Rahat

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Rahat
  • רהט
  • رهط
City (from 1994)
Rahat City
Rahat City
Official logo of Rahat
Rahat is located in Northwest Negev region of Israel
Rahat
Rahat
Rahat is located in Israel
Rahat
Rahat
Coordinates: 31°23′33″N 34°45′16″E / 31.39250°N 34.75444°E / 31.39250; 34.75444Coordinates: 31°23′33″N 34°45′16″E / 31.39250°N 34.75444°E / 31.39250; 34.75444
Country Israel
DistrictSouthern
Founded1972
Government
 • MayorFaiz Abu Sahiben
Area
 • Total19,586 dunams (19.586 km2 or 7.562 sq mi)
Population
 (2019)[1]
 • Total71,437
 • Density3,600/km2 (9,400/sq mi)
Name meaningCalm, comfort

Rahat (Arabic: رهط‎, Hebrew: רַהַט‎) is a predominantly Bedouin city in the Southern District of Israel. In 2019 it had a population of 71,437.[1] As such, it is the largest Bedouin city in the world, and the only one in Israel to have city status.

Rahat is one of seven Bedouin townships in the Negev desert with approved plans and developed infrastructure. The other six are Hura, Tel as-Sabi (Tel Sheva), Ar'arat an-Naqab (Ar'ara BaNegev), Lakiya, Kuseife (Kseife) and Shaqib al-Salam (Segev Shalom).[2]

History[edit]

The region of the city formerly owned by Al-Tayaha tribe (Al-Hezeel clan). Until the year 1972 the town was called "El Huzaiyil"[3] (Arabic: الهزيل‎) before changing its name. In 1972 Rahat was considered by the government of Israel as a new settlement for Bedouin who lived in the surrounding area without permanent domicile. Until 1980, Rahat was part of the Bnei Shimon Regional Council and from then on (until 1994) it was a local council (administered by a private board until 1989). In 1994 it was recognized as a city – the first Bedouin city in Israel.

Urban development[edit]

The city has a total of 33 neighborhoods. All but one of the neighborhoods consist entirely of separate Bedouin clans, but one is a mixed-clan neighborhood. Between each neighborhood there is a wadi. The city also has a market, public and commercial services, neighborhood parks, public areas, women's employment centers, children's play areas, and several mosques.[4][5]

Climate[edit]

Rahat has a semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification: BSh). The average annual temperature is 19.6 °C (67.3 °F), and around 286 mm (11.26 in) of precipitation falls annually.

Climate data for Rahat
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 17.1
(62.8)
18.2
(64.8)
20.8
(69.4)
24.3
(75.7)
28
(82)
30.6
(87.1)
31.7
(89.1)
32
(90)
30.3
(86.5)
28.5
(83.3)
24
(75)
18.8
(65.8)
25.4
(77.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) 12.2
(54.0)
13
(55)
15.2
(59.4)
18.2
(64.8)
21.6
(70.9)
24.2
(75.6)
25.6
(78.1)
26
(79)
24.4
(75.9)
22.3
(72.1)
18.3
(64.9)
13.9
(57.0)
19.6
(67.2)
Average low °C (°F) 7.3
(45.1)
7.9
(46.2)
9.6
(49.3)
12.2
(54.0)
15.2
(59.4)
17.8
(64.0)
19.6
(67.3)
20
(68)
18.5
(65.3)
16.1
(61.0)
12.6
(54.7)
9
(48)
13.8
(56.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 69
(2.7)
51
(2.0)
42
(1.7)
9
(0.4)
3
(0.1)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
8
(0.3)
42
(1.7)
62
(2.4)
286
(11.3)
Source: [6]

Economy[edit]

The township is situated close to Beersheva so its economy is related to that of the city. There is an industrial park in the suburbs of Rahat,[7] and another new park was founded on 2015 called Idan HaNegev.[8] Several more industrial parks are situated in the area - Beersheba and Hura. Residents also work in the services industry in Beersheba. There are several organizations that promote entrepreneurship among the 210,000 Bedouin living in the Negev,[9] primarily aimed at Bedouin women. One of them is Maof, and another one focused on finding jobs is called Rian.

In 2005 the city was one of the first to be connected to the WiMAX network.[10]

In 2007 the Center for Jewish-Arab economic development initiated an entrepreneurship and employment project for Rahat residents. Approximately 40 Bedouin women took part in it and received training in job search, computer skills and business management. Twelve of them have launched their own businesses (shops, clothing, hairdressing, restaurant and catering, sewing).[11]

In 2009 the city was unable to pay its water fees and the water supply was disconnected for five hours.[12] Today Rahat has a water company that is in charge of supplying water and taking care of the sewers.[13]

In 2006 Rahat collected 59% of Arnona taxes,[14] making it the Arab city with the highest tax collection rate for the Arabic population for that year.[14] In 2012 Rahat increased tax collection to 71%.[15] In 2013 Rahat was collecting tax from its residents and also got 44% of a nearby industrial park.[16]

Rahat Central Park
Rahat sports center

In 2014 the rate of unemployment was 34%, compared to 14% in 2017.[17] The shift has been attributed to a new industrial park, Idan HaNegev.

Culture projects[edit]

Playground in Rahat

There are a number of organizations carrying out different activities aimed at supporting and facilitating entrepreneurship in Israel's South in order to further integrate the 210,000 Bedouin living in the Negev into Israel's mainstream economy.[9] They are primarily aimed at Bedouin women.

Twenty Arab-Bedouin women from the towns of Rahat, Lakiya, Tel Sheva, Segev Shalom, Kuseife and Rachma participated in a sewing course for fashion design at the Amal College in Beer Sheva, including lessons on sewing and cutting, personal empowerment and business initiatives.[18]

There is a volunteer program to teach English to the Bedouin schoolchildren of Rahat.[19]

Social and Environmental Leadership Program was established in Rahat in the mid-2000s, initiated by young local residents.[20]

Education[edit]

Rahat school

Since the city of Beersheva is in close proximity to Rahat, most Bedouin students from Rahat study at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, some also at Sapir Academic College in Sderot. Soon a new Harvard University campus will be established in Rahat - inside Idan HaNegev Industrial Park. It will be the first campus built in this Bedouin city.[21] Ben-Gurion University of the Negev will oversee the new campus' operations, and it will be considered a BGU branch.

Health and public services[edit]

A medical clinic in Rahat

Rahat as a city has a number of public services, including medical services, schooling, labor, shopping, etc. There are branches of several health funds (medical clinics) in Rahat: Leumit, Clalit, Maccabi and several perinatal (baby care) centers Tipat Halav. In 2004 a new police station was opened, and has around 70 staff policemen. There is a community center in Rahat with a number of clubs for youth.

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
19839,200—    
199523,200+8.01%
200850,000+6.08%
201562,400+3.22%
201971,437+3.44%
Source: [22]

According to the Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics, in 2001 the ethnic make-up of the city was almost completely Arab Bedouin, without a significant Jewish population (see also: Population groups in Israel), making it the largest Bedouin settlement in Israel. Rahat's society is considered a young one, as more than half of its residents are under the age of 18.[20]

Members of several Bedouin family clans reside in Rahat:

  • Al-Tarabin: The ancient inhabitants of the Negev, their name Tarabin came the ancient Arabic name of the Negev region (Turban, تربان).[23]
  • Al-Tayaha: The ancient inhabitants of Sinai, The word Al-Tiyaha means "the lost ones" in Arabic, their original home was the Al-Tih plateau in central of Sinai.[24]
  • Al-Azazma: long with Al-Tayaha and Al-Tarabin are thought to be the indigenous pre-Islamic bedouins of Negev and Sinai. Probably related to ancient Arabians who inhabited the area like the Nabateans.[25]
  • Al-Howeitat: from northwestern Arabia.
  • Al-Shorbagy: from Turkish Anatolian roots.[26]
  • Al-Qrenawi: Turkish Anatolian-Arab tribal confederation originally from the city of Al-Qurein of Egypt.[27]
  • Al-Tawarah: tribal confederation originally from the Al-Tur region in Sinai.[28]

According to the CBS, in 2001 there were 16,300 males and 16,100 females. The population of the city was spread out, with 65.2% 19 years of age or younger, 15.8% between 20 and 29, 12.0% between 30 and 44, 4.7% from 45 to 59, 0.9% from 60 to 64, and 1.4% 65 years of age or older. The population growth rate in 2001 was 5.9%. Also according to the CBS, at the end of 2010 there were 26,700 males and 26,400 females. Some 60.4% of Rahat's population were 19 years old or younger, 15.4% between 20 and 29, 15.3% between 30 and 44, 5.9% from 45 to 59, 1% from 60 to 64, and 2% 65 years of age or older. The population growth rate has decreased significantly to 2.7%.[29]

According to city's mayor the city is home to an estimated 7,000 illegal immigrants at any given time.[30]

Tourism[edit]

Rahat is known to be a center of authentic food tourism and the city gets full with tourists from Israel and abroad especially in the Ramadan period. Most of the tourists like to be hosted in houses around Rahat where the lady owner of the house cooks traditional Bedouin food and tells stories about the Bedouin culture.[31]

Transportation[edit]

In June 2007 a new Lehavim-Rahat Railway Station was opened. It serves both the Bedouin community of Rahat and the suburbs of Lehavim. It made it more accessible for the local residents to work and study in Beer Sheba and other parts of the country. There are buses operated by the Galim and Dan BaDarom bus companies.[32] For a long period of time there were only private transit buses in the city, but in 2009 the bus transportation system was substantially improved and larger, national bus companies started to enter the city.[33]

Archaeology[edit]

In 2019, one of the earliest rural mosques in the world was unearthed in Rahat, apparently dating to a century or two after the founding of Islam.[34]

Notable residents[edit]

  • Talal Alkernawi, Rahat Mayor in the past
  • Suleiman Al-Shafhe, a journalist, in the past a Channel 2 reporter covering the Palestinian issues[35]
  • Ahmed Alansasra, an artist[36]
  • Kamla Abu Zeila, a Bedouin female filmmaker creating socially aware documentaries[37][38]
  • Yusra Abu-Kaff, a Bedouin filmmaker[38][39]
  • Ahmad Amrani, one of the leaders of the Green movement. In 2002, established “Green Rahat,” the first environmental organization in Rahat to deal with the city's environmental problems.[40]
  • Jamal Alkirnawi, Founder of A New Dawn in the Negev which is providing education programme and help for Bedouin youth-at-risk.[41][42]
  • Amran El Krenawy (born 1996), footballer
  • Ouda Tarabin (born 1981), an Israeli Bedouin imprisoned by Egypt for illegal border crossing[43]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Population in the Localities 2019" (XLS). Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 16 August 2020.
  2. ^ "State of Israel. Ministry of Justice, Ministry of Foreign Affairs. List of Issues to be taken up in Connection with the Consideration of Israel's Fourth and Fifth Periodic Reports of Israel (CEDAW/C/ISR/4 and CEDAW/C/ISR/5)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on October 15, 2013.
  3. ^ File:12-09-Shoval-1959.jpg
  4. ^ "ברוכים הבאים לאתר החדש של רשות מקרקעי ישראל". Land.gov.il. Archived from the original on 2019-07-28. Retrieved 2019-07-29.
  5. ^ Leviev, Tami (4 July 2007). "A Bedouin welcome". Ynetnews. Archived from the original on 29 June 2011. Retrieved 29 May 2016.
  6. ^ "Climate: Rahat". September 2019.
  7. ^ "Idan Hanegev Industrial Park". Bns-en.com. Archived from the original on 14 October 2013. Retrieved 29 July 2019.
  8. ^ "Rahat industrial zone". Wikimapia.org. Archived from the original on 10 June 2016. Retrieved 29 May 2016.
  9. ^ a b Noreen Sadik (23 July 2013). "Israel's Bedouin population faces mass eviction -- New Internationalist". Newint.org. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 29 May 2016.
  10. ^ "בזק החלה בניסוי ברהט בטכנולוגיית WiMax". News.walla.co.il. Archived from the original on 11 February 2018. Retrieved 29 May 2016.
  11. ^ "המרכז לפיתוח כלכלי - כלכלה, עסקים, נדל"ן, השקעות, חדשות". Archived from the original on October 14, 2013.
  12. ^ קוריאל, אילנה (12 August 2009). "ynet רהט נותקה ממים: אנחנו במדבר ב-40 מעלות חום - חדשות". Ynet. Archived from the original on 23 March 2016. Retrieved 29 May 2016.
  13. ^ "תאגיד מי רהט | هيئة مياه رهط". Site275383.webydo.com. Retrieved 2017-07-08.
  14. ^ a b "הרשויות הערביות לא מאמינות בשוויון בחובות". TheMarker. Archived from the original on 22 March 2016. Retrieved 29 May 2016.
  15. ^ "D&B: גביית הארנונה במודיעין הגבוהה בארץ; באיזו עיר הכי מסוכן לפתוח עסק?". Bizportal.co.il. Archived from the original on 23 March 2016. Retrieved 29 May 2016.
  16. ^ "חדשות - בארץ nrg - אין ממשלה: בעיית הארנונה במגזר הערבי". October 30, 2013. Archived from the original on 2013-10-30.
  17. ^ "תמונת מצב חברתית 2016: השכר עולה – אך לא מדביק את הגידול בצמיחה". Adva.org. 2017-01-15. Archived from the original on 2017-07-01. Retrieved 2017-07-08.
  18. ^ Economic Empowerment. Arab-Bedouin Fashion Design Archived 2013-10-15 at the Wayback Machine
  19. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2021-05-23. Retrieved 2020-02-17.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  20. ^ a b "Environmental Education in Rahat". Archived from the original on 2012-12-18. Retrieved 2012-06-27.
  21. ^ Eichner, Itamar (April 2012). "Harvard University makes aliyah". Ynetnews. Archived from the original on 8 August 2016. Retrieved 29 May 2016.
  22. ^ "CBS. Statistical Abstract of Israel 2017. Population and Density per Sq. Km. in Localities Numbering 5,000 Residents and More on 31.12.2016" (PDF). Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. Archived from the original on 2017-09-07. Retrieved 2017-09-06.
  23. ^ Yaqut al-Hamawi (The Negev known as Turban) , Dictionary of Countries, page 20 Archived 2020-02-22 at the Wayback Machine
  24. ^ Wilson, John DD, FRS. (1847) The Lands of The Bible: visited and described in an extensive journey undertaken with special reference to the promotion of Biblical research and the advancement of philanthropy. Volume 1. Edinburgh. Pages 106,165,209.
  25. ^ Khalidi, Walid (Ed.) (1992) All That Remains. The Palestinian Villages Occupied and Depopulated by Israel in 1948. IoPS, Washington. ISBN 0-88728-224-5. Page 76.
  26. ^ Aref al-Aref, History of Beersheba and Its Tribes, page 78
  27. ^ Aref al-Aref, History of Beersheba and Its Tribes, page 75
  28. ^ Aref al-Aref, History of Beersheba and Its Tribes, page 88
  29. ^ "Rahat, city profile" (PDF). Central Bureau of Statistic. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 November 2018. Retrieved 29 July 2019.
  30. ^ "מעריב - השאלה הבדואית: הגיע הזמן שהמדינה תחליט על מדיניות כלפי אזרחיה בנגב". Maariv.il. Archived from the original on 13 June 2016. Retrieved 29 May 2016.
  31. ^ "Israelis Play Tourists in a Bedouin Town in the Negev". Nytimes.com. Archived from the original on 7 June 2018. Retrieved 29 May 2018.
  32. ^ "אוטובוסים רהט - רשימת קווים שעוברים ברהט". Bus.co.il. Archived from the original on 14 October 2013. Retrieved 29 May 2016.
  33. ^ "Yedid website". Yedid.org.il. Archived from the original on 11 September 2018. Retrieved 29 May 2016.
  34. ^ One of the earliest rural mosques in the world found in Israel Archived 2019-08-04 at the Wayback Machine, Haaretz
  35. ^ "Reports From a Tightrope". Articles.latimes.com. Archived from the original on 22 October 2013. Retrieved 29 May 2016.
  36. ^ "Information Center for Israeli art. Ahmed Alansasra". Imj.org.il. Archived from the original on 2013-10-13. Retrieved 2012-06-27.
  37. ^ "Israeli film maker helps put Bedouin woman behind the camera". Israel21c.org. 26 November 2006. Archived from the original on 15 October 2013. Retrieved 29 May 2016.
  38. ^ a b About the film - Back and Forth Movie | ארבעה סיפורים מהנגב
  39. ^ "The Jerusalem Report: Getting Behind the Camera". June 26, 2011. Archived from the original on 2011-06-26.
  40. ^ "אתר מוקדי שירות לקוחות של חברות הצריכה לשירותך". Yeruka.org.il. Archived from the original on 23 May 2021. Retrieved 29 May 2016.
  41. ^ "A New Dawn in the Negev seeks lasting change for the Beduin community". Jpost.com. Archived from the original on 2018-08-26. Retrieved 2018-08-26.
  42. ^ "Jews and Arabs study hi-tech together in Yeroham". Jpost.com. Archived from the original on 2018-08-26. Retrieved 2018-08-26.
  43. ^ "Report: Prisoner swap deal involving Ouda Tarabin to be signed Saturday". Ynetnews. 12 May 2012. Archived from the original on 8 August 2016. Retrieved 29 May 2016.

External links[edit]