|Regions with significant populations|
|Indonesia||no specific census|
|Philippines||no specific census|
|Malayan languages, Semelaic languages, Batak languages, Dayak languages, Malaysian language, Indonesian language|
|Animism, Islam, Christianity|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Senoi (Semaq Beri people, Mah Meri people), Orang laut, Malays (ethnic group), Native Indonesians|
The term Proto-Malay, which translates to Melayu Asli (aboriginal Malay) or Melayu Purba (ancient Malay) or Melayu Tua (old Malay), refers to people, possibly from mainland Asia, who moved to the Malay peninsula and Malay archipelago in a long series of migrations between 2500 and 1500 BC, and in one model the first of two migrations of early Malay speakers, before that of the Deutero-Malays. The Proto-Malays are the ancestors of the Malays in the modern Malaysia and Indonesia.
The Proto-Malays are believed to be seafarers knowledgeable in oceanography and possessing advanced fishing as well as basic agricultural skills. Over the years, they settled in various places and adopted various customs and religions as a result of acculturation and inter-marriage with most of the people they come in contact with Orang Asli tribes such as the Semang and Senoi peoples.
The Encyclopedia of Malaysia: Early History has pointed out three theories of the origin of the Proto-Malay:-
- The Yunnan theory, Mekong river migration (first published in 1889). The theory of Proto-Malay originating from Yunnan is supported by R.H Geldern, J.H.C Kern, J.R Foster, J.R Logen, Slametmuljana and Asmah Haji Omar. Other evidence that supports this theory includes: stone tools found at Malay Archipelago which are analogous to Central Asian tools; similarity of Malay customs and Assam customs; and the fact that the Malay and Cambodian languages are kindred languages because the ancestral home of Cambodians originated at the source of Mekong River.
- The seafarers theory (first published in 1965).
- The Taiwan theory (first published in 1997). For more information, see Austronesian languages.
Some historical linguists have concluded that there is scant linguistic basis for a Proto-/Deutero-Malay split. The findings suggests that the Proto-Malay and the Deutero-Malay peoples possibly belong to the same stock and origin. Previous theories suggested that the Deutero-Malays came in a second wave of migration, around 300 BCE, compared to the arrival of the Proto-Malays who came much earlier.
Both Koentjaraningrat and Alfred Russel Wallace's (1869) research also concluded that most of the Moluccans come under the Proto-Malay classification. However, António Mendes Correia's findings re-classified the Timorese in Alfred Russel Wallace's ethnological chart as predominantly Proto-Malay. This is evidenced by the striking similarity in the architectural designs of traditional houses in Lospalos, East Timor with the Batak and Toraja people. In Sulawesi, not only are the Toraja people are regarded as part of the ancient Proto-Malay, but their neighboring Minahasan people as well who have migrated to the island in the megalithic period. In Sumatra, a little known pygmy tribe called the Mante people of Aceh are regarded as Proto-Malay and have thought to be extinct.
Other ethnic groups that are closely related to the Proto-Malay are such as the Nage people from Flores, which are considered a mixture of Proto-Malay and Melanesian and the Sakai people from Riau, which were originally pure Proto-Malay until later they were forced into the interior by the Deutero-Malays which led to their mixing with the Negritos. Off the west coast of Bengkulu, Sumatra Island, the indigenous people of Enggano Island known as the Enggano people are considered largely Proto-Malays.
- Teduray people, mainly a mixture of Proto-Malay and Native Indonesians
- Apayao people, a mixture of Proto-Malay and Negrito
- Zambale people, mainly Negrito with a mixture of Proto-Malay, Australoid and or Ainu
- Albay Bikol people, mainly Proto-Malay with some mixture of Negrito
- Batak people (Philippines), a mixture of Proto-Malay and Native Indonesians
- Bataan people, mainly Negrito with a mixture of Proto-Malay, Australoid and or Ainu
- Bagobo people, a mixture of Proto-Malay and Native Indonesians
- Blaan people, a mixture of Proto-Malay and Native Indonesians
- Manobo people, a mixture of Proto-Malay and Native Indonesians
- Subanon people, mainly Proto-Malay with a mixture of either Malay people (coastal) or Native Indonesians (interior)
- Ifugao people, a mixture of Proto-Malay and Malay people
- Tinggian people, a mixture of Native Indonesians and Malay people
- Bontoc people, mainly Malay people
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