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Tigray War

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Tigray War
Tigray in Ethiopia.svg
Location of Tigray Region in Ethiopia
(For a more detailed map of the situation, see here.)
Date4 November 2020 – ongoing
(3 months, 3 weeks and 2 days)
Location
Status

Ongoing

  • ENDF captures Mekelle,[6] Ethiopian government claims victory and declares main phase over.[7]
  • TPLF says it will continue fighting.[8][9]
  • The ENDF still isn't in control of up to 40% of Tigray.[10]
Belligerents

 Ethiopia

 Eritrea (denied)[1][2][3]

Support:

Tigray People's Liberation Front
Tigray Region Tigray Regional Government
Tigray Region Local militias

Support:
  • Eritrea Eritrean opposition (Ethiopian claim)
Commanders and leaders
Ethiopia Abiy Ahmed
(Prime Minister of Ethiopia)
Ethiopia Birhanu Jula
(ENDF Chief of Staff)
Ethiopia Kenea Yadeta
(Minister of Defense)
Amhara Region Tiruneh Temesgen
(Chief Administrator of Amhara Region, early November 2020)
Amhara Region Agegnehu Teshager
(Chief Administrator of Amhara Region, as of late November 2020)
Eritrea Isaias Afewerki
(President of Eritrea)
Eritrea Filipos Woldeyohannes
(Chief of the Defence Staff)
Eritrea Sebhat Ephrem
(General of Eritrean Defense Forces)
Tigray Region Debretsion Gebremichael
(President of Tigray Region, Chairman of TPLF)
Fetlework Gebregziabher
(Deputy Chairman of TPLF)
Getachew Reda
(TPLF Spokesperson)
Units involved
Ethiopia Ethiopian National Defense Force Ethiopia Ethiopian Federal Police
Amhara Region Amhara Region Special Force
Amhara Region Amhara Region Police Force
Eritrea Eritrean Defence Forces
  • Tigray Region Tigray Region Special Force
  • Tigray Region Tigray Region Police Force
  • Tigray Region Tigray Region Militias
  • TPLF Rebel Militias
Strength
Ethiopia 140,000[12]
Eritrea 42 Divisions[13][14]
Amhara Region 10,000[14]
Tigray Region 23 Battalions[12][15]
Casualties and losses

EthiopiaEritrea (Unknown)[16][17]
Ethiopia 1 MiG-23 aircraft[18]
(Unknown)[19][20][21]

100,000< (TPLF claim)
Tigray Region 550 killed (government claim; 4–11 November 2020)[22]
Total civilian casualties are disputed[a]
3 UN guards and 5 aid workers killed[37]
~2,500,000 internally displaced[38][39][40]
61,000 refugees[41]
4,500,000 in need of aid[42]
20,000 missing[43]
Massacres: Adigrat, Hagere Selam, Hitsats, Humera, Debre Abbay,[44][45][46] Mai Kadra, Maryam Ts'iyon, and other places[47]

The Tigray War is an ongoing armed conflict that began around midnight of 3–4 November 2020 in the Tigray Region of Ethiopia.[48][49] It is between the Tigray Regional Government, led by the Tigray People's Liberation Front (TPLF), and the Ethiopian National Defense Forces (ENDF) with reported involvement [9][50][51] from the Eritrean Defense Forces. War crimes have been committed by both sides during the conflict.[52][53][54]

To distance the country's politics from ethnic federalism and ethnic nationalist politics, prime minister Abiy Ahmed merged the ethnic and region-based parties of the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front, which had governed Ethiopia for 27 years, into the new Prosperity Party. The TPLF, a politically powerful entity that had dominated Ethiopian politics during those 27 years, refused to join the new party, and alleged that Abiy Ahmed became an illegitimate ruler by rescheduling the general elections set for 29 August 2020 (which Abiy postponed twice before from the regular May 2020 election date, before COVID-19)[55] to an undetermined date in 2021 due to COVID-19.[56] The TPLF, led by Chairman Debretsion Gebremichael, went ahead with regional elections in Tigray in September 2020 in defiance of the federal government, which declared the Tigray election illegal. Several journalists were barred by the federal government (at Addis Ababa airport) from traveling to cover Tigray's regional election.[57][58][59]

Fighting between the TPLF and the Federal Government began with the 4 November attacks on the Northern Command bases and headquarters of the Ethiopian National Defense Force (ENDF) in Tigray Region by TPLF aligned security forces and with attacks by the ENDF in the Tigray Region on the same day, that federal authorities described as a police action.[60][48][61] The federal forces captured the Tigrayan capital Mekelle on 28 November, after which Prime Minister Abiy declared the Tigray operation 'over'.[6][7] The TPLF stated in late November that it would continue fighting, until the 'invaders' are out.[9][62][63] Mass extrajudicial killings of civilians took place during November and December 2020 in and around Adigrat[64] and Hagere Selam,[64] in the Hitsats refugee camp,[65] and in Humera,[66] Mai Kadra[54][67] Debre Abbay,[44][45][46] and the Maryam Ts'iyon church.[68]

Peace and mediation proposals included an early November African Union (AU) mediation proposed by Debretsion and refused by Abiy;[69][70] an AU trio of former African presidents who visited Ethiopia in late November;[71][72] an emergency Intergovernmental Authority on Development summit of East African heads of government and state that met in late 20 December 2020 in Djibouti;[73] and peace proposals on 19 February by the TPLF[74] and on 20 February by the National Congress of Great Tigray (Baytona), Tigray Independence Party (TIP) and Salsay Weyane Tigray (SAWET).[75]

Background

Historical/political

Ethiopian Prime Minister Lt. Col. Abiy Ahmed
Head of the Eritrean Defence Forces, Eritrean President Isaias Afwerki, in 2013

Following the end of the Ethiopian Civil War in 1991, Ethiopia became a dominant-party state under the rule of the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), a coalition of ethnically-based parties. The founding and most influential member was the TPLF and the chairperson was Meles Zenawi, who was the Prime Minister of Ethiopia until his death in 2012.[76][77]

On April 2, 2018, the once powerful TPLF was ousted from power in the federal government owing to a growing discontent within the public, a reaction to 27 years of repression. In a closed door election to chair the EPRDF, executive committee members from Amhara, Oromo and Southern Nations Nationalities Peoples regions voted for Abiy Ahmed in defiance to TPLF, which was hoping to get Shiferaw Shigute elected chairman. After losing the election and being ousted from the federal government, TPLF officials relocated to Tigray and continued administering the region for three years frequently clashing with the federal government.[78][79] In one instance, the regional administration of Tigray is reported to have defied the federal government and refused to allow Ethiopian Federal Police to arrest Getachew Assefa, the former chief of the National Intelligence and Security Services (NISS) of Ethiopia and executive member of TPLF.[80]

In December 1 2019, Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed merged the ethnic and region-based parties of the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front, which had governed Ethiopia for 27 years, into the new Prosperity Party. The TPLF, a politically powerful entity that had dominated Ethiopian politics during those 27 years, refused to join the new party, and alleged that Abiy Ahmed became an illegitimate ruler by rescheduling the general elections set for 29 August 2020 (which Abiy postponed twice before from the regular May 2020 election date, before COVID-19)[55] to an undetermined date in 2021 due to COVID-19.[56]

The TPLF used to be part of the Ethiopian governing coalition until its 2019 refusal to merge into the Prosperity Party.[81] In 2020, tensions between the government and the TPLF escalated in the months before the November Tigray military intervention.[81] Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed, who is of Oromo descent, accused the TPLF Party Members in the Tigray Regional Government of undermining his authority.[81] By contrast, the Tigray authorities saw the refusal to recognize the September 2020 election for the Tigray parliament (which, along with all elections in Ethiopia, had been delayed by the federal elections board because of the COVID-19 pandemic in Ethiopia) as the reason for the outbreak of the conflict.[81] Abiy Ahmed's government considered the September Tigray election to be illegal.[82] The warming of relations between Abiy Ahmed and Eritrean President Isaias Afwerki, who is poorly regarded in Tigray, was also considered to have fuelled the tension.[81] Ethiopian elite units were transported to Gherghera base near Asmara "as part of a security pact" between Abiy and Isaias in a plan to "strike out of existence the TPLF", according to former Eritrean Minister of Defence, Mesfin Hagos.[83] In late October, the Ethiopian Reconciliation Commission stated that it was trying to mediate between the federal and Tigrayan governments, but that pre-conditions set by both sides were blocking progress.[84]

As tension continued to grow, a general appointed by Abiy was prevented by the Tigrayan government from taking on his military post.[85] The day prior to the TPLF's 4 November Northern Command attacks, the federal parliament of Ethiopia had suggested designating the TPLF as a terrorist organization.[81]

Constitutional context

The 1995 Constitution of Ethiopia states in Article 39.1, "Every Nation, Nationality and People in Ethiopia has an unconditional right to self-determination, including the right to secession."[86]

Article 62.9 grants HoF the right to "order Federal intervention if any State [government], in violation of [the] Constitution, endangers the constitutional order."[86]

In late September 2020, the TPLF stated that the constitutional term limit of the HoF, the House of Peoples' Representatives (HoPR), the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers was 5 October 2020, and that for this reason, it would consider "the incumbent" constitutionally illegitimate after 5 October. TPLF proposed replacing the government by a technocratic caretaker government as detailed in a plan posted on Facebook by the Coalition of Ethiopian Federalist Forces.[87]

Course of the conflict

Early fighting

On 4 November 2020, TPLF and Ethiopian National Defense Force (ENDF) soldiers came into conflict during the TPLF attacks on the ENDF Northern Command headquarters in Mekelle, the Fifth Battalion barracks in Dansha, and other Northern Command bases.[88][48][89] Several people were killed and the TPLF claimed the attack was carried out in "self-defense."[90][80]

In retaliation, an Ethiopian offensive was launched which was accompanied by the declaration of a state of emergency, the creation of the State of Emergency Inquiry Board[91] and a shutdown of government services in Tigray Region.[92][93] During the subsequent days, skirmishes continued and the Ethiopian parliament declared the creation of an interim government for Tigray.[94] Ethiopian offensives in the north were accompanied with airstrikes and several towns and cities were retaken.[95]

On the night from 9 to 10 November, 600 civilians, mostly Amharans and Welkait, were killed in a massacre in the town of Mai Kadra with machetes and knives used by local militias and police loyal to the TPLF, according to preliminary investigations by Amnesty International and the Ethiopian Human Rights Commission.[96][97] While refugees interviewed by financial times [98] and Reuters [99] said it was the Amharan militia who were the perpetrators Tigrayans who were the victims. Two days later, refugees interviewed by the Daily Telegraph, The Guardian and The New York Times stated that Amhara militias, including Fano,[100][101] and the ENDF[66] carried out beatings and a massacre of 20 Tigrayans in Humera. Humera was shelled from the direction of the Eritrean–Ethiopian border for two days around 9–11 November. The ENDF gained control of Humera on 12 November.[102]

Offensives of joint ENDF-Amhara-Eritrean forces into Tigray were facilitated by the intervention of "Pterosaurus" drones, launched by the United Arab Emirates from its base in Assab (Eritrea). The chinese-made armed drones bombed Tigrayan towns and defence forces.[103] EEPA has provided a summarised translation of the Chinese article.[104]

On 14 November 2020, Tigrayan forces launched rockets at the Eritrean capital of Asmara, but the missiles missed.[105] In addition Tigrayan forces fired a rocket towards Bahir Dar and Gondar cities in the Amhara region in the late hours of Nov. 13, 2020.[106]

Mekelle offensive (2020)

On 17 November, the Ethiopian government accused the TPLF of blowing up four main bridges leading to Mekelle, while the TPLF denied the accusations. The TPLF also fired rockets at the Amhara Region in Bahir Dar and Gondar. The TPLF claimed these locations contained military terminals that served as bases to carry out airstrikes.[107] From 17-19 November, Ethiopian forces captured the cities of Shire, Alamata, Raya, Adwa and Axum.[108][109][110] In Raya there were an estimated 760 casualties from both forces. While fighting between the TPLF and Ethiopia continued in Zalambessa and Ethiopian forces starting moving towards Adigrat.[111] Fighting between the TPLF and Eritrea took place in Adi Quala, Zalembesa, Taruna, Ali Tina, Wadqomdi, and Bademe.[112]

On 23 November, Ethiopian forces reached the regional capital of Mekelle and encircled it. A military spokesperson for Ethiopia, Col Dejene Tsegaye, announced that Mekelle would be shelled, and told Tigray civilians to flee because the city because Ethiopian forces would show no mercy.[113][90] Many residents of Mekelle had already left the city due to airstrikes in and around the city, but many others still remained in the city.[52]

Even though TPLF leaders, Tigray Special forces and militia forces had already left the city, the Ethiopian forces still begin their direct assault on Mekelle on the morning of 28 November and started heavy shelling of the city. By the evening Prime Minister Abiy declared Ethiopian forces had taken full control of the city. In total 27 civilians were killed and 100 others were injured.[52] The TPLF vowed to continue fighting.[114] Two days later Prime Minister Abiy claimed no civilians were killed.[52]

After the capture of Mekelle

On 28–29 November, just during and following the ENDF capture of Mekelle, the Eritrean Defence Forces (EDF) carried out the Aksum massacre of about 720–800 civilians.[115][116][117]

The EDF would then go on and kill 80–150 in Idaga Hamus on 30 November[118][119], and kill 17 in Hadish Hiwot on 2 December after forcing the victims to loot the Goda factory.[120] The EDF would also kill 13 boys the ages of 12–15 from 1 December to 14 December in Tokot.[118]

Eritrean occupation of the North-East

UN chief coordinator of humanitarian efforts Mark Lowcock said that up 40% of Tigray was not in control of Ethiopian troops. He said that much of that area was under the control of Eritrean soldiers pursuing their own objectives independent of Ethiopian command.[121]

Refugees told VICE World News that Eritrean is in control of parts of northern Maekelay Zone and most likely extended beyond the zone. Different refugees told VICE that not only did Eritrean cross into border areas, but they also took control of the area. One refugee from Maekelay told them “Since the war started, we haven’t seen a single Ethiopian soldier. Only Eritreans, they occupy the rural areas.”[122]

By 18 November, Abiy claimed that Ethiopia National Defense Force had captured the cities of Shire and Axum with battles continuing around Mekelle; Ethiopian forces further claimed to have taken some land south of the city.[123][124][125] On 23 November, the government issued an ultimatum giving the rebels 72 hours to surrender.[126] On 26 November, after the ultimatum ended, Abiy ordered federal military forces to launch an attack on Mekelle.[127][128] On 28 November, the Ethiopian government announced that it had taken control of the city, bringing "the last phase of its law enforcement operation" to an end. The TPLF said they would continue fighting.[7][114] TPLF Chairman, Debretsion Gebremichael, confirmed the TPLF was withdrawing from Mekelle. On 2 December the United Nations was promised humanitarian access to the territory held by ENDF in the Tigray Region.[129] The first UN convoy reached Mekelle on 12 December.[130] On 16 December the EU delayed financial aid to Ethiopia citing the governments restrictions against UN humanitarian aid as the reason.[131]

Spillover

Spillover into Sudan

Thousands of people were believed to have been killed in the conflict and around 44,000 have fled to Sudan.[6] On 29 November, claims that South Sudan was harboring Debretsion, led to the Ethiopian ambassador to South Sudan abruptly returning to Ethiopia, and South Sudanese diplomats in Ethiopia allegedly being given 72 hours to leave the country.[132]

On 15 December, 4 Sudanese soldiers were killed, and 27 others were injured near the border with Ethiopia, in what Sudan claims to be an ambush by Ethiopian forces and militias. A soldier later claimed that Ethiopian forces had launched artillery attacks on them and intruded into the Jebel al-Teyyour area, located 7 kilometres inside Sudan. Other soldiers claim that the attackers were Amhara militias. Ethiopia claimed the clashes were Ethiopia trying to stop a Sudanese militia which had tried to cross into Ethiopian territory and seize farmlands.[12][133]

In response to the killings, Sudan started to build-up its military along the border with Ethiopia. Military sources claimed that Sudan had recaptured Jebel Abutiour. Then on 19 December Sudanese army and the Rapid Support Forces were reported to have taken areas previously taken by Ethiopia and Amhara militias in Al Qadarif.[134][135][136] On the same day, 150 civilians were reported to have been killed by Eritrean forces in Edaga Hamus.[119]

Spillover in Somalia

On 7 December heavy fighting broke out between African Union Mission to Somalia troops and Ethiopian troops in Halgan District, Somalia, when Ethiopian troops tried to disarm Tigrayan troops. In total 21 Tigrayan soldiers and 20 Ethiopian soldiers were killed.[137]

Alleged Somali involvement

Somalia was involved in the Tigray War according to former head of the Somali National Intelligence and Security Agency, Abdilsalan Guld.[138][139]

Guld said that the soldiers, aged from 20 to 30 years old, were secretly taken from Mogadishu and sent to Asmara for military training.[139] Guld stated that 370 of the Somali troops trained by Eritrea were killed in Tigray and hundreds of others were wounded.[139][140]

On 18 January 2021, the head of Somalia's parliamentary committee on foreign affairs asked the Somali president to investigate claims by family members that their sons had gone off to fight in Ethiopia and are now missing.[141]

On 19 January 2021, the Somalian government denied the claim that Somali troops had trained in Eritrea and then deployed in the Tigray Region of Ethiopia.[142][140]

Humanitarian crisis

According to the United Nations (UN), some 2.3 million children are cut off from desperately needed aid and humanitarian assistance. The Ethiopian federal government has strictly controlled access to the Tigray region (since the start of the conflict), and the UN said it is frustrated that talks with the Ethiopian government have not yet secured adequate humanitarian access. These include, "food, including ready-to-use therapeutic food for the treatment of child malnutrition, medicines, water, fuel and other essentials that are running low" said UNICEF.[143][144][145][146][147]

Possible COVID-19 outbreaks are feared as refugees fleeing the Tigray conflict are sheltering in crowded camps.[148]

As of December 2020, the UN estimates more than one million people have been internally displaced by the fighting.[149] More than 50,000 people have fled to Sudan due to the conflict.[150][151] Communications and travel links were still blocked, and Human Rights Watch warned that "actions that deliberately impede relief supplies" would violate international humanitarian law.[149]

Food ran out for the nearly 100,000 Eritrean refugees who, prior to the war, were registered in four camps in Tigray region.[149][152] On 2 February 2021, 20,000 of the refugees, mostly from the Hitsats and Shimelba camps, remained unaccounted for, according to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.[153]

The fighting has killed thousands, according to International Crisis Group.[154] The UN in November 2020 reported that people in Tigray were fleeing Mekelle. The federal government warned of "no mercy" if TPLF and residents remained intermingled.[149][155]

Role of online social networks

Claire Wilmot, writing in The Washington Post, found that a significant number of new, single-issue Twitter accounts were opened in the immediate aftermath of the 4 November attacks. Most appeared to be authentic accounts from people seeking to raise international awareness of the conflict in the midst of a communications blackout in Tigray.[156] The Ethiopian government cited disinformation and hate speech to justify communications blackouts. Researchers suggested that reducing access to information could help to create contexts where misinformation can thrive, because it reduces the ability to verify information.[156][157] The Ethiopian government tried to control the information environment by positioning itself as the sole provider of reliable information.[157] In February, pro-government groups called on their supporters in Ethiopia and the diaspora to combat what they called "TPLF fake news" online.[158] Pro-government groups used tactics similar to those of pro-TPLF groups to push their narrative of the conflict, though as of 5 February, pro-government campaigns had produced fewer Tweets overall.[157] BBC News showed examples of manipulated photos which misleadingly endorsed both the federal Ethiopian government and the TPLF.[159] Researchers found that groups use tactics such as "copy and paste" campaigns hosted on websites, which include instructions for opening new accounts, copying and pasting pre-written tweets, and tagging influencers. Both campaigns produced disinformation and misinformation, though the majority of content produced was activist in nature.[157] Wilmot suggested that the lines between authentic political activity and deliberate manipulation of online content during the conflict were increasingly blurred.[156]

Ethnic profiling of Tigrayans

Ethnic profiling against Tigrayans occurred during the Tigray War, with Ethiopians of Tigrayan ethnicity being put on indefinite leave from Ethiopian Airlines or refused permission to board,[160] prevented from overseas travel,[151] and an "order of identifying ethnic Tigrayans from all government agencies and NGOs" being used by federal police to request a list of ethnic Tigrayans from an office of the World Food Programme.[161] Tigrayans' houses were arbitrarily searched and Tigrayan bank accounts were suspended.[151] Ethnic Tigrayan members of Ethiopian components of United Nations peacekeeping missions were disarmed and some forcibly flown back to Ethiopia, at the risk of torture or execution, according to United Nations officials.[162][163]

Peace process

Several proposals for peace negotiations and mediation were made involving some of the main groups involved in the war. Around 9 November 2020, Debretsion asked the African Union to stop the war and requested peace negotiations; Abiy refused to negotiate.[69][70] On 25–27 November, a trio of former African presidents appointed by AU chair Cyril Ramaphosa visited Ethiopia with the aim of mediating;[71] they met Abiy and representatives of the Transitional Government of Tigray that officially replaced the elected TPLF Tigrayan government.[72] An emergency Intergovernmental Authority on Development summit of East African heads of government and state met on 20 December 2020 in Djibouti, resulting in a statement of support for the Ethiopian constitutional order and humanitarian access to Tigray Region.[73]

On 19 February 2021, the TPLF expressed its wish for peace negotiations, declaring eight preconditions for the negotiations.[74] On 20 February, the National Congress of Great Tigray (Baytona), Tigray Independence Party (TIP) and Salsay Weyane Tigray (SAWET) published six demands to the international community that closely overlapped with the TPLF's pre-conditions.[75]

Reactions

National

  • The Ogaden National Liberation Front (ONLF) condemned the "decision of President Mustafe to portray Somalis in Ethiopia as supporters of the war against Tigray".[164]
  • On 12 November 2020, the TPLF chairman Debretsion Gebremichael denied allegations that the TPLF had surrendered, stating that "we are still holding. These people cannot defeat us. We cannot be beaten."[165]
  • On 27 November, Ethiopian Attorney General, Gedion Timothewos, pressed by the BBC's Stephen Sackur to clarify if his country was now "sinking into civil war", responded: "If the Prime Minister were to let the TPLF go on with the kind of things they have been doing, if he had let them acquire the heavy weaponry they wanted to acquire by attacking the Northern Command, yes, we would have descended into that kind of situation; but by taking the measures we are taking right now, we will be able to avert that possibility."[166]
  • When Ethiopian Prime minister Lt. Col. Abiy Ahmed came to power in 2018, he made significant reforms to the country's judicial system, economy and foreign policy. According to an article by Hailemariam Desalegn, the former prime minister of Ethiopia, TPLF officials were concerned these moves were going to threaten their political and economic position in the country.[56] Thus TPLF officials started defying the orders from the federal government and made overt and covert actions to undermine and delegitimize the Ethiopian parliament, defense forces and the federal government.

Protests

On Tuesday 9 February 2021, when religious leaders started a visit to Mekelle organised by federal authorities to show that the situation was "normal", protestors used stones and burnt tyres to block central parts of the town in objection to the claim that the situation had return to normality. Soldiers fired at the protestors, killing one. The head of the transport division of Ayder Referral Hospital and his son were beaten by soldiers, and stated that there were many injured who were not being brought to the hospital.[167]

International

Intergovernmental organizations

  • United Nations The United Nations (UN) warned of the emergence of a major humanitarian crisis, if a full-scale conflict arose.[180]
  • European Union The European Commission said it was mobilizing an initial €4 million in emergency aid, in order to assist displaced Ethiopian refugees who had fled to Sudan.[181] The EU plans on cutting aid to and sanctioning other regions of Ethiopia due to the conflict.[182][183]
  • African Union The African Union (AU) appealed for cessation of hostilities and protection of civilians. AU also stated that the European Union and United Nations Security Council should not intervene until an African Union envoy is sent to Ethiopia.[184]

Humanitarian Organizations

  • Worldwide, humanitarian organisations and the scientific community asked for a rapid ceasefire and delivery of humanitarian aid to the people of Tigray.[185][186]
  • International petitions for humanitarian aid to Tigray have been launched, for instance by concerned scientists (Professors Jan Nyssen, Eloi Ficquet, Wolbert Smidt, Jozef Deckers, Istvan Tarrosy, Paolo Billi, Sil Lanckriet, Kjetil Tronvoll and others),[187] and another one on Avaaz.[188]

Protests by diaspora abroad

Outside Ethiopia, people of Ethiopian Tigrayan diaspora, as well as those of Eritrean opposition members , took to the streets to protest against the conflict. These protests included:

2020

2021

See also

Notes

References

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  203. ^ "Protest at UN Headquarters".

External links

Casualty recording websites: