Turks in Lebanon
In addition, Syrian Turkmen refugees: 120,000-150,000
Total: 170,000 - 230,000
(including Turkish minority & recent refugees)
9%-11% of Lebanon's total population
|Regions with significant populations|
Turks in Lebanon, also known as Lebanese Turks (Turkish: Lübnan Türkleri), are people of Turkish ancestry that are living in Lebanon. Turks living in Lebanon have enjoyed a thriving presence in Lebanon since the Ottoman period.
Lebanon became part of the Ottoman Empire in 1516, and Turks were brought into the region along with Sultan Selim I’s army during his campaign to Egypt and were settled in the conquered lands. Turkish colonists were encouraged to stay in Lebanon by being rewarded with land and money. This has seen a remaining legacy, as large amounts of ethnic Lebanese, mainly within the Sunni community, have a recent Turkish ancestor.
The history of the Cretan Turks in Lebanon began when the Ottoman Empire lost its dominion over the island of Crete. After 1897, when the Ottoman Empire lost control of the island, they sent ships to protect the island’s Cretan Turks. Most of these Turks were settled in Izmir and Mersin, but some of them were also sent to Tripoli and Damascus. After World War I, the Ottoman Empire lost Lebanon, however, some of the Cretan Turks remained in Tripoli where their relatives lived. Today, there are about 10,000 Cretan Turks remaining in Tripoli.
Mainland Turkish migration
In the 1950s, thousands of Turks left the city of Mardin and headed for Lebanon because of the economic crisis and high unemployment rate in Turkey. Many of these migrants settled in Beirut and could already speak Arabic. Therefore, they quickly adapted to life in Lebanon.
Syrian Turkmen refugees
In October 2015 the Syrian independent newspaper Zaman Al Wasl reported that 125,000 to 150,000 Syrian Turkmen refugees, who have escaped from the Syrian civil war, have settled in Lebanon, and hence they now outnumber the Turkish minority of Lebanon.
Areas of settlement
The descendants of the early Ottoman Turkish settlers mainly live in Akkar (including the villages of Kouachra and Aydamun) and Baalbeck, while the descendants of the later Ottoman Turkish arrivals, mainly the Cretan Turks, currently live in Tripoli. More recent Turkish arrivals to modern Lebanon from Turkey and Syria (Syrian Turks) live in Beirut.
Due to the numerous wars in Lebanon since the 1970s onwards, many Lebanese Turks have sought refuge in Turkey and Western Europe, particularly in Germany. Indeed, many Lebanese Turks were aware of the large German-Turkish population and saw this as an opportunity to find work once settling in Europe. In particular, the largest wave of Lebanese-Turkish migration occurred once the Israel-Lebanon war of 2006 began. During this period more than 20,000 Turks fled Lebanon, particularly from Beirut, and settled in Germany.
Established in 1997, the "Future Youth Association", located in Beirut's Witwat neighborhood, is the most active Turkish association in Lebanon. Because of confusion over its name with the Future Movement, its office sustained damage during the 7 May 2008 armed clashes in Beirut between pro-Hariri and pro-Hezbollah forces. The Future Youth Association organises Turkish language classes in Beirut using teachers sent from Turkey’s Ministry of Education. The turnout for these classes have so far exceeded expectations, with many Lebanese of Turkish origin attending classes.
- Fawzi al-Qawuqji, military figure
- Mostapha Al-turk
- Dina Al-Sabah, Bodybuilder
- Huda Naamani, Feminist writer and artist
- Ahmad Nami, second President of Syria (1926-28)
- Bilal Aziz Özer, football player
- Ahmad Shukeiri, first Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization
- Turkish minorities in the former Ottoman Empire
- History of Lebanon under Ottoman rule
- Lebanon–Turkey relations
- Al-Akhbar. "Lebanese Turks Seek Political and Social Recognition". Retrieved 2012-03-02.
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- Zaman. "Siyasî gerilim, Lübnan'ın yaralarını derinleştiriyor". Archived from the original on 2011-10-25. Retrieved 2012-03-02.
- Ahmed, Yusra (2015), Syrian Turkmen refugees face double suffering in Lebanon, Zaman Al Wasl, retrieved 11 October 2016
- Orhan 2010, 7.
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- Parsons, Laila (2017). The Commander: Fawzi al-Qawuqji and the Fight for Arab Independence 1914–1948. Saqi Press. p. 31. ISBN 0863561764.
- Body Building. "Sacrificing To Compete: An Interview With Dina Al-Sabah!". Retrieved 2012-03-02.
- Cooke, Miriam (2007), Dissident Syria: making oppositional arts official, Duke University Press, p. 40, ISBN 0822340356,
One day, she [Houda Naamani] invited me along with a group of women from the "old bourgeoisie." Over tea and fruit they talked about the good old days, their Turkish grandparents, and the lost world of courtly etiquette…
- Mardam Bey, Salma (1997). Syria's Quest for Independence. Ithaca Press. p. 31. ISBN 0863721753.
Al-Damand was a man of Turkish origin, who could hardly speak Arabic...
- Turkish Football Federation. "L.C. Sears Collegiate Seminar Series". Retrieved 2012-04-05.
- Rogan 2009, 344.