Names of God in Islam

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According to tradition (hadith), there are at least 99 names of God in Islam, known as the ʾasmāʾu llāhi l-ḥusnā (Arabic: أسماء الله الحسنى) "Beautiful Names of God" (also أسماء الحسنى ʾasmāʾu l-ḥusnā "Beautiful Names").[1][2]

According to 9th-century collections of hadith, the tradition of there being "99 names" is ṣahīh (صَحِيح - reliable), while the tradition of the actual list of 99 names as given by some collectors, in at least three different variants, is stated to be gharīb (غَرِيب - scarce, unreliable).[3] Most names in these lists are divine epithets taken from the text of the Quran, with a minority based in oral tradition or Sunnah. The lists of names vary because there are more than 99 such epithets to choose from.

Different sources give different lists of the 99 names.[4]

Origin[edit]

The 99 names of God on the ceiling of the Grand Mosque in Kuwait.

In the hadith, Muhammad is said to have invoked God by a number of names.[5] The origin of the number 99 specifically is commonly attributed to a hadith considered weak, although there are less-commonly cited hadith that are considered authentic and also support the same point.[4] According to Sahih Muslim, 35:6475:

Abu Hurairah reported Allah's Messenger [Muhammad] (may peace be upon him) as saying: "There are ninety-nine names of Allah; he who commits them to memory would get into Paradise. Verily, Allah is Odd and He loves odd numbers. And in the narration of Ibn 'Umar [the words are]: 'He who enumerated them'."

The Quran refers to God's "most beautiful Names" (al-ʾasmāʾ al-ḥusná).[6] Gerhard Böwering refers to Sura 17:110 as the locus classicus to which explicit lists of 99 names used to be attached in Quranic commentary. A cluster of more than a dozen Divine epithets which are included in such lists is found in Sura 22:22–24. Mystic philosopher Ibn Arabi surmised that the 99 names are "outward signs of the universe's inner mysteries".[4]

Most, though not all, of the traditionally listed 99 names are found somewhere in the Quran itself. The others are taken from the hadith.[4][7][8]

The list is not necessarily fixed, as more than 99 divine epithets can be adduced from Quran and hadith combined.[9]

Lists of names[edit]

There is no universal agreement among Muslims as to what exactly counts as a name of God, and what does not. Additionally, while some names are only in the Quran, and others are only in the hadith, there are some names which appear in both. Different sources give different lists of the 99 names.[4]

The following list is based on the one found in the Jamiʿ at-Tirmidhi (9th century).[citation needed] Other hadith, such as those of al-Bukhari, Muslim, Ibn Majah, al-Hakim or Ibn ʿAsākir, have variant lists. All attribute the original compilation of the list of names to Abu Hurairah.[citation needed]

Al-Tirmidhi comments on his list: "This (version of the) hadith is gharib [unusual, scarce]; it has been narrated from various routes on the authority of Abu Hurairah, but we do not know of the mention of the Names in the numerous narrations, except this one." Various early Muslim exegetes, including Jaʿfar al-Sadiq, Sufyan ibn `Uyaynah, Ibn Hazm, al-Qurtubi, Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, have given their own versions of lists of 99 names.[10]

ٱ = The waṣla (hamzatu l-waṣli (هَمْزَةُ ٱلْوَصْلِ "hamza of connection")) denoting of ٱلْ is "ʾal/ ʾul/ ʾil" depending on the last vowel of the previous word/sentence structure:

e.g. سُوْرَةُ ٱلْرَّحْمَـٰنُ Suratu ʾr-Raḥmaān [Surah ar-Rahman].

Please note the written Arabic spelling of the names written in Arabic in the table are in the vowelled Classical/ Quranic form (proper = in the Quran and Ahādith) with the square bracketed "[.]" variant of the written Arabic forms given in common or modern texts - usually in media, some long vowels and punctuations are omitted for the easier typing and reading.

Classical Arabic

(Quranic/ classical written forms)

Modern Standard Arabic (MSA)

(Variant with vowels/ without vowels)

Proper Transliteration

[IPA]

Romanization

[Various Spellings]

Translationa Reference grammatical typeb
About this sound 1 \* ٱلْرَّحْمَـٰنُ

ٱلْرَّحْمَـانُ

[* = classical written form]

\* الرّحمـٰن

\ الرّحمان

\* الرحمـٰن

الرحمان

[* = classical written form]

Ar-Raḥmaān/ Ar-Raḥmān Ar-Rahman

[Ar-Rahmaan]

The Most Gracious Quran: Beginning of every Surah (chapter) except one, and numerous other places. The first verse ('ayat) of Surah ar-Rahman (Surah 55) consists only of this Name. D
About this sound 2 ٱلْرَّحِيْمُ \ الرّحيم

الرحيم

Ar-Raḥiym/

Ar-Raḥīm

Ar-Rahim

[Ar-Raheem]

The Most Merciful Quran: Beginning of every Surah (chapter) except one, and numerous other places (there are a total of 114 Surahs in the Quran.) D
About this sound 3 \* ٱلْمَـٰلِكُ

ٱلْمَـالِكُ

[* = classical written form]

\* المـٰلك

المالك

[* = classical written form]

Al-Maālik/

Al-Mālik

Al-Malik

[Al-Maalik]

The King 59:23, 20:114, 23:116 D
About this sound 4 ٱلْقُدُّوسُ \ القدّوس

القدوس

Al-Qudduūs/

Al-Quddūs

Al-Quddus

[Al-Quddous,

Al-Quddoos]

The Holy 59:23, 62:1 D
About this sound 5 \* ٱلْسَّلَـٰمُ

ٱلْسَّلَامُ

[* = classical written form]

\* السّلـٰم

\ السّلام

\* السلـٰم

السلام

[* = classical written form]

As-Salaām/

As-Salām

As-Salam

[As-Salaam]

The Peace 59:23 D
About this sound 6 ٱلْمُؤْمِنُ المؤمن Al-Muumin/

Al-Mumin

Al-Mumin The Granter of Security 59:23 D
About this sound 7 ٱلْمُهَيْمِنُ المهيمن Al-Muhaymin Al-Muhaymin The Controller 59:23 D
About this sound 8 ٱلْعَزِيزُ العزيز Al-Aziyz/ Al-Azīz Al-Aziz

[Al-Azeez]

The Powerful 3:6, 4:158, 9:40, 48:7, 59:23 D
About this sound 9 ٱلْجَبَّارُ \ الجبّار

الجبار

Al-Jabbaār/

Al-Jabbār

Al-Jabbar

[Al-Jabbaar]

The Strong 59:23 D
About this sound 10 ٱلْمُتَكَبِّرُ \ المتكبّر

المتكبر

Al-Mutakabbir Al-Mutakabbir The Supreme 59:23 D[clarification needed]
mutafaʿʿil
About this sound 11 \* ٱلْخَـٰلِقُ

ٱلْخَالِقُ

[* = classical written form]

\* الخـٰلق

الخالق

[* = classical written form]

Al-Khaāliq/

Al-Khāliq

Al-Khaliq

[Al-Khaaliq]

The Creator 6:102, 13:16,[11] 36:81, 39:62, 40:62, 59:24 D
About this sound 12 ٱلْبَارِئُ البارئ Al-Baāri/

Al-Bāri

Al-Bari[Al-Baari’/ Al-Baarie] The Evolver, The Maker 59:24 D
About this sound 13 ٱلْمُصَوِّرُ \ المصوّر

المصور

Al-Muṣawwir Al-Musawwir

[Al-Mussawwir/

Al-Muswawwir]

The Fashioner, The Shaper, The Designer 59:24 D
About this sound 14 \* ٱلْغَفَّـٰرُ

ٱلْغَفَّارُ

[* = classical written form]

\* الغفّـٰر

\ الغفّار

\* الغفـٰر

الغفار

[* = classical written form]

Al-Ghaffaār/

Al-Ghaffār

Al-Ghaffar

[Al-Ghaffaar]

The Repeatedly Forgiving 20:82, 38:66, 39:5, 40:42, 71:10 D
About this sound 15 \* ٱلْقَهَّـٰرُ

ٱلْقَهَّارُ

[* = classical written form]

\* القهّـٰر

\ القهّار

\* القهـٰر

القهار

[* = classical written form]

Al-Qahhaār/

Al-Qahhār

Al-Qahhar

[Al-Qahhaar]

The Subduer 12:39, 13:16, 14:48, 38:65, 39:4, 40:16 D
About this sound 16 ٱلْوَهَّابُ \ الوهّاب

الوهاب

Al-Wahhaāb/

Al-Wahhāb

Al-Wahhab

[Al-Wahhaab]

The Bestower 3:18, 38:9, 38:35 D
About this sound 17 ٱلْرَّزَّاقُ \ الرّزّاق

الرزاق

Ar-Razzaāq/

Ar-Razzāq

Ar-Razzaq

[Ar-Razzaaq]

The Provider, The Sustainer 51:58 D
About this sound 18 ٱلْفَتَّاحُ \ الفتّاح

الفتاح

Al-Fattaāḥ/

Al-Fattāḥ

Al-Fattah

[Al-Fattaah]

The Opener, The Victory Giver 34:26 D
About this sound 19 ٱلْعَلِيمُ العليم Al-Aliym/

Al-Alīm

Al-Alim

[Al-Aleem]

The Knowing 2:158, 3:92, 4:35, 24:41, 33:40 D
About this sound 20 ٱلْقَابِضُ القابض Al-Qaābiḍ/

Al-Qābiḍ

Al-Qabid/ Al-Qabidh

[Al-Qaabid/

Al-Qaabidh]

The Restrainer, The Straightener 2:245 V
About this sound 21 ٱلْبَاسِطُ الباسط Al-Baāsiṭ/

Al-Bāsiṭ

Al-Basit/ Al-Basitt

[Al-Baasit/ Al-Baasitt]

The Extender / Expander 2:245 V
About this sound 22 ٱلْخَافِضُ الخافض Al-Khaāfiḍ/

Al-Khāfiḍ

Al-Khafid/ Al-Khafidh

[Al-Khaafid/

Al-Khaafidh]

The Abaser, The Humiliator, The Downgrader 56:3; al-Kafʿamī (1992:38) O
About this sound 23 ٱلْرَّافِعُ \ الرّافع

الرّافع

Ar-Raāfi/

Ar-Rāfi

Ar-Rafi/ Ar-Rafee

[Ar-Raafi/ Ar-Raafee]

The Exalter, The Upgrader 58:11, 6:83 V
About this sound 24 ٱلْمُعِزُّ \ المعزّ

المعز

Al-Muizz Al-Muizz

[Al-Mueizz]

The Giver of Honor 3:26 V
About this sound 25 ٱلْمُذِلُّ \ المذلّ

المذل

Al-Muḏill/Al-Mudhill Al-Muzill

[Al-Mudzhill]

The Giver of Dishonor 3:26 V
About this sound 26 ٱلْسَّمِيعُ \ السّميع

السميع

As-Samiy/As-Samī As-Sami/ As-Samie

[As-Samee]

The Hearing 2:127, 2:256, 8:17, 49:1 D
About this sound 27 ٱلْبَصِيرُ البصير Al-Baṣīr/Al-Baṣīr Al-Basir/ Al-Bassir/

Al-Baswir [Al-Baseer/ Al-Basseer/ Al-Basweer]

The All-Seeing 4:58, 17:1, 42:11, 42:27 D
About this sound 28 ٱلْحَكَمُ الحكم Al-Ḥakam Al-Hakam The Judge, The Arbitrator 22:69 V
About this sound 29 ٱلْعَدْلُ العدل Al-Adl Al-Adl/ Al-Edl The Just Not Quranic, see al-Kafʿamī (1992:40)
About this sound 30 ٱلْلَّطِيفُ \ اللّطيف

اللطيف

Al-Laṭiyf/

Al-Laṭīf

Al-Latif / Al-Lattif/

Al-Latwif [Al-Lateef/ Al-Latteef/ Al-Latweef]

The Gentle, The Subtly Kind 6:103, 22:63, 31:16, 33:34 D
About this sound 31 ٱلْخَبِيرُ الخبير Al-Khabiyr/

Al-Khabīr

Al-Khabir

[Al-Khabeer]

The All-Aware 6:18, 17:30, 49:13, 59:18 D
About this sound 32 ٱلْحَلِيمُ الحليم Al-Ḥaliym/

Al-Ḥalīm

Al-Halim

[Al-Haleem]

The Forbearing, The Indulgent 2:235, 17:44, 22:59, 35:41 A
About this sound 33 ٱلْعَظِيمُ العظيم Al-Aẓiym/

Al-Aẓīm

Al-Azim, Al-Azzim, Al-Azwim/ Al-Ezim,

Al-Ezzim, Al-Ezwim [Al-Azzeem, Al-Azweem/

Al-Ezzeem,

Al-Ezweem]

The Great, The Magnificent 2:255, 42:4, 56:96 D
About this sound 34 ٱلْغَفُورُ الغفور Al-Ghafuūr/

Al-Ghafūr

Al-Ghafur

[Al-Ghafour, Al-Ghafoor]

The Much-Forgiving 2:173, 8:69, 16:110, 41:32 D
About this sound 35 ٱلْشَّكُورُ \ الشّكور

الشكور

Ash-Shakuūr/

Ash-Shakūr

Ash-Shakur

[Ash-Shakour, Ash-Shakoor]

The Grateful 35:30, 35:34, 42:23, 64:17 A
About this sound 36 ٱلْعَلِىُّ *\ ٱلْعَلِيُّ

[* = classical written form]

\* العلىّ

\ العليّ

\* العلى

العلي

[* = classical written form]

Al-Alī */

Al-Aliyy

[* = classical written form]

Al-ʿAli The Sublime 4:34, 31:30, 42:4, 42:51 34:23 D
About this sound 37 ٱلْكَبِيرُ الكبير Al-Kabiyr/

Al-Kabīr

Al-Kabir

[Al-Kabeer]

The Great 13:9, 22:62, 13:30, 34:23 D
About this sound 38 ٱلْحَفِيظُ الحفيظ Al-Ḥafiyẓ/

Al-Ḥafīẓ

Al-Hafiz

[Al-Hafeez]

The Preserver 11:57, 34:21, 42:6 A
About this sound 39 ٱلْمُقِيتُ المقيت Al-Muqiyt/

Al-Muqīt

Al-Muqit

[Al-Muqeet]

The Nourisher 4:85 I
About this sound 40 ٱلْحَسِيبُ الحسيب Al-Ḥasiyb/

Al-Ḥasīb

Al-Hasib

[Al-Haseeb]

The Bringer of Judgment 4:6, 4:86, 33:39 I
About this sound 41 ٱلْجَلِيلُ الجليل Al-Jaliyl/

Al-Jalīl

Al-Jalil

[Al-Jaleel]

The Majestic, The Exalted 55:27, 7:143 A, V
About this sound 42 ٱلْكَرِيمُ الكريم Al-Kariym/

Al-Karīm

Al-Karim

[Al-Kareem]

The Bountiful, The Generous 27:40, 82:6 D
About this sound 43 ٱلْرَّقِيبُ \ الرّقيب

الرقيب

Ar-Raqiyb/

Ar-Raqīb

Ar-Raqib

[Ar-Raqeeb]

The Watchful 4:1, 5:117 D
About this sound 44 ٱلْمُجِيبُ المجيب Al-Mujiyb/

Al-Mujīb

Al-Mujib

[Al-Mujiyb]

The Responsive, The Answerer 11:61 A
About this sound 45 \* ٱلْوَٰسِعُ

ٱلْوَاسِعُ

[* = classical written form]

\* الوٰسع

الواسع

[* = classical written form]

’Al-Waāsi‘/

’Al-Wāsi‘

Al-Wasi‘/ Al-Wasie

[Al-Waasi‘/ Al-Waasie]

The Vast, The All-Embracing, The Omnipresent, The Boundless 2:268, 3:73, 5:54 A
About this sound 46 ٱلْحَكِيمُ الحكيم Al-Ḥakiym/

Al-Ḥakīm

Al-Hakim

[Al-Hakeem]

The Wise 31:27, 46:2, 57:1, 66:2 D
About this sound 47 ٱلْوَدُودُ الودود Al-Waduūd/

Al-Wadūd

Al-Wadud

[Al-Wadoud/ Al-Wadood]

The Affectionate 11:90, 85:14 D
About this sound 48 ٱلْمَجِيدُ المجيد Al-Majiyd/

Al-Majīd

Al-Majid

[Al-Majeed]

The All-Glorious, The Majestic 11:73 A
About this sound 49 ٱلْبَاعِثُ الباعث Al-Baāith/

Al-Bāith

Al-Baith / Al-Baeith

[Al-Baaith/ Al-Baaeith]

The Resurrector 22:7 V
About this sound 50 ٱلْشَّهِيدُ \ الشّهيد

الشهيد

Ash-Shahiyd/

Ash-Shahīd

Ash-Shahid

[Ash-Shaheed]

The Witness 4:166, 22:17, 41:53, 48:28 A
About this sound 51 ٱلْحَقُّ \ الحقّ

الحق

ʾAl-Ḥaqq Al-Haqq The Truth, The Reality 6:62, 22:6, 23:116, 24:25 D
About this sound 52 ٱلْوَكِيلُ الوكيل Al-Wakiyl/

Al-Wakīl

Al-Wakil

[Al-Wakeel]

The Trustee, The Dependable, The Advocate 3:173, 4:171, 28:28, 73:9 A
About this sound 53 ٱلْقَوِيُّ \ القويّ

القوي

Al-Qawiyy Al-Qawi

[Al-Qawee]

The Strong 22:40, 22:74, 42:19, 57:25 D
About this sound 54 ٱلْمَتِينُ المتين Al-Matiyn/

Al-Matīn

Al-Matin

[Al-Mateen]

The Firm, The Steadfast 51:58 D
About this sound 55 ٱلْوَلِيُّ \ الوليّ

الولي

Al-Waliyy Al-Wali

[Al-Walee]

The Friend, Helper 4:45, 7:196, 42:28, 45:19 D
About this sound 56 ٱلْحَمِيدُ الحميد Al-Ḥamiyd/

Al-Ḥamīd

Al-Hamid

[Al-Hameed]

The All Praiseworthy 14:8, 31:12, 31:26, 41:42 D
About this sound 57 \* ٱلْمُحْصِىُ

ٱلْمُحْصِيُ

[* = classical written form]

\* المحصى

المحصي

[* = classical written form]

Al-Muḥṣiy/

Al-Muḥṣī

Al-Muhsi

[Al-Muhsee]

The Accounter, The Numberer of All 72:28, 78:29 V
About this sound 58 ٱلْمُبْدِئُ المبدئ ’Al-Mubdi’

[’Al-Mubdiy]

Al-Mubdiʾ

[Al-Mubdie]

The Originator, The Producer, The Initiator 10:34, 27:64, 29:19, 85:13 V
About this sound 59 ٱلْمُعِيدُ المعيد Al-Muiyd/

Al-Muīd

Al-Muid

[Al-Mueid/ Al-Mueyd]

The Restorer, The Reinstater Who Brings Back All 10:34, 27:64, 29:19, 85:13 V
About this sound 60 \* ٱلْمُحْىِ

\ ٱلْمُحْيِى

ٱلْمُحْيِي

[* = classical written form]

\* المحى

\ المحيى

المحيي

[* = classical written form]

Al-Muḥ·yi */

Al-Muḥ·yiy

[* = classical written form]

Al-Muhyi

[Al-Muhyee]

The Giver of Life 7:158, 15:23, 30:50, 57:2 V
About this sound 61 ٱلْمُمِيتُ المميت Al-Mumiyt/

Al-Mumīt

Al-Mumit

[Al-Mumeet]

The Bringer of Death 3:156, 7:158, 15:23, 57:2 V
About this sound 62 ٱلْحَىُّ \ الحىّ

الحى

Al-Ḥayy Al-Hayy The Living 2:255, 3:2, 20:111, 25:58, 40:65 D
About this sound 63 ٱلْقَيُّومُ \ القيّوم

القيوم

Al-Qayyuūm/

Al-Qayyūm

Al-Qayyum

[Al-Qayyoum/

Al-Qayyoom]

The Subsisting, The Independent 2:255, 3:2, 20:111 D
About this sound 64 \* ٱلْوَٰجِدُ

ٱلْوَاجِدُ

[* = classical written form]

\ الوٰجد

الواجد

Al-Waājid/

Al-Wājid

Al-Wajid

[Al-Waajid]

The Perceiver, The Finder, The Unfailing 38:44 V
About this sound 65 ٱلْمَاجِدُ الماجد Al-Maājid/

Al-Mājid

Al-Majid

[Al-Maajid]

The Illustrious, The Magnificent 85:15, 11:73; al-Kafʿamī (1992:48) A
About this sound 66 \* ٱلْوَٰحِدُ

ٱلْوَاحِدُ

[* = classical written form]

\ الوٰحد

الواحد

Al-Waāḥid/

Al-Wāḥid

Al-Wahid

[Al-Waahid]

The Unique, The Single 13:16, 14:48, 38:65, 39:4 D
About this sound 67 ٱلْأَحَد \ الأحد

الاحد

Al-ِِِAḥad Al-Ahad The One, The Indivisible 112:1 A
About this sound 68 ٱلْصَّمَدُ \ الصّمد

الصمد

Aṣ-ِِِṢamad As-Samad

[As-Ssamad/ As-Swamad]

The Eternal, The Absolute, The Self-Sufficient 112:2 D
About this sound 69 \* ٱلْقَـٰدِرُ

ٱلْقَادِرُ

[* = classical written form]

\ القـٰدر

القادر

Al-Qaādir/

Al-Qādir

Al-Qadir

[Al-Qaadir]

The All-Powerful, He Who is able to do Everything 6:65, 46:33, 75:40 D
About this sound 70 ٱلْمُقْتَدِرُ المقتدر Al-Muqtadir Al-Muqtadir The Determiner, The Dominant 18:45, 54:42, 6:65 A
About this sound 71 ٱلْمُقَدِّمُ \ المقدّم

المقدم

Al-Muqaddim Al-Muqaddim The Expediter, He Who Brings Forward 16:61 V
About this sound 72 ٱلْمُؤَخِّرُ \ المؤخّر

المؤخر

Al-Muakh·khir Al-Muʾakhkhir

[Al-Moʾakhkhir]

The Delayer, He Who Puts Far Away 71:4 V
About this sound 73 ٱلأَوَّلُ \ الأوّل

الاول

Al-Awwal Al-Awwal The First, The Beginning-less 57:3 D
About this sound 74 ٱلْأَخِرُ *\ ٱلْآخِرُ

[* = classical written form]

\الأخر*\ الآخر

الاخر

[* = classical written form]

Al-Akhir */

Al-Ākhir [variant]

[* = classical written form]

Al-Akhir */

Al-Aakhir

[* = classical written form]

The Last, The Endless 57:3 D
About this sound 75 ٱلْظَّـٰهِرُ *\ ٱلْظَّاهِرُ

[* = classical written form]

\* الظـٰهر

الظاهر

[* = classical written form]

Aẓ-Ẓaāhir/

Aẓ-Ẓāhir

Az-Zahir/ Az-ZZahir/ Az-Zwahir

[Az-Zaahir/

Az-Zzaahir/

Az-Zwaahir]

The Manifest, The Evident, The Outer 57:3 D
About this sound 76 ٱلْبَاطِنُ الباطن Al-Baāṭin/

Al-Bāṭin

Al-Batin/ Al-Battin/ Al-Batwin

[Al-Baatin/ Al-Baattin/ Al-Baatwin]

The Hidden, The Unmanifest, The Inner 57:3 D
About this sound 77 \* ٱلْوَالِى

ٱلْوَالِي

[* = classical written form]

\* الوالى

الوالي

[* = classical written form]

Al-Waāliy/

Al-Wālī

Al-Wali

[Al-Waali]

The Patron, The Protecting Friend, The Friendly Lord 13:11 I
About this sound 78 \* ٱلْمُتَعَالِى

ٱلْمُتَعَالِي

[* = classical written form]

\* المتعالى

المتعالي

[* = classical written form]

Al-Mutaaāliy/

Al-Mutaālī

Al-Mutaʿali

[Al-Muta'aali]

The Supremely Exalted, The Most High 13:9 D
About this sound 79 ٱلْبَرُّ \ البرّ

البر

Al-Barr Al-Barr The Good, The Beneficent 52:28 D
About this sound 80 ٱلْتَّوَّابُ \ التّوّاب

التواب

At-Tawwaāb/

At-Tawwāb

At-Tawwab

[At-Tawwaab]

The Ever-Returning, Ever-Relenting 2:128, 4:64, 49:12, 110:3 D
About this sound 81 ٱلْمُنْتَقِمُ المنتقم Al-Muntaqim Al-Muntaqim The Avenger 32:22, 43:41, 44:16 P
About this sound 82 ٱلْعَفُوُّ \ العفوّ

العفو

Al-Afuww/

Al-Afūw

Al-Afu

[Al-Afou]

The Pardoner, The Effacer, The Forgiver 4:43, 4:99, 4:149, 22:60, 58:2 V, I
About this sound 83 \* ٱلْرَّءُوفُ

ٱلْرَّؤُفُ

[* = classical written form]

\* الرّءوف

\ الرّؤف

\* الرءوف

الرؤف

[* = classical written form]

Ar-Rawūf/

Ar-Raūf

Ar-Rauf

[Ar-Raouf/ Ar-Rawouf]

The Kind, The Pitying 9:117, 57:9, 59:10 I
About this sound 84 \* مَـٰلِكُ ٱلْمُلْكُ

مَالِكُ ٱلْمُلْكُ

[* = classical written form]

\* مـٰلك الملك

\ مالك الملك

\* مـٰلك الملك

مالك الملك

[* = classical written form]

Maāliku ʼl-Mulk/

Māliku ʼl-Mulk

Malik ul-Mulk

[Maalik ul-Mulk]

The Owner of all Sovereignty 3:26 D
About this sound 85 \* ذُو ٱلْجَلَـٰلِ وَٱلْإِكْرَامُ

ذُو ٱلْجَلَالِ وَٱلْإِكْرَامُ

[* = classical written form]

\* ذو الجلـٰل ولإكرام

ذو الجلال ولإكرام

[* = classical written form]

Ḏuʼl-Jalaāli waʼl-ʼIkraām, Dhuʼl-Jalaāli waʼl-ʼIkraām/

Ḏuʼl-Jalāli waʼl-ʼIkrām, Dhuʼl-Jalāli waʼl-ʼIkrām/

Zul-Jalali wal-Ikram/ Dzhul-Jalali wal-Ikram
[Zul-Jalaali wal-Ikraam/ Dzhul-Jalaali wal-Ikraam]
The Owner, Lord of Majesty and Honour 55:27, 55:78 D
About this sound 86 ٱلْمُقْسِطُ المقسط Al-Muqsiṭ Al-Muqsit

[Al-Muqsitt]

The Equitable, The Requiter 3:18; al-Kafʿamī (1992:58f) O
About this sound 87 ٱلْجَامِعُ الجامع Al-Jaāmi/

Al-Jāmi

Al-Jami/ Al-Jamie

[Al-Jaami/ Al-Jaamie]

The Gatherer, The Unifier 3:9 I
About this sound 88 \* ٱلْغَنىُّ

ٱلْغَنيُّ

[* = classical written form]

\* ّالغنى

\ الغنيّ

\* الغنى

الغني

[* = classical written form]

Al-Ghaāniyy/

Al-Ghānī

Al-Ghani

[Al-Ghaani]

The Rich, The Independent 39:7, 47:38, 57:24 I, A, D
About this sound 89 \* ٱلْمُغْنِىُّ

ٱلْمُغْنِيُّ

[* = classical written form]

\* المغنىّ

\ المغنيّ

\* المغنى

المغني

[* = classical written form]

Al-Mugh·niyy/

Al-Mugh·nī

Al-Mughni The Enricher, The Emancipator 9:28 V
About this sound 90 ٱلْمَانِعُ المانع Al-Maāni/

Al-Mānī

Al-Mani/ Al-Manie

[Al-Maani/ Al-Maanie]

The Withholder, The Shielder, The Defender See al-Kafʿamī (1992:61)
About this sound 91 ٱلْضَّارُ \ الضّار

الضار

Aḍ-Ḍaārr/

Aḍ-Ḍārr

Adh-Dharr

[Adh-Dhaarr]

The Distressor, The Harmer, The Afflictor 6:17; al-Kafʿamī (1992:58)
About this sound 92 ٱلْنَّافِعُ \ النّافع

النافع

An-Naāfi/

An-Nāfī

An-Nafi‘/ An-Nafie

[An-Naafi/ Al-Naafie]

The Propitious, The Benefactor, The Source of Good 30:37
About this sound 93 ٱلْنُّورُ \ النّور

النور

An-Nuūr/

An-Nūr

An-Nur

[An-Nour]

The Light 24:35 I
About this sound 94 \* ٱلْهَادِى

ٱلْهَادِي

[* = classical written form]

\* الهادى

الهادي

[* = classical written form]

Al-Haādiy/

Al-Hādī

Al-Hadi

[Al-Haadi]

The Guide, The Way 22:54 I
About this sound 95 ٱلْبَدِيعُ البديع Al-Badiy/

Al-Badī

Al-Badi[Al-Badiy/ Al-Badiye] The Originator, The Incomparable, The Unattainable, The Beautiful 2:117, 6:101 I
About this sound 96 \* ٱلْبَاقِى

ٱلْبَاقِي

[* = classical written form]

\* الباقى

الباقي

[* = classical written form]

Al-Baāqiy/

Al-Bāqī

Al-Baqi

[Al-Baaqi]

The Immutable, The Infinite, The Everlasting 55:27; al-Kafʿamī (1992:64) V
About this sound 97 \* ٱلْوَٰرِثُ

ٱلْوَارِثُ

[* = classical written form]

\* الوٰرث

الوارث

[* = classical written form]

Al-Waārith/

Al-Wārith

Al-Warith

[Al-Waarith]

The Heir, The Inheritor of All 15:23, 57:10 P
About this sound 98 ٱلْرَّشِيدُ \ الرّشيد

الرشيد

Ar-Rashiyd/

Ar-Rashīd

Ar-Rashid

[Ar-Rasheed]

The Guide to the Right Path 2:256, 72:10
About this sound 99 ٱلْصَّبُورُ \ الصّبور

الصبور

Aṣ-Ṣabuūr/

Aṣ-Ṣabūr

As-Sabur/ As-Ssabur/ As-Swabur

[As-Sabour/ As-Ssabour/ As-Swabour]

The Timeless, The Patient 2:153, 3:200, 103:3 I
[* = classical calligraphic short written form]
a[by whom?].      b D = Direct;[clarification needed] V = from Verb; A = from Adjective or Adjectival Phrase; I = from Indefinite noun;

P = from Plural noun; O = Other

Islamic mysticism[edit]

There is a tradition in taṣawwuf (Arabic: الْتَّصَوُّف - Sufism) to the effect the 99 names of God point to a mystical - Ismu l-Aẓam (ٱلْإِسْمُ ٱلْأَعْظَم - "The Most Supreme and Superior Name").[12] This "Greatest Name of Allah" is said to be "the one which if He is called (prayed to) by it, He will answer."[13]

According to a hadith narrated by Abdullah ibn Masud, some of the names of God have also been hidden from mankind.[14] More than 1000 names of Allah are listed in the Jawshan KabirArabic:جَوْشَنُ ٱلْكَبِير - literally ''the Great Chest-Armour" [Breast Armour/ Thorax Armour/ Steel Plate Armour]') invocations.

Theophoric given names[edit]

A Muslim may not be given any of the 99 names of God in exactly the same form.[15] For example, based according in Holy Qur'ān [v.3:26]: it is forbidden to name "al-Mālik" (ٱلْمَـٰلِك) - "the King", especially "Māliku ʼl-Mulk" (مَـٰلِكُ ٱلْمُلْك) - "Master of the Kingdom, Owner over the Dominion" due to which this name is only reserved for Allah 'Azza wa-Jalla (الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) and which he despises anyone who is named by this since it is extremely offensive, but it is permissible to be named Mālik (مَـٰلِك - "King"), e.g. Mālik bin ʼAnas.

"Say, "O Allah, Owner of Sovereignty (Māliku ʼl-Mulk), You give sovereignty to whom You will and You take sovereignty away from whom You will. You honor whom You will and You humble whom You will. In Your hand is [all] good. Indeed, You are over all things competent." [Suratu 'l-ˁImran, v. 3:26 - Holy Qur'ān]

This is because of the belief that God is almighty, and no human being is the equivalent of God, and no human being will ever be the equivalent of God. Muslims are allowed to use the 99 names of God for themselves but should not put the definite article 'Al (ال) at the front of them.[15]

Although, it is permissible to name of "the names of God" [including the definite article 'Al (ال) combined with the word "ˁAbdu-" (عَبْدُ = which means "worshipper of" or "slave of" (followed by name of Allah SWT [God]) and are commonly used as an Arabic name among Muslims, such as Abd al-Rahman. The two parts of the name may be written separately (as in the previous example) or combined as one formed-transliterated name; in such a case, the vowel transcribed after "ˤAbd" is often written as u when the two words are transcribed as one: e.g., "Abdur-Rahman, Abdul-Aziz, Abdul-Jabbar, or even Abdullah" (عَبْدُ ٱللّٰه - "Servant/Slave of Allah"). (This has to do with Arabic case vowels, the final u vowel showing the normal "quote" nominative/vocative case form: ʿabdu.)

However, it is absolutely improper and offensive to name as "Abdul" only, as like the prior examples, denotes with the name of Allah.

Some Muslim people have names resembling those 99. Examples include:

  • Rahmaan, such as Abdul Rahman Al-Sudais (عَبْدُ ٱلْرَّحْمَان ٱلْسُّدَيْس) - Imam of the Grand Mosque of Makkah, KSA
  • Salaam, such as Salam Fayyad (سَلَام فَيَّاض) - Palestinian politician
  • Jabbaar, such as Kareem Abdul-Jabbar (كَرِيم عَبْدُ ٱلْجَبَّار) - American basketball player
  • Hakeem, such as Sherman "Abdul Hakim" Jackson (عَبْدُ ٱلْحَكِيم - ˁabdu ʼl-Ḥakiym) - American Islamic Studies scholar
  • Ra'oof, such as Ra'ouf Mus'ad (رَؤُوف مُسَعد) - Egyptian-Sudanese novelist
  • Malik, such as Mālik bin ʼAnas (مَـٰلِك بِن أَنَس) - one of the greatest Sunni Muslim scholars after whom the Maliki school of fiqh was named
  • Abdul Muqtedar as in Muhammad Abdul Muqtedar Khan (مُحَمَّد عَبْدُ ٱلمُقْتَدِر خَان) - Indian-American academic

Use in Bahá'í[edit]

Bahá'í sources state that the 100th name was revealed as "Bahá’" (Arabic: بهاء‎ "glory, splendor"), which appears in the words Bahá'u'lláh and Bahá'í. They also believe that it is the greatest name of God.[16][17] The Báb wrote a noted pentagram-shaped tablet with 360 derivatives of the word "Bahá'" used in it.[16]

According to Bahá'í scholar ‘Abdu’l-Hamíd Ishráq-Khávari, Bahāʾ al-dīn al-ʿĀmilī adopted the Persian poetic pen name "Bahāʾ" after being inspired by the words of the fifth Twelver Imam, Muhammad al-Baqir, and the sixth Imam, Ja'far al-Sadiq, who stated that the greatest name of God was included in either the Duʿāʾu l-Bahāʾ, a dawn prayer for Ramadan, or the Aʿmal ʿam Dawūd.[16] In the first verse of the duʿāʾu l-Bahāʾ, the name "Bahāʾ" appears four times.[18]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Fleming, Marrianne; Worden, David (2004). Religious Studies for AQA; Thinking About God and Morality. Oxford: Heinemann Educational Publishers. ISBN 0-435-30713-4. 
  2. ^ Abdullah Saeed, The Quran: An Introduction, pg. 63. London: Routledge, 2008. ISBN 9781134102945
  3. ^ Al-Tirmidhi says in his Sunan, "This (version of the) hadith is [unusual, scarce]; it has been narrated from various routes on the authority of Abu Hurairah, but we do not know of the mention of the Names in the numerous narrations, except this one." Richard Shelquist (wahiduddin.net)[unreliable source?]
  4. ^ a b c d e Diane Morgan, Essential Islam: A Comprehensive Guide to Belief and Practice, p. 10. Santa Barbara, California Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2010. ISBN 9780313360251
  5. ^ Ibn Majah, Book of Duʿa;[citation needed] Malik ibn Anas, Muwatta Imam Malik.
  6. ^ See the surahs "al-A'raf" (7:180), "al-Isra" (17:110), "Ta-Ha" (20:8) and "al-Hashr" (59:24).
  7. ^ Martin Parsons, Unveiling God, pg. 206. William Carey Library, 2005. ISBN 9780878084548
  8. ^ Juan Eduardo Campo, Encyclopedia of Islam, pg. 515. Infobase Publishing, 2009. ISBN 9781438126968
  9. ^ Susanne Enderwitz, "The 99: Islamic Superheroes - A New Species." Taken from Transcultural Turbulences: Towards a Multi-Sited Reading of Image Flows, pgs. 84-85. Springer, 2011. ISBN 9783642183935. The 99 names of Allah; the ‘Most Beautiful Names’ at BBC Online. Retrieved 8 April 2014.
  10. ^ Suhaib Hassan, Introduction to the Science of Hadith Classification (ahya), cited after Richard Shelquist (wahiduddin.net)[unreliable source?]
  11. ^ "Al-Quran (القرآن) :: Online Quran Project :: Translation and Tafsir". 
  12. ^ Schimmel, Annemarie (1993). The Mystery of Numbers. New York, USA: Oxford University Press. p. 271. ISBN 0-19-508919-7. 
  13. ^ Momen, Moojan (2000). Islam and the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford, UK: George Ronald. p. 241. ISBN 0-85398-446-8.  The endnote states: "Ibn Májah, Sunan, 34. (Kitáb ad-Du'á), ch. 9, no. 3856, vol. 2, p. 1267. See also: Ad-Dárimí, Sunan, 23 (Fada'il al-Qur'án), ch. 15, no. 3296, vol. 2, pp. 324-5. Similar statements in Shi'i tradition include: Majlisí, Bihár al-Anwár, vol. 26. p. 7."
  14. ^ Taymiyya, Ibn. The Goodly Word: al-Kalim al-Ṭayyib. Islamic Texts Society. p. 72. ISBN 1-903682-15-0. 
  15. ^ a b [1] Archived July 14, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.
  16. ^ a b c Lambden, Stephen (1993). "The Word Bahá': Quintessence of the Greatest Name". Bahá'í Studies Review. 3 (1). 
  17. ^ Smith, Peter (2000). "greatest name". A concise encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. pp. 167–8. ISBN 1-85168-184-1. 
  18. ^ Khadem, Dhikru'llah (March 1976). "Bahá'u'lláh and His Most Holy Shrine". Bahá'í News (540): 4–5. 

External links[edit]