseon Korea. 1632.
豆 디히 젓 담 목긔라CS1 maint: others (link)
- "jjanji" 짠지. Standard Korean Language Dictionary (in Korean). National Institute of Korean Language. Retrieved 27 March 2017.
- "seokbak-ji" 섞박지. Standard Korean Language Dictionary (in Korean). National Institute of Korean Language. Retrieved 27 March 2017.
- "ji" 지. Standard Korean Language Dictionary (in Korean). National Institute of Korean Language. Retrieved 27 March 2017.
- "seobeok-di" 서벅디. Standard Korean Language Dictionary (in Korean). National Institute of Korean Language. Retrieved 27 March 2017.
- Jeong, Gu; et al. (1586). Sohak Eonhae 소학언해(小學諺解) [Vernacular Rendition of the Elementary Learning] (in Korean). Joseon Korea – via Wikisource.
- Zhū, Xǐ; Liú, Qīngzhī. Xiǎoxué 小學 [Elementary Learning] (in Chinese). Song China – via Wikisource.
- "Kimchi" 김치 [kimchi]. Standard Korean Language Dictionary (in Korean). National Institute of Korean Language. Retrieved 24 March 2017.
- "jimchae" 짐채. Standard Korean Language Dictionary (in Korean). National Institute of Korean Language. Retrieved 27 March 2017.
- "jimchi" 짐치. Standard Korean Language Dictionary (in Korean). National Institute of Korean Language. Retrieved 27 March 2017.
- "dimchi" 딤치. Standard Korean Language Dictionary (in Korean). National Institute of Korean Language. Retrieved 27 March 2017.
- Bayor, Ronald H., ed. (2011). Multicultural America: An Encyclopedia of the Newest Americans. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. p. 1349. ISBN 9780313357862.
- Hui, Y. H.; Ghazala, Sue; Graham, Dee M.; Murrell, K. D.; Nip, Wai-Kit, eds. (2004). Handbook of Vegetable Preservation and Processing. New York: Marcel Dekker. pp. 190–191. ISBN 978-0824743017.
- Chén, Shòu. "烏丸鮮卑東夷傳". Sānguózhì 三國志 [Records of the Three Kingdoms] (in Chinese). Jin China – via Wikisource.
- Busik, Gim (1145). Samguk Sagi 삼국사기(三國史記) [History of the Three Kingdoms] (in Korean). Goryeo Korea – via Wikisource.
- Logarta, Margie T. (September 2013). "In A Pickle". Business Traveller (Asia-Pacific Edition): 70–73.
- Yi, Gyubo (1241). "Gapoyugyeong" 가포육영(家圃六詠). Dongguk Isanggukjip 동국이상국집(東國李相國集) [Collected works of Minister Yi of the Eastern Country] (in Literary Chinese). Goryeo Korea – via DB of Korean classics by ITKC.[permanent dead link]
- Breidt, Fred; McFeeters, Roger F.; Pérez-Díaz, Ilenys; Lee, Cherl-Ho (2013). "Fermented Vegetables" (PDF). In Doyle, Michael P.; Buchanan, Robert L. (eds.). Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers (4th ed.). Washington, D.C.: American Society for Microbiology. p. 841. doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch33. ISBN 9781555816261.
- Kimchi. (2016). Funk & Wagnalls New World Encyclopedia, 1p. 1.
- Guide to Korean Culture: Korea's cultural heritage (2015 ed.). Seoul: Korean Culture and Information Service, Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism. 2015 . pp. 131–133. ISBN 9788973755714.
- Park, Jae Bok (Spring 1999). "Red Pepper and Kichi in Korea" (PDF). Chile Pepper Institute Newsletter. 8 (1). p. 3. Retrieved 20 March 2017.
- Marianski, Stanley; Marianski, Adam (2012). Sauerkraut, Kimchi, Pickles & Relishes. Seminole, FL: Bookmagic. p. 45. ISBN 9780983697329.
- Yi, Sugwang. Jibong yuseol 지봉유설(芝峯類說) [Topical Discourses of Jibong] (in Korean). Joseon Korea – via Wikisource.
- Hong, Manseon. Sallim gyeongje 산림경제(山林經濟) [Farm Management] (in Literary Chinese). Joseon Korea. Archived from the original on 28 March 2017 – via DB of Korean classics by ITKC.
- Cho, Hong Sik (2006). "Food and Nationalism: Kimchi and Korean National Identity". The Korean Journal of International Studies. 4 (1): 207–229. doi:10.14731/kjis.2006.12.46.5.207.
- Jeong, Hakyu. "Siwol" 시월(十月) [Tenth month]. Nongga wollyeongga 농가월령가(農家月令歌) [The Songs of Monthly Events of Farm Families].
- Hong, Seokmo. Dongguk sesigi 동국세시기(東國歲時記) [A Record of the Seasonal Customs of the Eastern Kingdom]. Joseon Korea.
- Yu, Jungrim; Hong, Manseon (1766). Jeungbo sallim gyeongje 증보산림경제(增補山林經濟) [Revised and Augmented Farm Management]. Joseon Korea.
- Unknown (1919) [late 19th century]. Siuijeonseo (in Korean). Manuscript by Sim Hwanjin. Sangju, Korea. Lay summary – Korean Food Foundation.
- Sang-hun, Choe (24 February 2008). "Starship Kimchi: A Bold Taste Goes Where It Has Never Gone Before". The New York Times. Retrieved 27 August 2012.
- Jang, Dai Ja; Lee, Ae Ja; Kang, Soon-A; Lee, Seung Min; Kwon, Dae Young (2016). "Does siwonhan-mat represent delicious in Korean foods?". Journal of Ethnic Foods. 3 (2): 159–162. doi:10.1016/j.jef.2016.06.002.
- "Kimchi, sikhae" 김치, 식해. Ch'osŏn Ryori (in Korean). Korean Association of Cooks. Retrieved 10 April 2017.
- Parks, Cara (16 December 2014). "Shaking Up Salt". Modern Farmer. Retrieved 10 April 2017.
- "kimchi" 김치. Doopedia. Doosan Corporation. Retrieved 10 April 2017.
- Paramithiotis, Spiros; Papoutsis, George; Drosinos, Eleftherios H. (2017). Paramithiotis, Spiros (ed.). Lactic Acid Fermentation of Fruits and Vegetables. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. p. 5. ISBN 978-1-4987-2690-0.
- Lee, Jung-Sook; Heo, Gun-Young; Lee, Jun Won; Oh, Yun-Jung; Park, Jeong A.; Park, Yong-Ha; Pyun, Yu-Ryang; Ahn, Jong Seog (2005). "Analysis of kimchi microflora using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis". International Journal of Food Microbiology. 102 (2): 143–150. doi:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2004.12.010. PMID 15992614.
- Cho, Jinhee; Lee, Dongyun; Yang, Changnam; Jeon, Jongin; Kim, Jeongho; Han, Hongui (2006). "Microbial population dynamics of kimchi, a fermented cabbage product". FEMS Microbiology Letters. 257 (2): 262–267. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6968.2006.00186.x. PMID 16553862.
- Chang, H.; Kim, K.; Nam, Y.; Roh, S.; Kim, M.; Jeon, C.; Oh, H.; Bae, J. (2008). "Analysis of yeast and archaeal population dynamics in kimchi using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis". International Journal of Food Microbiology. 126 (1–2): 159–166. doi:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2008.05.013. PMID 18562030.
- Jung, Ji Young; Lee, Se Hee; Jin, Hyun Mi; Hahn, Yoonsoo; Madsen, Eugene L.; Jeon, Che Ok (2013). "Metatranscriptomic analysis of lactic acid bacterial gene expression during kimchi fermentation". International Journal of Food Microbiology. 163 (2–3): 171–179. doi:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2013.02.022. PMID 23558201.
- Jeong, Sang Hyeon; Lee, Se Hee; Jung, Ji Young; Choi, Eun Jin; Jeon, Che Ok (2013). "Microbial Succession and Metabolite Changes during Long-Term Storage of Kimchi". Journal of Food Science. 78 (5): M763–M769. doi:10.1111/1750-3841.12095. PMID 23550842.
- Jeong, Sang Hyeon; Jung, Ji Young; Lee, Se Hee; Jin, Hyun Mi; Jeon, Che Ok (2013). "Microbial succession and metabolite changes during fermentation of dongchimi, traditional Korean watery kimchi". International Journal of Food Microbiology. 164 (1): 46–53. doi:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2013.03.016. PMID 23587713.
- Hong, Yeun; Yang, H. S.; Chang, H. C.; Kim, H. Y. (2013). "Comparison of Bacterial Community Changes in Fermenting Kimchi at Two Different Temperatures Using a Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis Analysis". Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. 23 (1): 76–84. doi:10.4014/jmb.1210.10002. PMID 23314371.
- Korean Tourism Organization. (2015). Kimchi.
- di Schino, June (2011). "Kimchi: Ferment at the Heart of Korean Cuisine, from Local Identity to Global Consumption". In Saberi, Helen (ed.). Cured, Smoked, and Fermented: Proceedings of the Oxford Symposium on Food and Cookery 2010. Devon, UK: Prospect Books. p. 82. ISBN 978-1-903018-85-9.
- Kimchi. (2016). Funk & Wagnall's New World Encyclopedia, 1p. 1.
- Chung, Hae-Kyung; Shin, Dayeon; Chung, Kyung Rhan; Choi, Soe Yeon; Woo, Nariyah (2017). "Recovering the royal cuisine in Chosun Dynasty and its esthetics". Journal of Ethnic Foods. 4 (4): 242–253. doi:10.1016/j.jef.2017.12.001.
- "Kimchi." Yahoo Korean Encyclopedia Archived 24 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine
- "Kimchi". english.visitkorea.or.kr. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
- "North Texas Traditional Living" (PDF). Making Kimchi. Retrieved 14 February 2011.
- "TreeLight". Ultimate Kimchi. Archived from the original on 24 December 2010. Retrieved 14 February 2011.
- "High-tech kimchi refrigerators keep Korea's favorite food crisp". Hong Kong Trade Development Council. 14 March 2002. Retrieved 14 February 2008.
- McDonald, Mark (14 October 2010). "Rising Cost of Kimchi Alarms Koreans". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 October 2010.
- Hui et al. (2004). Handbook of Vegetable Preservation and Processing. New York: Marcel Dekker. Pages 190 & 191. Retrieved 23 March 2017, from link.
- Magnier, Mark (17 June 2003). "In an Age of SARS, Koreans Tout Kimchi Cure". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 7 May 2010.
- Tamang, J.P. (2015). Health Benefits of Fermented Foods and Beverages. CRC Press. Taylor & Francis Group. Pages 344, 350 & 351. Retrieved 21 March 2017, from link.
- "Kimchi Nutritional Value". Archived from the original on 12 July 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "Kimchi by Nancy Berkoff, RD, EdD, CCE". Archived from the original on 19 October 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "Food in Korea". Asianinfo.com. Retrieved 30 January 2007.
- "Kimchi". Tour2korea.com. Retrieved 30 January 2007.
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 April 2008. Retrieved 19 November 2007.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- Jung-Sook Leea, Gun-Young Heoa, Jun Won Leea, Yun-Jung Oha, Jeong A Parka, Yong-Ha Parka, Yu-Ryang Pyunb and Jong Seog Ahn (15 July 2005). "Analysis of Kimchi Microflora Using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis". International Journal of Food Microbiology. Volume 102, Issue 2. pp. 143–150.
- Myungjin Kim; Jongsik Chun (15 August 2005). "Bacterial Community Structure in Kimchi, a Korean Fermented Vegetable Food, as Revealed by 16S rRNA Gene Analysis". International Journal of Food Microbiology. Volume 103, Issue 1. pp. 91–96
- "Korean Dish 'May Cure Bird Flu'". BBC News. 14 March 2005. Retrieved 4 April 2010.
- Shin, Aesun; Kim, Jeongseon; Park, Sohee (2011). "Gastric Cancer Epidemiology in Korea". Journal of Gastric Cancer. 11 (3): 135–40. doi:10.5230/jgc.2011.11.3.135. PMC 3204471. PMID 22076217.
- from Korea Food Research Institute
- Hui, Y.H. (2005). Handbook of Food and Beverage Fermentation Technology. Taylor & Francis. Pages 740, 741 & 751. Retrieved 21 March 2017, from link.
- Huang, Echo (19 January 2018). "The kimchi you eat outside of Korea is probably made in China". Quartz. Retrieved 19 January 2018.
- Sims, Calvin (February 2000) "Cabbage Is Cabbage? Not to Kimchi Lovers; Koreans Take Issue with a Rendition of Their National Dish Made in Japan". The New York Times.
- "Codex standard for kimchi" (PDF). The Codex Alimentarius Commission.
- In a video that was published to YouTube on 29 July 2013, Eleana J. Kim who is Assistant Professor of Anthropology as the University of Rochester talked about the international adoption of South Korean children. Kim's name and title appear at the 35:11 mark of the video. From the 26:56 mark of the video to the 28:09 mark of the video, Kim said, "Another aspect of the Korean adoptee experience that I explore in my book is their relationship to South Korea, and the South Korean state, and, uh, one of the things that the South Korean government, um, was, in a way, uh, um, compelled, to do, in the late nineteen nineties was to, recognize, adoptees, overseas adoptees, as Koreans, in some way. So, um, by nineteen ninety eight, adult Korean adoptees, who were living in Korea, petitioned the South Korean state to recognize them as overseas Koreans, Hanguggye dongpo, so that meant that they would be, uh, eligible for a special visa status, that would allow them to return to South Korea for extended periods of time, and, in line with this, this is an image from the overseas Korean foundation, uh, summer cultural program for overseas adoptees, and so, they developed these programs to help adult adoptees return to Korea and learn something about what it means to be Korean, so these programs are typically focused on traditional Korean culture, um, you know, adoptees dressing up in hanbok and learning how to make kimchi, um, such as these images here."
- "Of cabbages and Kims". The Economist. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 28 June 2016.
- "South Korea's Kimchi Crisis". The Economist. 7 October 2010.
- "對중국 수출 '0'... 한국 김치가 운다". seoul.co.kr.
- "수입만 하고 수출 못하는 韓·中 '김치무역' 바꿀 것". Hankyung.com. 15 January 2014. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015.
- "UNESCO Adds N. Korea's Kimchi-Making to Cultural Heritage List". KBS. 3 December 2015. Retrieved 3 December 2015.
- "2003 Convention". UNESCO - Intangible Heritage Section.
- "Tradition of kimchi-making in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea". Culture Sector - UNESCO. Retrieved 3 December 2015.
- North Koreans Want UNESCO Recognition for Their Kimchi Variation. YouTube. Voice of America. 2 December 2015. Event occurs at 1:10. Retrieved 3 December 2015.
- Pham, T. & Nguyen, D. (2014). Vietnamese brides learn to make kimchi. Tuổi Trẻ. Retrieved 26 March 2017, from link. Archived 26 March 2017 at the Wayback Machine
- Hernández, Javier C., Guo, Owen & McMorrow, Ryan. (2017). South Korean Stores Feel China’s Wrath as U.S. Missile System Is Deployed. The New York Times. Retrieved 6 April 2017, from link.
- Park, Kun-Young; Cheigh, Hong-Sik (2003). Handbook of Vegetable Preservation and Processing. CRC Press. pp. 189–222. ISBN 978-0-8247-4301-7. Retrieved 18 May 2008.
- Gannon, Martin J. (2004). Understanding Global Cultures. Sage Publications. pp. 123–130. ISBN 978-0-7619-2980-2. Retrieved 18 May 2008.
|Wikibooks Cookbook has a recipe/module on|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kimchi.|