|Flowering garlic chives|
Rottler ex Spreng. 1825 not Roxb. 1832
Allium tuberosum (garlic chives, oriental garlic, Asian chives, Chinese chives, Chinese leek) is an Asian species of onion native to the Himalayas (Nepal, Bhutan, India) and to the Chinese Province of Shanxi. It is cultivated in many places and naturalized in scattered locations around the world.
Allium tuberosum is a perennial bulbous plant with a distinctive growth habit with strap-shaped leaves unlike either onion or garlic, and straight thin white-flowering stalks that are much taller than the leaves. The flavor is more like garlic than chives. It grows in slowly expanding perennial clumps, but also readily sprouts from seed. In warmer areas (USDA Zones 8 and warmer), garlic chives may remain green all year round. In cold areas (USDA Zones 7 to 4b), leaves and stalks will completely die back to the ground, and re-sprout from roots or rhizomes in the spring. The elongated bulb is small (about 10 mm diameter), tough and fibrous, originating from the stout rhizome.)
Originally described by Johan Peter Rottler, the species name was validly published by Curt Polycarp Joachim Sprengel in 1825. Allium tuberosum is classified within Allium in subgenus Butomissa (Salisb.) N. Friesen, section Butomissa (Salisb.) Kamelin, a very small group consisting of only A. tuberosum and A. ramosum L., which have been variously regarded as either one or two genetic entities.
Distribution and habitat
Originating in the Siberian–Mongolian–North Chinese steppes, but widely cultivated and naturalised. Allium tuberosum is currently reported to be found growing wild in scattered locations in the United States. (Illinois, Michigan, Ohio, Nebraska, Alabama, Iowa, Arkansas, Nebraska and Wisconsin) However, it is believed to be more widespread in North America because of availability of seeds and seedlings of this species as an exotic herb and because of its high aggressiveness. This species is also widespread across much of mainland Europe and invasive in other areas of the world.
A late summer to autumnal blooming plant, Allium tuberosum is one of several Allium species known as wild onion and/or wild garlic that in various parts of the world, such as Australia, are listed as noxious weeds or as invasive "serious high impact environmental and / or agricultural weeds that spread rapidly and often create monocultures".
Often grown as an ornamental plant in gardens, several cultivars are available. A. tuberosum is distinctive by blooming later than most native or naturalised species of Allium. It is hardy (USDA) to zones 4–10.
A number of varieties have been developed for either improved leaf (e.g. 'Shiva') or flower stem (e.g. 'Nien Hua') production. While the emphasis in Asia the emphasis has been primarily culinary, in North America the interest has been more as an ornamental. 'Monstrosum' is a giant ornamental cultivar.
Uses have included ornamental plants, including cut and dried flowers, culinary herb, and traditional medicine. Garlic chives have been widely cultivated for centuries for its culinary value. The flat leaves, the stalks and immature, unopened flower buds are used as flavouring. Another form is "blanched" by regrowing after cutting under cover to produce white-yellow leaves and a subtler flavor.
In Japan (where it's known as nira, Japanese: 韮), Allium tuberosum is used for both garlic and sweet flavours, in soups and salads and traditional Japanese and Chinese dishes. Chinese names for A. tuberosum (韭菜) vary depending on the plant part as well as between Mandarin Chinese and Cantonese, as well as varying romanizations. For instance the green leaves are jiu cai, the flower stem jiu cai hua and blanched leaves jiu huang in Mandarin, but gau tsoi (kow choi), gau tsoi fa and gau wong in Cantonese respectively. Other renderings include cuchay, kucai, kuchay or kutsay.
The leaves are used as a flavoring in a similar way to chives, scallions or garlic and are included as a stir fry ingredient. In China, they are often used to make dumplings with a combination of egg, shrimp and pork. They are a common ingredient in Chinese jiaozi dumplings and the Japanese and Korean equivalents. Garlic chives are widely used in Korean cuisine, where it is known as buchu (Korean: 부추), most notably in dishes such as buchukimchi (부추김치, garlic chive kimchi), buchujeon (부추전, garlic chive pancakes), or jaecheopguk (a guk, or clear soup, made with garlic chives and Asian clams). A Chinese flatbread similar to the scallion pancake may be made with garlic chives instead of scallions; such a pancake is called a jiucai bing (韭菜饼) or jiucai you bing (韭菜油饼). Garlic chives are also one of the main ingredients used with Yi mein (E-Fu) dishes. In Nepal, cooks fry a curried vegetable dish of potatoes and A. tuberosum known as dunduko sag. In Manipur and other northeastern states of India, it is grown and used as a substitute to garlic and onion in cooking and is known as maroi nakupi. In Thailand they are known as gui chai. In Vietnam, the leaves of garlic chives (hẹ) are cut up into short pieces and used as the only vegetable in a broth with sliced pork kidneys.
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Books and monographs
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- Block, Eric (2009). Garlic and other alliums : the lore and the science. Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry. ISBN 978-0-85404-190-9.
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- Kays, Stanley J. (2011). "7.13 Allium tuberosum". Cultivated vegetables of the world: a multilingual onomasticon. Wageningen: Wageningen Academic. p. 33. ISBN 9789086867202.
- Larkcom, Joy; Douglass, Elizabeth (2008). Oriental vegetables : the complete guide for the gardening cook (2nd ed.). New York: Kodansha International. ISBN 9781568363707. Retrieved 17 October 2015.
- Majupuria, Indra (1993). Joys of Nepalese cooking : a most comprehensive and practical book on Nepalese cookery : 371 easy-to-make, kitchen-tested recipes. Lashkar (Gwalior), India: S. Devi. ISBN 9789747315318. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- McGee, Rose Marie Nichols; Stuckey, Maggie (2002). The Bountiful Container. Workman Publishing. ISBN 9780761116233.
- Rabinowitch, H. D.; Currah, L. (2002). Allium Crop Sciences: Recent Advances. CABI Publishing. ISBN 0-85199-510-1.
- Randall, RP (2007). The introduced flora of Australia and its weed status (PDF). Australian Weed Management, University of Adelaide. ISBN 978-1-920932-60-2. Retrieved 15 October 2015.
- Zeder, Melinda A.; Bradley, Daniel G; Emshwiller, Eve; Smith, Bruce D, eds. (2006). Documenting domestication: new genetic and archaeological paradigms. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press. ISBN 9780520246386. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
Articles and chapters
- Friesen, N; Fritsch, RM; Blattner, Frank R (2006). "Phylogeny and new intrageneric classification of Allium (Alliaceae) based on nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS sequences" (PDF). Aliso 22: 372–395. Retrieved 13 October 2015.
- Li, Q.-Q.; Zhou, S.-D.; He, X.-J.; Yu, Y.; Zhang, Y.-C.; Wei, X.-Q. (21 October 2010). "Phylogeny and biogeography of Allium (Amaryllidaceae: Allieae) based on nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer and chloroplast rps16 sequences, focusing on the inclusion of species endemic to China". Annals of Botany 106 (5): 709–733. doi:10.1093/aob/mcq177. PMC 2958792. PMID 20966186.
- Oyuntsetseg, B; Blattner, F. R.; Friesen, N. (2012). "Diploid Allium ramosum from East Mongolia: A missing link for the origin of the crop species A. tuberosum?". Erforsch. biol. Ress. Mongolei (Halle/Saale) 12: 415–424.
- Saini, N; Wadhwa, S; Singh, G. K. (2013). "Comparative study between cultivated garlic (Allium sativum) and wild garlic (Allium tuberosum)". Global R Trad Rep 1 (1): 12–24.
- Blattner, Frank R; Friesen, N. Relationship between Chinese chive (Allium tuberosum) and its putative progenitor A. ramosum as assessed by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Retrieved 14 October 2015. in Zeder et al (2006, Chapter 10. pp. 134–142)
- Fritsch, RM; Friesen, N. Evolution, domestication and taxonomy., in Rabinowitch & Currah (2003, pp. 5–30)
- "Allium tuberosum", World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, retrieved 14 October 2015
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- "32. Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Sprengel, Syst. Veg. 2: 38. 1825. 韭 jiu". Vol. 24 p. 179. Flora of China. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
- "Floridata". Floridata Plant Encyclopedia. 2015.
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- Allium tuberosum Rottl. ex Spreng. Medicinal Plant Images Database (School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University) (traditional Chinese) (English)
- Hilty, John (2015). "Garlic chives". Illinois Wildflowers. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
- "Allium tuberosum". Kwantlen Polytechnic University: School of Horticulture. 2015. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
- "Allium tuberosum". BONAP's North American Plant Atlas (NAPA). The Biota of North America Program North American Vascular Flora. 2014. Retrieved 15 October 2015.
- "Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Spreng.". Schede di botanica. Flora Italiana. Archived from the original on 30 March 2014. Retrieved 15 October 2015.
- Norrington-Davies, Tom (8 April 2006). "Spring it on them". The Telegraph. Retrieved 17 October 2015.
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- Goh, Kenneth (30 March 2015). "Shredded Chicken Braised E-Fu Noodles (鸡丝韭黄伊府面）". Guai Shu Shu. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- Mahr, Susan (30 August 2010). "Garlic Chives, Allium tuberosum". University of Wisconsin Extension Master Gardener Program. Retrieved 19 October 2015.
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