Midyat

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Midyat
Town
Mor Barsawmo Syriac Orthodox Church.
Mor Barsawmo Syriac Orthodox Church.
Midyat is located in Turkey
Midyat
Midyat
Coordinates: 37°25′00″N 41°22′11″E / 37.41667°N 41.36972°E / 37.41667; 41.36972Coordinates: 37°25′00″N 41°22′11″E / 37.41667°N 41.36972°E / 37.41667; 41.36972
Country Turkey
ProvinceMardin
Government
 • MayorVeysi Şahin (AKP)
 • KaymakamFatih Akkaya
Area
 • District1,054.25 km2 (407.05 sq mi)
Elevation
953 m (3,127 ft)
Population
 (2012)[2]
 • Urban
60,425
 • District
105,542
 • District density100/km2 (260/sq mi)
Post code
47500
Websitewww.midyat.bel.tr

Midyat (Kurdish: Midyad[3] Syriac: ܡܕܝܕ Mëḏyaḏ,[4] Turoyo: Miḏyoyo, Arabic: مديات) is a town in Mardin Province of Turkey. The ancient city is the center of a centuries-old Hurrian town in Upper Mesopotamia. In its long history, the city of Midyat has been ruled by various different leaders and nations. According to the 1960 population census Midyat was home to 570 Christian households and only 30 Muslim households.[5]

The city is populated by Assyrians, Kurds and Mhallami people.[6] Estel neighborhood is about 80 to 85% Kurdish-populated.[7]

History[edit]

The history of Midyat can be traced back to the Hurrians during the 3rd millennium. Ninth century BC Assyrian tablets refer to Midyat as Matiate, or city of caves due to the caves at eleth 3 km away from the city where the earliest inhabitants lived. Many different empires had ruled over Midyat including the Mitannians, Assyrians, Arameans, Armenians, Medes, Persians, Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, Abbasids, Seljuks and Ottomans.[8]

On July 16, 1915, during the Armenian and Assyrian Genocides, the German Consul at Mosul, Walter Holstein, alleged in a report to the German Foreign Office that Reşit Bey, the Vali of Diyarbekir, had ordered the recent assassination of the Kaimakam of Midyat, for having, "refused to let the Christians in his district be massacred."[9]

The local village of Azakh was one of the last pockets of widespread resistance in what the Ottoman authorities called the Midyat rebellion, named after the main Christian town in the Tur Abdin region[10]

Demographics[edit]

Assyrian population[edit]

Midyat is an historic centre of the Assyrians/Aramaics in Turkey, and as late as the Assyrian/Aramaic genocide in 1915 they constituted the majority of the city's population. During the early 20th century, the Assyrian/Aramic population of the city started to gradually diminish due to emigration, but the community was still very large. The Assyrians/Aramaics of Tur Abdin were the only significant population of Christians outside of Istanbul, until 1979, when panic ensued over an act war and an exodus of local Christians overtook the city as a result, because a Mayor and major Syriac figure in Turabdin of the city of Kerboran, now named Dargecit, was assassinated and replaced with a Kurdish representative against the peoples will. The Syriacs up until then had control over the local government, and could therefore unify to resist threats. Panic ensued as the local Muslim population made a symbolic declaration of war against the Syriac people and soon after the takeover, local Mhallami and Kurdish inhabitants started immigrating into the traditionally Syriac areas, causing a demographic shift which - along with the start of the Turkey-PKK conflict a few years later in 1984 - sounded a death toll to the community not only here, but in all of Tur Abdin. From a 1975 population of 50,000 comprising 10% of Mardin Province's demographic structure:[11] barely 2,000 were left by the end of the conflict in 1999.[12] Now only around 3-5,000 live in Tur Abdin, with the other 15-17,000 living in Istanbul and other still functioning Syriac Diocese like Adiyaman,[13] Harput, and Diyarbakir.

The churches and houses belonging to the Christians have been preserved although many of them are empty, with their owners living away in Europe. At present 500 Syriac Christians live in Midyat, and they have been joined by 1-300 Assyrian refugees fleeing the Syrian Civil War who have settled in the city and region according to different estimates,[14] and comprise 1% of the population of Midyat. There are 5 Churches in the city, and all are Syriac.[15][16]

Population of Midyat 1960[5] Households Individual Estimate Individuals
Christian 570 Christian 5,000
Muslim 30 Muslim 200

Economy[edit]

Telkari silver jewelry from Midyat, a popular export and handicraft

Midyat is the regional center of commerce for the district, and is one of the largest cities in Mardin Province. Similarly with Mardin, the city is known for its Syriac handicrafts such as carpets, towels and other cloth goods. More specific to the city is its Syriac silver crafts called telkari, which are handcrafted filigreed ornaments. To the east of the city there is a winery that makes traditional Syriac wine: a wine native to the region. Another staple in the Midyat market is its bulgur, which is a cereal food derived from wheat.[17]

Climate[edit]

Midyat, part of the province of Mardin, has a semi-arid climate with very hot and dry summers and cold, wet, and occasionally snowy winters. Temperatures in summer usually increase to 40 °C - 50 °C (104 °F - 122 °F) due to Mardin being situated right next to the border with Syria. Snowfall is quite common between the months of December and March, snowing for a week or two. Mardin has over 3000 hours of sun per year. The highest recorded temperature is +48.8 °C.

Climate data for Mardin, Midyat
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 6.1
(43.0)
7.5
(45.5)
12.0
(53.6)
17.7
(63.9)
24.2
(75.6)
30.9
(87.6)
35.3
(95.5)
34.9
(94.8)
30.4
(86.7)
23.1
(73.6)
14.4
(57.9)
8.2
(46.8)
20.4
(68.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) 3.1
(37.6)
4.1
(39.4)
8.2
(46.8)
13.7
(56.7)
19.7
(67.5)
25.8
(78.4)
30.0
(86.0)
29.6
(85.3)
25.2
(77.4)
18.5
(65.3)
10.7
(51.3)
5.2
(41.4)
16.1
(61.1)
Average low °C (°F) 0.6
(33.1)
1.3
(34.3)
4.7
(40.5)
9.9
(49.8)
15.1
(59.2)
20.2
(68.4)
24.6
(76.3)
24.6
(76.3)
20.6
(69.1)
14.6
(58.3)
7.7
(45.9)
2.7
(36.9)
12.2
(54.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 99.8
(3.93)
110.7
(4.36)
94.6
(3.72)
75.5
(2.97)
37.7
(1.48)
8.3
(0.33)
3.3
(0.13)
1.2
(0.05)
4.1
(0.16)
33.3
(1.31)
68.7
(2.70)
104.2
(4.10)
641.4
(25.24)
Average rainy days 10.6 10.6 10.7 9.9 6.6 1.7 0.5 0.2 0.7 5.3 7.4 10.2 74.4
Mean monthly sunshine hours 139.5 142.8 189.1 222 310 375 396.8 368.9 315 238.7 174 136.4 3,008.2
Source: Devlet Meteoroloji İşleri Genel Müdürlüğü [1]

Gallery[edit]

Further reading[edit]

Bargello, Fehmi, Min hemstad Midyat. Linköping: 2015.

Bargello, Fehmi, I flyktens kölvatten. Jönköping: 1998.

Hollerweger, Hans, Turabdin. Austria: 1999.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Area of regions (including lakes), km²". Regional Statistics Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. 2002. Retrieved 2013-03-05.
  2. ^ "Population of province/district centers and towns/villages by districts - 2012". Address Based Population Registration System (ABPRS) Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved 2013-02-27.
  3. ^ Adem Avcıkıran (2009). Kürtçe Anamnez Anamneza bi Kurmancî (PDF) (in Turkish and Kurdish). p. 56. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
  4. ^ Thomas A. Carlson et al., “Midyat — ܡܕܝܕ ” in The Syriac Gazetteer last modified January 14, 2014, http://syriaca.org/place/137.
  5. ^ a b Bargallo, Fehmi (2015). Min Hemstad Midyat. p. 57.
  6. ^ Tan, Altan (2011). Turabidin'den Berriye'ye & Aşiretler (in Turkish). Nubihar. pp. 202, 206, 219.
  7. ^ Tan, Altan (2011). Turabidin'den Berriye'ye & Aşiretler (in Turkish). Nubihar. p. 219.
  8. ^ Emel Çelebi (September 1, 2001). "Midyat City of Stone". Christians of Iraq. Retrieved January 4, 2018.
  9. ^ Armenian Tigranakert/Diarbekir and Edessa/Urfa. Richard G. Hovannisian (ed.) UCLA Armenian History and Culture Series: Historic Armenian Cities and Provinces, 6. Costa Mesa, CA: Mazda Publishers, 2006, pages 340-341.
  10. ^ https://site-media.bilda-cdn.nu/app/uploads/2018/10/11155249/in-times-of-genocide_webben.pdf
  11. ^ 530,000 people recorded in Mardin province census, 1975. Turabdin is mostly in Mardin province.
  12. ^ "Turkey Destroys Assyrian/Aramic Villages". Turkish Daily News. August 29, 1996. Retrieved January 4, 2018.
  13. ^ "Mor Malki Ürek". soc-wus.org.
  14. ^ "Syria's Assyrian Christians Find Refuge With Turkish Neighbours". Assyrian International News Agency. January 27, 2014. Retrieved January 4, 2018.
  15. ^ Jimmy Jimmie (May 12, 2013). "The search for the 5 churches of Midyat". Traveling by default. Retrieved January 4, 2018.
  16. ^ "Most Recent Things to Do in Midyat". March 28, 2013. Archived from the original on April 15, 2016. Retrieved January 4, 2018.
  17. ^ "Midyat". Turkey from the Inside. Retrieved January 4, 2018.

External links[edit]