Midyat

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Midyat
Mor Barsawmo Syriac Orthodox Church. Although now a minority of less than 10% of the population, Christian churches under long term protection of Turks now dominate the skyline of Midyat.
Mor Barsawmo Syriac Orthodox Church. Although now a minority of less than 10% of the population, Christian churches under long term protection of Turks now dominate the skyline of Midyat.
Midyat is located in Turkey
Midyat
Midyat
Coordinates: 37°25′00″N 41°22′11″E / 37.41667°N 41.36972°E / 37.41667; 41.36972Coordinates: 37°25′00″N 41°22′11″E / 37.41667°N 41.36972°E / 37.41667; 41.36972
Country Turkey
Province Mardin
Government
 • Mayor Şehmus Nasıroğlu (AKP)
 • Kaymakam Fatih Akkaya
Area[1]
 • District 1,054.25 km2 (407.05 sq mi)
Population (2012)[2]
 • Urban 60,425
 • District 105,542
 • District density 100/km2 (260/sq mi)
Post code 47500
Website www.midyat.bel.tr

Midyat (Kurdish: Midyad‎, Syriac: ܡܕܝܕ Mëḏyaḏ or Miḏyôyo in the local Turoyo dialect, Arabic: مديات‎) is a town in Mardin Province of Turkey. The ancient city is the center of a centuries-old Hurrian/Hurrian town in Southeast-Turkey, widely familiar under its Syriac name Tur Abdin.[citation needed] A cognate of the name Midyat is first encountered in an inscription of the Neo-Assyrian king Ashur-nasir-pal II (883-859 B.C.).[citation needed] This royal text depicts how Assyrian forces conquered the city and its surrounding villages. In its long history, the city of Midyat has remained politically subjected by various rulers - from the Assyrian Empire to the modern Turks.

History[edit]

The history of Midyat can be traced back to the Hurrians during the 3rd millennium. Ninth century BC. Assyrian tablets refer to Midyat as Matiate, or city of caves due to the caves at eleth 3 km away from the city where the earliest inhabitants lived. Many different empires had ruled over Midyat including the Mitannians, Assyrians, Armenians, Medes, Persia, Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, Abbasids, Seljuks and Ottomans.[3]

Midyat is a historic center of Assyrians in Turkey, and as late as the Assyrian Genocide took up a majority in the city. During the Gastarbeiter era, The Assyrian population of the city started to gradually diminish, but maintained a strong presence. This ended in In 1979, when panic overtook the still majority Assyrian city, when a major Assyrian figure in the City of Dargecit was murdered, and replaced with a Kurd. Soon after local Mhallami and Kurdish inhabitants started building houses in the surrounding areas, causing a demographic inbalance in the Assyrian city and, along with the start of the Turkey-PKK conflict a few years later, was a death blow to the community not only here, but in all of Tur Abdin.

The churches and houses belonging to Christians have been preserved although many of them are empty. At present some 130 Assyrian Christians families continue to live in Midyat permanently, and they have been joined by at least 300 Syrian refugees fleeing the Syrian Civil War.[4] Some Syrian Jews still remain in Midyat.

Quarters[edit]

From late Ottoman time up to modern time Old Midyat was divided into following quarters (in Syriac: Aš šawṯawoṯo d Mëḏyaḏ):

  • Qašrowat
  • Barlaṭe
  • Griġowat
  • Baḥdowat
  • Zatte Čalma
  • Zabuq
  • Malke Mire
  • Ġannowat
  • Sacidowat
  • Čëfčaqa

Economy[edit]

Midyat is the regional center of commerce.The City makes handicrafts such as carpets, towels and other cloth goods. More specific to the city is its silver crafts called telkari, which are handcrafted filigreed ornaments. Another staple in the Midyat market is its bulgur, which is a cereal food derived from wheat.[5] Tourism in Midyat, however dwarfed compared to in Mardin, is an important part of the economy as well.

Climate[edit]

Midyat part of the province of Mardin has a semi-arid climate with very hot and dry summers and cold, wet, and occasionally snowy winters. Temperatures in summer usually increase to 40 °C - 50 °C (104 °F - 122 °F) due to Mardin being situated right next to the border of Syria. Snowfall is quite common between the months of December and March, snowing for a week or two. Mardin has over 3000 hours of sun per year. The highest recorded temperature is +48.8 °C.

Climate data for Mardin, Midyat
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 6.1
(43)
7.5
(45.5)
12.0
(53.6)
17.7
(63.9)
24.2
(75.6)
30.9
(87.6)
35.3
(95.5)
34.9
(94.8)
30.4
(86.7)
23.1
(73.6)
14.4
(57.9)
8.2
(46.8)
20.39
(68.71)
Daily mean °C (°F) 3.1
(37.6)
4.1
(39.4)
8.2
(46.8)
13.7
(56.7)
19.7
(67.5)
25.8
(78.4)
30.0
(86)
29.6
(85.3)
25.2
(77.4)
18.5
(65.3)
10.7
(51.3)
5.2
(41.4)
16.15
(61.09)
Average low °C (°F) 0.6
(33.1)
1.3
(34.3)
4.7
(40.5)
9.9
(49.8)
15.1
(59.2)
20.2
(68.4)
24.6
(76.3)
24.6
(76.3)
20.6
(69.1)
14.6
(58.3)
7.7
(45.9)
2.7
(36.9)
12.22
(54.01)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 99.8
(3.929)
110.7
(4.358)
94.6
(3.724)
75.5
(2.972)
37.7
(1.484)
8.3
(0.327)
3.3
(0.13)
1.2
(0.047)
4.1
(0.161)
33.3
(1.311)
68.7
(2.705)
104.2
(4.102)
641.4
(25.25)
Avg. rainy days 10.6 10.6 10.7 9.9 6.6 1.7 0.5 0.2 0.7 5.3 7.4 10.2 74.4
Mean monthly sunshine hours 139.5 142.8 189.1 222 310 375 396.8 368.9 315 238.7 174 136.4 3,008.2
Source: Devlet Meteoroloji İşleri Genel Müdürlüğü [1]

References:

Bargello, Fehmi, Min hemstad Midyat. Linköping: 2015.

Bargello, Fehmi, I flyktens kölvatten. Jönköping: 1998.

Hollerweger, Hans, Turabdin. Austria: 1999.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Area of regions (including lakes), km²". Regional Statistics Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. 2002. Retrieved 2013-03-05. 
  2. ^ "Population of province/district centers and towns/villages by districts - 2012". Address Based Population Registration System (ABPRS) Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved 2013-02-27. 
  3. ^ http://www.christiansofiraq.com/midyat2.html
  4. ^ http://www.aina.org/news/20140127171559.htm
  5. ^ http://www.turkeyfromtheinside.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=295:mdyat&catid=42:places-to-go

External links[edit]