List of Holocaust memorials and museums

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A number of organizations, museums and monuments are intended to serve as memorials to the Holocaust, the Nazi Final Solution, and its millions of victims.

Memorials and museums are listed by country, as follows:

A - D: Argentina · Australia · Austria · Belarus · Belgium · Brazil · Bulgaria · Canada · China (PRC) · Croatia · Cuba · Czech Republic
E - J: Estonia  · France · Germany · Greece · Hungary · Israel · Italy · Japan
K - O: Latvia · Lithuania · Mexico · Netherlands · New Zealand · North Macedonia · Norway
P - T: Philippines · Poland · Romania · Russia · Serbia · Slovakia · Slovenia · South Africa · Spain · Suriname · Sweden · Taiwan
U - Z: Ukraine · United Kingdom · United States · Uruguay

Argentina[edit]

  • Museo del Holocausto de Buenos Aires (Holocaust Memorial Museum, Buenos Aires)[1]

Australia[edit]

Austria[edit]

Belarus[edit]

Belgium[edit]

Brazil[edit]

Bulgaria[edit]

Canada[edit]

China (People's Republic of China)[edit]

Croatia[edit]

Cuba[edit]

Czech Republic[edit]

Names of Holocaust victims in the Pinkas Synagogue in Prague

Estonia[edit]

Holocaust memorial at the site of Klooga concentration camp, Estonia.

France[edit]

Germany[edit]

Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe (Berlin)

Greece[edit]

The Athens Holocaust Memorial, dedicated in 2010.

Hungary[edit]

Israel[edit]

Sculpture at Yad Vashem in Jerusalem

Italy[edit]

Japan[edit]

Latvia[edit]

Memorial at the site of the Rumbula massacre, Latvia

Lithuania[edit]

Luxembourg[edit]

Mexico[edit]

Netherlands[edit]

New Zealand[edit]

North Macedonia[edit]

Norway[edit]

  • Center for Studies of Holocaust and Religious Minorities (Oslo)

Philippines[edit]

Poland[edit]

Romania[edit]

Russia[edit]

Serbia[edit]

Šumarice Memorial Park, Kragujevac

Slovakia[edit]

Holocaust and Demolished Synagogue Memorial, Rybné námestie in Bratislava
  • Holocaust memorial for the Jewish inhabitants of Huncovce[93]
  • Holocaust memorial plaque on the synagogue of Košice[94]

Slovenia[edit]

South Africa[edit]

Spain[edit]

  • Memorial for the victims of the Holocaust (Madrid)[105]
  • Monument to the Victims of the Mauthausen Concentration Camp (Almería)[106]

Suriname[edit]

Holocaust Memorial Paramaribo, Suriname

Sweden[edit]

Taiwan[edit]

Ukraine[edit]

United Kingdom[edit]

Holocaust Memorial in Hyde Park, London

United States[edit]

Uruguay[edit]

See also[edit]

Related[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The German national memorial to the people with disabilities systematically murdered by the Nazis was dedicated in 2014 in Berlin.[35][36] It is located in Berlin in a site next to the Tiergarten park, which is the former location of a villa at Tiergartenstrasse 4 where more than 60 Nazi bureaucrats and doctors worked in secret under the "T4" program to organize the mass murder of sanatorium and psychiatric hospital patients deemed unworthy to live.[36]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ "Jewish Holocaust Centre". Jewish Holocaust Centre. Retrieved 14 October 2012.
  3. ^ "Holocaust Memorial". Leo Baeck Centre for Progressive Judaism. Retrieved 5 February 2016.
  4. ^ "Jewish Victims of the Holocaust". Monument Australia. Retrieved 5 February 2016.
  5. ^ "Sydney Jewish Museum – Memorials". Sydney Jewish Museum. Retrieved 5 February 2016.
  6. ^ "Holocaust- und Toleranzzentrum Steiermark (Holocaust and Tolerance Center Styria)". Holocaust- und Toleranzzentrum Stmk. Retrieved 5 February 2016.
  7. ^ "Mauthausen-memorial.at". Mauthausen-memorial.at. Retrieved 14 October 2012.
  8. ^ "Kazerne Dossin". Kazerne Dossin: Museum, Memorial and Documentation Centre on Holocaust and Human Rights. Retrieved 14 February 2020.
  9. ^ "National Monument to the Jewish Martyrs of Belgium". Gedenkstättenportal zu Orten der Erinnerung in Europa. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
  10. ^ Lott, Diana (19 November 2017). "First Holocaust Museum to be Inaugurated in São Paulo". Folha de S.Paulo. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
  11. ^ "Jewish Historical Museum". Information Portal to European Sites of Remembrance. Berlin, Germany: Stiftung Denkmal für die ermordeten Juden Europas. Retrieved 31 July 2019.
  12. ^ "Dimitar Peshev Museum". Information Portal to European Sites of Remembrance. Berlin, Germany: Stiftung Denkmal für die ermordeten Juden Europas. Retrieved 31 July 2019.
  13. ^ "House-Museum "Dimiter Peshev"". Regional Historical Museum. Retrieved 31 July 2019.
  14. ^ "Monument of Gratitude". Information Portal to European Sites of Remembrance. Berlin, Germany: Stiftung Denkmal für die ermordeten Juden Europas. Retrieved 31 July 2019.
  15. ^ "Yom HaShoah: Holocaust Remembrance Day commemorated in Edmonton". Edmonton Jewish News. 6 May 2016. Retrieved 24 May 2016.
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  17. ^ "VHEC.org". VHEC.org. Retrieved 14 October 2012.
  18. ^ "Hong Kong Holocaust and Tolerance Centre (香港大屠杀和宽容中心)". Hong Kong Holocaust and Tolerance Centre. Retrieved 5 February 2016.
  19. ^ "Shanghai Jewish Museum – Overview". Shanghai Jewish Refugees Museum (上海犹太难民纪念馆). Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 5 February 2016.
  20. ^ ""The Wall of Shanghai List" unveiled". Shanghai Jewish Refugees Museum. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 5 February 2016.
  21. ^ Luxner, Larry (3 May 2004). "Polish stone for Cuba's Shoah memorial". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
  22. ^ "Cuba's First Holocaust Exhibit Opens at the Sephardic Center in Havana". USC Press Room. 21 December 2011. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
  23. ^ izieu.alma.fr Archived 2010-12-03 at the Wayback Machine
  24. ^ "Centre de la mĂŠmoire d'Oradour". Oradour.org. Archived from the original on 21 February 2011. Retrieved 14 October 2012.
  25. ^ "The Shoah Memorial in Drancy". Mémorial de la Shoah. 2016. Retrieved 21 June 2020.
  26. ^ "Centre Hospitalier Isarien: Histoire: La guerre 39-45". Centre Hospitalier Isarien (in French). Retrieved 19 June 2020.
  27. ^ "Memorial to the patients of the Clermont psychiatric ward: Remembrance". Information Portal to European Sites of Remembrance. Berlin, Germany: Stiftung Denkmal für die ermordeten Juden Europas. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
  28. ^ "Accueil - Gurs". Camp de Gurs (in French). Retrieved 21 June 2020.
  29. ^ "Présentation: Inauguration du Mémorial de l'internement et de la déportation". Mémorial de l'internement et de la déportation Camp de Royallieu (in French). 16 February 2016. Retrieved 19 June 2020.
  30. ^ "Les Milles Camp Memorial: Remembrance". Information Portal to European Sites of Remembrance. Berlin, Germany: Stiftung Denkmal für die ermordeten Juden Europas. Retrieved 19 June 2020.
  31. ^ "Vélodrome d'Hiver: Remembrance". Information Portal to European Sites of Remembrance. Berlin, Germany: Stiftung Denkmal für die ermordeten Juden Europas. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
  32. ^ "CERCIL – Study and Research Centre on the Internment Camps in Loiret: Remembrance". Information Portal to European Sites of Remembrance. Berlin, Germany: Stiftung Denkmal für die ermordeten Juden Europas. Retrieved 19 June 2020.
  33. ^ "Natzweiler-Struthof Museum and European Centre of Deported Resistance Members". Information Portal to European Sites of Remembrance. Berlin, Germany: Stiftung Denkmal für die ermordeten Juden Europas. Retrieved 19 June 2020.
  34. ^ "Memorial and Information Point for the Victims of National Socialist "Euthanasia" Killings". Foundation Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe. Retrieved 4 February 2016.
  35. ^ ABC News. "International News – World News – ABC News". ABC News.
  36. ^ a b "Berlin Dedicates Holocaust Memorial for Disabled – Global Agenda – News". Arutz Sheva.
  37. ^ Citizens´Association "Landsberg in the 20th Century" - Founder of the European Holocaust Memorial - Founded 9th November 1983 - Since over 30 year active within the remembrance of the local Holocaust Concentration Camp Kaufering/Landsberg
  38. ^ Smith, Helena (9 May 2010). "Athens unveils its first Holocaust memorial". The Guardian. Retrieved 4 February 2016.
  39. ^ "The Jewish Museum of Greece". Archived from the original on 7 September 2015. Retrieved 4 February 2016.
  40. ^ "Jewish Museum of Thessaloniki". Archived from the original on 25 January 2016. Retrieved 4 February 2016.
  41. ^ "The History of the Jewish Community of Rhodes". Jewish Community of Rhodes. Retrieved 4 February 2016.
  42. ^ "Jewish Museum of Rhodes". Retrieved 4 February 2016.
  43. ^ "HDKA.hu". Hdke.hu. Retrieved 14 October 2012.
  44. ^ "Ghetto Fighters' House Museum".
  45. ^ "From Holocaust to Revival Museum". Yad- Mordechai Museum.
  46. ^ http://www.chron.com/news/world/article/Israel-city-unveils-gay-Holocaust-victims-memorial-5130867.php
  47. ^ "Holocaust Education Center, Japan". urban.ne.jp. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
  48. ^ アンネのバラの教会 (Congregation of Jesus Anne's Rose Church)
  49. ^ Auschwitz Peace Museum Archived 23 February 2019 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 2 March 2019.
  50. ^ "Holocaust Exhibition". Vilna Gaon State Jewish Museum.
  51. ^ "Paneriai Memorial". Vilna Gaon State Jewish Museum.
  52. ^ "New Holocaust Memorial in Šeduva, Lithuania". Jewish Heritage Europe.
  53. ^ "Kauno IX forto muziejus".
  54. ^ "Sugihara House".
  55. ^ "The Green House Holocaust Museum, Vilnius".
  56. ^ "Hollandsche Schouwburg: Remembrance". Gedenkstättenportal zu Orten der Erinnerung in Europa.
  57. ^ "The Dock Worker Monument: Remberance". Gedenkstättenportal zu Orten der Erinnerung in Europa.
  58. ^ "The National Westerbork Memorial". Herinneringscentrum Kamp Westerbork.
  59. ^ "Nationaal Monument Kamp Vught". Camp Vught National Memorial.
  60. ^ "Philippine-Israel Friendship Park unveiled". Embassy of Israel in the Philippines. 19 August 2019. Retrieved 28 May 2019.
  61. ^ "Ghetto Heroes Memorial: Remembrance". Gedenkstättenportal zu Orten der Erinnerung in Europa.
  62. ^ "Museum of the Former Death Camp in Sobibór". Muzeum Byłego Obozu Zagłady w Sobiborze. Retrieved 5 January 2021.
  63. ^ "Bucharest: Holocaust Memorial". Gedenkstättenportal zu Orten der Erinnerung in Europa. Berlin, Germany: Stiftung Denkmal für die ermordeten Juden Europas. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  64. ^ "Elie Wiesel Memorial House". Gedenkstättenportal zu Orten der Erinnerung in Europa. Berlin, Germany: Stiftung Denkmal für die ermordeten Juden Europas. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  65. ^ "Memorial to the Victims of the 1941 Pogrom, Bucharest". Gedenkstättenportal zu Orten der Erinnerung in Europa. Berlin, Germany: Stiftung Denkmal für die ermordeten Juden Europas. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  66. ^ "Holocaust Memorial in Târgu Mures". Gedenkstättenportal zu Orten der Erinnerung in Europa. Berlin, Germany: Stiftung Denkmal für die ermordeten Juden Europas. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  67. ^ "Dedicatie". Muzeul Memorial al Holocaustului din Transilvania de Nord (in Romanian). Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  68. ^ "Oradea's Monument to the Deportees is Renovated and Rededicated in a Special Ceremony". Oradea Jewish Community. 2008. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  69. ^ "Holocaust Center". Центр и Фонд Холокост (Holocaust Center and Foundation) (in Russian). Retrieved 15 March 2019.
  70. ^ "Pushkin: Commemoration of Jewish Victims". The Untold Stories. The Murder Sites of the Jews in the Occupied Territories of the Former USSR. Jerusalem, Israel: Yad Vashem. Retrieved 18 July 2019.
  71. ^ "Memorial "Formula of Sorrow"". Information Portal to European Sites of Remembrance. Berlin, Germany: Stiftung Denkmal für die ermordeten Juden Europas. Retrieved 18 July 2019.
  72. ^ "Memorial Plaque to the Victims of the First Deportation from Königsberg". Information Portal to European Sites of Remembrance. Berlin, Germany: Stiftung Denkmal für die ermordeten Juden Europas. Retrieved 18 July 2019.
  73. ^ "Memorial to the victims of fascism in Kranodar". Information Portal to European Sites of Remembrance. Berlin, Germany: Stiftung Denkmal für die ermordeten Juden Europas. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  74. ^ "Monument at the site where the Jews of Lyubavichi were shot". Holocaust Memorials. Berlin, Germany: Stiftung Topographie des Terrors. Retrieved 22 July 2019.
  75. ^ "Ravine of Death Memorial to the Jews of Taganrog". Holocaust Memorials. Berlin, Germany: Stiftung Topographie des Terrors. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  76. ^ "Memorial to Holocaust Victims Opened in Kaliningrad". Guarant-InfoCentre. Retrieved 8 September 2012.
  77. ^ "Holocaust Memorial in Yantarny (Palmnicken)". Information Portal to European Sites of Remembrance. Berlin, Germany: Stiftung Denkmal für die ermordeten Juden Europas. Retrieved 18 July 2019.
  78. ^ "Monument at Vostryakovskoye Cemetery". Holocaust Memorials. Berlin, Germany: Stiftung Topographie des Terrors. Retrieved 22 July 2019.
  79. ^ "Zmievskaya Balka Memorial". Holocaust Rostov-on-Don August 1942.
  80. ^ ""Menorah in Flames" Holocaust Memorial". Information Portal to European Sites of Remembrance. Berlin, Germany: Stiftung Denkmal für die ermordeten Juden Europas. Retrieved 11 August 2019.
  81. ^ "Jewish Historical Museum of Belgrade". Holocaust Memorials. Retrieved 14 August 2019.
  82. ^ "Museum of Genocide Victims". Belgrade. Retrieved 11 August 2019.
  83. ^ "Memorial to the Poet Miklós Radnóti". Information Portal to European Sites of Remembrance. Berlin, Germany: Stiftung Denkmal für die ermordeten Juden Europas. Retrieved 11 August 2019.
  84. ^ "Memorial to the Victims of the Kladovo-Transport". Information Portal to European Sites of Remembrance. Berlin, Germany: Stiftung Denkmal für die ermordeten Juden Europas. Retrieved 11 August 2019.
  85. ^ "Memorial Park "October of Kragujevac"". Information Portal to European Sites of Remembrance. Berlin, Germany: Stiftung Denkmal für die ermordeten Juden Europas. Retrieved 11 August 2019.
  86. ^ "The history (in English)". The Memorial Park October in Kragujevac. 2016. Retrieved 15 August 2019.
  87. ^ "Memorial to the Victims of the Massacre at Novi Sad". Information Portal to European Sites of Rememerance. Berlin, Germany: Stiftung Denkmal für die ermordeten Juden Europas. Retrieved 11 August 2019.
  88. ^ "Memorial at the Cemetery of the Murdered After the Suppression of the Slovak National Uprising". Information Portal to European Sites of Remembrance. Berlin, Germany: Stiftung Denkmal für die ermordeten Juden Europas. Retrieved 18 October 2019.
  89. ^ "Holocaust Memorial Bratislava". Information Portal to European Sites of Remembrance. Berlin, Germany: Stiftung Denkmal für die ermordeten Juden Europas. Retrieved 15 August 2019.
  90. ^ "Holocaust memorial". Jewish Bratislava. Retrieved 15 August 2019.
  91. ^ "Museum of Jewish Culture in Bratislava". Berlin, Germany: Stiftung Denkmal für die ermordeten Juden Europas. Retrieved 15 August 2019.
  92. ^ "Museum of Jewish Culture: About the museum". Slovak National Museum. Retrieved 15 August 2019.
  93. ^ "V Huncovciach odhalili pamätník obetiam holokaustu" [Memorial to the victims of the Holocaust is unveiled in Huncovce]. Podtatranské noviny (in Slovak). Retrieved 20 October 2019.
  94. ^ "Memorial plaque in the synagogue of Košice". Holocaust Memorials: Monuments, Museums and Institutions in Commemoration of Nazi Victims. Berlin, Germany: Stiftung Topographie des Terrors. Retrieved 20 October 2019.
  95. ^ "Memorial to the Slovak National Uprising". Information Portal to European Sites of Remembrance. Berlin, Germany: Stiftung Denkmal für die ermordeten Juden Europas. Retrieved 18 October 2019.
  96. ^ "Memorial Plaque to the Victims of the Nováky Forced Labour and Concentration Camp". Information Portal to European Sites of Remembrance. Berlin, Germany: Stiftung Denkmal für die ermordeten Juden Europas. Retrieved 18 October 2019.
  97. ^ "Memorial Plaque to the Deported Jews at Poprad Railway Station". Information Portal to European Sites of Remembrance. Berlin, Germany: Stiftung Denkmal für die ermordeten Juden Europas. Retrieved 20 October 2019.
  98. ^ "Prešov Monument and Museum of Jewish Culture". Information Portal to European Sites of Remembrance. Berlin, Germany: Stiftung Denkmal für die ermordeten Juden Europas. Retrieved 20 October 2019.
  99. ^ "Memorial plaque in Prešov Town Hall". Holocaust Memorials: Monuments, Museums and Institutions in Commemoration of Nazi Victims. Berlin, Germany: Stiftung Topographie des Terrors. Retrieved 20 October 2019.
  100. ^ "Sereď Holocaust Museum". Slovak National Museum. Retrieved 14 August 2019.
  101. ^ "Loibl Süd Concentration Camp Memorial". Holocaust Memorials: Monuments, Museums and Institutions in Commemoration of Nazi Victims. Berlin, Germany: Stiftung Topographie des Terrors. Retrieved 20 October 2019.
  102. ^ "CTholocaust.co.za". CTholocaust.co.za. 12 September 2012. Retrieved 14 October 2012.
  103. ^ "Our Centre – Durban Holocaust Centre". Ctholocaust.co.za. Retrieved 14 October 2012.
  104. ^ "Johannesburg Holocaust & Genocide Centre". jhbholocaust.co.za. Retrieved 29 May 2017.
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  106. ^ "Monumento a las víctimas del campo del Mauthausen (Almería)". Junta de Andalucía. Retrieved 25 May 2017.
  107. ^ https://www.timesofisrael.com/70-years-after-the-holocaust-a-surinamese-memorial-for-caribbean-victims/amp/
  108. ^ Ghiuzeli, Haim F. "The Great Synagogue of Stockholm". The Museum of the Jewish People at Beit Hatfutsot. Retrieved 5 February 2016.
  109. ^ Forum för levande historia, www.levandehistoria.se/english. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
  110. ^ http://www.ostersund.se/uppleva-och-gora/kultur/storsjoteatern.html. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  111. ^ "Taiwan Holocaust Museum (Che Lu Chien Church)(臺灣Holocaust和平紀念館(車路墘教會))". Tainan Travel. Retrieved 10 January 2020.
  112. ^ ""Wailing Wall" for the murdered Jews of Bakhmut: Remembrance". Information Portal to European Sites of Remembrance. Berlin, Germany: Stiftung Denkmal für die ermordeten Juden Europas. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
  113. ^ a b "Memorial to the murdered Jews of Chernihiv". Information Portal to European Sites of Remembrance. Berlin, Germany: Stiftung Denkmal für die ermordeten Juden Europas. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
  114. ^ "Tkuma Ukrainian Institute for Holocaust Studies". Институт "Ткума". Retrieved 28 October 2019.
  115. ^ "Kowel: Commemoration of Jewish Victims". The Untold Stories. The Murder Sites of the Jews in the Occupied Territories of the Former USSR. Yad Vashem. Retrieved 29 October 2019.
  116. ^ "Bakhiv (Kovel)". Preserving and Memorializing the Holocaust Mass Graves of Eastern Europe. Protecting Memory. Retrieved 28 October 2019.
  117. ^ "Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Kovel". Information Portal to European Sites of Remembrance. Berlin, Germany: Stiftung Denkmal für die ermordeten Juden Europas. Retrieved 28 October 2019.
  118. ^ "Kysylyn". Preserving and Memorializing the Holocaust Mass Graves of Eastern Europe. Protecting Memory. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
  119. ^ "Memorials to the murdered Jews of Lutsk". Information Portal to European Sites of Remembrance. Berlin, Germany: Stiftung Denkmal für die ermordeten Juden Europas. Retrieved 15 February 2019.
  120. ^ "Memorial to the murdered Jews of Mariupol". Information Portal to European Sites of Remembrance. Berlin, Germany: Stiftung Denkmal für die ermordeten Juden Europas. Retrieved 18 June 2020.
  121. ^ "Memorial to the Jews of Mukacheve: Remembrance". Information Portal to European Sites of Remembrance. Berlin, Germany: Stiftung Denkmal für die ermordeten Juden Europas. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
  122. ^ "Holocaust Museum". Information Portal to European Sites of Remembrance. Berlin, Germany: Stiftung Denkmal für die ermordeten Juden Europas. Retrieved 18 June 2020.
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  124. ^ "Ostrozhets". Preserving and Memorializing the Holocaust Mass Graves of Eastern Europe. Protecting Memory. Retrieved 27 February 2020.
  125. ^ "Memorial to the murdered Jews of Pryluky". Information Portal to European Sites of Remembrance. Berlin, Germany: Stiftung Denkmal für die ermordeten Juden Europas. Retrieved 15 February 2019.
  126. ^ "Ratno: Commemoration of Jewish Victims". The Untold Stories. The Murder Sites of the Jews in the Occupied Territories of the Former USSR. Jerusalem, Israel: Yad Vashem. Retrieved 23 October 2019.
  127. ^ "Prokhid". Preserving and Memorializing the Holocaust Mass Graves of Eastern Europe. Protecting Memory. Retrieved 24 October 2019.
  128. ^ "Ostrozhets". Preserving and Memorializing the Holocaust Mass Graves of Eastern Europe. Protecting Memory. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
  129. ^ "Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Rava-Ruska". Information Portal to European Sites of Remembrance. Berlin, Germany: Stiftung Denkmal für die ermordeten Juden Europas. Retrieved 28 October 2019.
  130. ^ "Rava-Ruska". Preserving and Memorializing the Holocaust Mass Graves of Eastern Europe. Protecting Memory. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
  131. ^ "Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Schitomir". Holocaust Memorials: Monuments, Museums and Institutions in Commemoration of Nazi Victims. Berlin, Germany: Stiftung Topographie des Terrors. Retrieved 27 February 2020.
  132. ^ "Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Zhytomyr". Information Portal to European Sites of Remembrance. Berlin, Germany: Stiftung Denkmal für die ermordeten Juden Europas. Retrieved 15 February 2019.
  133. ^ "Memorial del Holocausto del Pueblo Judío" (in Spanish). Intendencia de Montevideo. Archived from the original on 22 July 2013. Retrieved 18 April 2013.

Further reading[edit]

  • Young, James. E (1993). The texture of memory: Holocaust memorials and meaning. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 9780300059915.

External links[edit]