Names of God in Islam

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Names of God in Islam (Arabic: أَسْمَاءُ ٱللَّٰهِ ٱلْحُسْنَىٰ ʾasmāʾu llāhi l-ḥusnā, "Allah's Beautiful Names") are names attributed to God in Islam by Muslims. While some names are only in the Quran, and others are only in the hadith, there are some names which appear in both.[1]

List[edit]

Classical Arabic

(Quranic/ classical written forms)[2]

Modern Standard Arabic (MSA)

(Variant with vowels/ without vowels)

Transliteration Romanization

[Various Spellings]

Translationa Reference grammatical typeb
Allah name 01 ar rahman.svg
audio speaker icon1
\* ٱلْرَّحْمَـٰنُ

ٱلْرَّحْمَـانُ

[* = classical written form]

\* الرّحمـٰن

\ الرّحمان

\* الرحمـٰن

الرحمان

[* = classical written form]

ar-Raḥmān/ ar-Raḥmān ar-Raḥmān

[Ar-Rahmaan]

The Beneficent/ All-Compassionate/ Most Gracious/ Quran: Beginning of every Surah (chapter) except one, and numerous other places. The first verse ('ayat) of Surah ar-Rahman (Surah 55) consists only of this Name. D
audio speaker icon2 ٱلْرَّحِيْمُ \ الرّحيم

الرحيم

ar-Raḥiym/

ar-Raḥīm

ar-Raḥīm

[Ar-Raheem]

The Most Merciful/ Ever-Merciful/ Merciful/ Most Clement Quran: Beginning of every Surah (chapter) except one, and numerous other places (there are a total of 114 Surahs in the Quran.) D
audio speaker icon3 \* ٱلْمَـٰلِكُ

ٱلْمَـالِكُ

[* = classical written form]

\* المـٰلك

المالك

[* = classical written form]

al-Mālik/

al-Mālik

al-Mālik

[al-Maalik]

The King/ Lord/ Sovereign/ Dominion/ Master

[also means "the God/ Lord, the One and Only", "Possessor of Supreme Power or Authority"]

59:23, 20:114, 23:116 D
audio speaker icon4 ٱلْقُدُّوسُ \ القدّوس

القدوس

al-Quddūs/

al-Quddūs

al-Quddus

[al-Quddous,

al-Quddoos]

The Holy/ All-Holy/ All-Pure/ Sacred/ All-Sacred 59:23, 62:1 D
audio speaker icon5 \* ٱلْسَّلَـٰمُ

ٱلْسَّلَامُ

[* = classical written form]

\* السّلـٰم

\ السّلام

\* السلـٰم

السلام

[* = classical written form]

as-Salām/

as-Salām

As-Salām

[As-Salaam]

The Giver of Peace/ Peace/ All-Calm/ Ever-Tranquil 59:23 D
audio speaker icon6 ٱلْمُؤْمِنُ المؤمن al-Muʿumin/

al-Muʿmin

al-Muʿmin The Granter of Security/ the Giver/ Faith/ Supreme Believer (of Belief)/ Giver of Belief/ All-Assurer 59:23 D
audio speaker icon7 ٱلْمُهَيْمِنُ المهيمن al-Muhaymin al-Muhaymin The Controller/ Absolute Authority Over All/ Guardian Over All/ Absolute Master/ Eternal Dominating 59:23 D
audio speaker icon8 ٱلْعَزِيزُ العزيز al-ʿAziyz/

al-ʿAzīz

al-ʿAzīz

[al-Azeez]

The Exalted in Might and Power/ Exalted/ Powerful/ Almighty/ Mighty 3:6, 4:158, 9:40, 48:7, 59:23 D
audio speaker icon9 ٱلْجَبَّارُ \ الجبّار

الجبار

al-Jabbār/

al-Jabbār

al-Jabbar

[al-Jabbaar]

The Omnipotent/ Supreme Power/ Possessor of Having All Power/ Strong 59:23 D
audio speaker icon10 ٱلْمُتَكَبِّرُ \ المتكبّر

المتكبر

al-Mutakabbir al-Mutakabbir The Possessor of Greatness/ Supreme/ Justly Proud 59:23 D[clarification needed]
mutafaʿʿil
audio speaker icon11 \* ٱلْخَـٰلِقُ

ٱلْخَالِقُ

[* = classical written form]

\* الخـٰلق

الخالق

[* = classical written form]

al-Khāliq/

al-Khāliq

al-Khaliq

[al-Khaaliq]

The Creator/ Creator of the Universe/ Maker/ True Originator/ Absolute Author 6:102, 13:16,[3] 36:81, 39:62, 40:62, 59:24 D
audio speaker icon12 ٱلْبَارِئُ البارئ al-Bāriʿ/

al-Bāriʿ

al-Bariʿ

[al-Baari’/ al-Baarie]

The Initiator/ Evolver/ Eternal Spirit Worshipped By All, Have Absolute Power Over All Matters, Nature and Events 59:24 D
audio speaker icon13 ٱلْمُصَوِّرُ \ المصوّر

المصور

al-Muṣawwir al-Musawwir

[al-Mussawwir/

al-Muswawwir]

The Fashioner/ Shaper/ Designer/ Artist 59:24 D
audio speaker icon14 \* ٱلْغَفَّـٰرُ

ٱلْغَفَّارُ

[* = classical written form]

\* الغفّـٰر

\ الغفّار

\* الغفـٰر

الغفار

[* = classical written form]

al-Ghaffār/

al-Ghaffār

al-Ghaffar

[al-Ghaffaar]

The Repeatedly Forgiving/ Absolute Forgiver/ Pardoner/ Condoner

[He Who is Ready to Pardon and Forgive]

20:82, 38:66, 39:5, 40:42, 71:10 D
audio speaker icon15 \* ٱلْقَهَّـٰرُ

ٱلْقَهَّارُ

[* = classical written form]

\* القهّـٰر

\ القهّار

\* القهـٰر

القهار

[* = classical written form]

al-Qahhār/

al-Qahhār

al-Qahhar

[al-Qahhaar]

The Subduer/ Overcomer/ Conqueror/ Absolute Vanquisher

[Possessor of Who Subdues Evil and Oppression]

12:39, 13:16, 14:48, 38:65, 39:4, 40:16 D
audio speaker icon 16 ٱلْوَهَّابُ \ الوهّاب

الوهاب

al-Wahhāb/

al-Wahhāb

al-Wahhab

[al-Wahhaab]

The Absolute Bestower/ Giver/ Grantor/ Great Donor 38:9, 38:35 D
audio speaker icon 17 ٱلْرَّزَّاقُ \ الرّزّاق

الرزاق

ar-Razzāq/

ar-Razzāq

Ar-Razzaq

[Ar-Razzaaq]

The Provider/ Sustainer/ Bestower of Sustenance/ All-Provider 51:58 D
audio speaker icon 18 ٱلْفَتَّاحُ \ الفتّاح

الفتاح

al-Fattāḥ/

al-Fattāḥ

al-Fattah

[al-Fattaah]

The Opener/ Opener of the Gates of Profits/ Reliever/ The Victory Giver 34:26 D
audio speaker icon 19 ٱلْعَلِيمُ العليم al-Aliym/

al-Alīm

al-Alim

[al-Aleem]

The Knowing/ All-Knower/ Omniscient/ All-Knowledgeable/ Possessor of Knowing Much of Ever Thing/ All-Knowing 2:158, 3:92, 4:35, 24:41, 33:40 D
audio speaker icon20 ٱلْقَابِضُ القابض al-Qābiḍ/

al-Qābiḍ

al-Qabid/ al-Qabidh

[al-Qaabid/

al-Qaabidh]

The Restrainer/ Withholder/ Straightener/ Absolute Seizer 2:245 V
audio speaker icon21 ٱلْبَاسِطُ الباسط al-Bāsiṭ/

al-Bāsiṭ

al-Basit/ al-Basitt

[al-Baasit/ al-Baasitt]

The Extender/ Expander/ Generous Provider 2:245 V
audio speaker icon22 ٱلْخَافِضُ الخافض al-Khāfiḍ/

al-Khāfiḍ

al-Khafid/ al-Khafidh

[al-Khaafid/

al-Khaafidh]

The Abaser/ Humiliator/ Downgrader [Possessor of Giving Comfort, Free from Pain Anxiety or Troubles] 56:3; al-Kafʿamī (1992:38) O
audio speaker icon23 ٱلْرَّافِعُ \ الرّافع

الرّافع

ar-Rāfiʿ/

ar-Rāfiʿ

Ar-Rafiʿ/ Ar-Rafee

[Ar-Raafiʿ/ Ar-Raafee]

The Exalter/ Upgrader [of Ranks] 58:11, 6:83 V
audio speaker icon24 ٱلْمُعِزُّ \ المعزّ

المعز

al-Muʿizz al-Muʿizz

[al-Muʿeizz]

The Giver of Honor/ Bestower of Honor/ Empowerer 3:26 V
audio speaker icon25 ٱلْمُذِلُّ \ المذلّ

المذل

al-Muḏill/al-Mudhill al-Muzill

[al-Mudzhill]

The Giver of Dishonor/ the Giver of Disgrace 3:26 V
audio speaker icon26 ٱلْسَّمِيعُ \ السّميع

السميع

as-Samiyʿ/as-Samīʿ As-Samiʿ/ As-Samie

[As-Sameeʿ]

The Hearing/ All-Hearing/ Hearer of Invocation 2:127, 2:256, 8:17, 49:1 D
audio speaker icon27 ٱلْبَصِيرُ البصير al-Baṣīr/al-Baṣīr al-Basir/ al-Bassir/

al-Baswir [al-Baseer/ al-Basseer/ al-Basweer]

The All-Seeing/ All-Seer/ Ever-Clairvoyant/ Clear-Sighted/ Clear-Seeing 4:58, 17:1, 42:11, 42:27 D
audio speaker icon28 ٱلْحَكَمُ الحكم al-Ḥakam al-Hakam The Judge/ Arbitrator/ Arbiter/ All-Decree/ Possessor of Authority of Decisions and Judgment 22:69 V
audio speaker icon29 ٱلْعَدْلُ العدل al-ʿAdl al-ʿAdl/ al-Edl The Just/ Authorized and Straightforward Judge of Dealing Justly Not Quranic, see al-Kafʿamī (1992:40)
audio speaker icon30 ٱلْلَّطِيفُ \ اللّطيف

اللطيف

al-Laṭiyf/

al-Laṭīf

al-Latif / al-Lattif/

al-Latwif [al-Lateef/ al-Latteef/ al-Latweef]

The Gentle/ Benignant/ Subtly Kind/ All-Subtle 22:63, 31:16, 33:34 D
audio speaker icon31 ٱلْخَبِيرُ الخبير al-Khabiyr/

al-Khabīr

al-Khabir

[al-Khabeer]

The All-Aware/ Well-Acquainted/ Ever-Adept 6:18, 17:30, 49:13, 59:18 D
audio speaker icon32 ٱلْحَلِيمُ الحليم al-Ḥaliym/

al-Ḥalīm

al-Halim

[al-Haleem]

The Forbearing/ Indulgent/ Oft Forbearing/ All-Enduring 2:235, 17:44, 22:59, 35:41 A
audio speaker icon33 ٱلْعَظِيمُ العظيم al-ʿAẓiym/

al-ʿAẓīm

al-ʿAzim, al-ʿAzzim, al-ʿAzwim/ al-Ezim,

al-Ezzim, al-Ezwim [al-ʿAzzeem, al-ʿAzweem/

al-Ezzeem,

al-Ezweem]

The Most Great/ Ever-Magnificent/ Most Supreme/ Exalted/ Absolute Dignified 2:255, 42:4, 56:96 D
audio speaker icon34 ٱلْغَفُورُ الغفور al-Ghafūr/

al-Ghafūr

al-Ghafur

[al-Ghafour, al-Ghafoor]

The Ever-Forgiving/ Oft-Forgiving 2:173, 8:69, 16:110, 41:32 D
audio speaker icon35 ٱلْشَّكُورُ \ الشّكور

الشكور

ash-Shakūr/

ash-Shakūr

ash-Shakur

[Ash-Shakour, Ash-Shakoor]

The Grateful/ Appreciative/ Multiplier of Rewards 35:30, 35:34, 42:23, 64:17 A
audio speaker icon36 ٱلْعَلِىُّ *\ ٱلْعَلِيُّ

[* = classical written form]

\* العلىّ

\ العليّ

\* العلى

العلي

[* = classical written form]

al-ʿAlī */

al-ʿAliyy

[* = classical written form]

al-Ali

[al-Aliyy]

The Sublime/ Ever-Exalted/ Supreme/ Most High/ Most Lofty 4:34, 31:30, 42:4, 42:51 34:23 D
audio speaker icon37 ٱلْكَبِيرُ الكبير al-Kabiyr/

al-Kabīr

al-Kabir

[al-Kabeer]

The Great/ Ever-Great/ Grand/ Most Great/ Greatly Abundant of Extent, Capacity and Importance 13:9, 22:62, 31:30, 34:23 D
audio speaker icon38 ٱلْحَفِيظُ الحفيظ al-Ḥafiyẓ/

al-Ḥafīẓ

al-Hafiz

[al-Hafeez]

The Preserver/ Ever-Preserving/ All-Watching/ Protector/ Guardian/ Oft-Conservator 11:57, 34:21, 42:6 A
audio speaker icon39 ٱلْمُقِيتُ المقيت al-Muqiyt/

al-Muqīt

al-Muqit

[al-Muqeet]

The Nourisher/ Feeder 4:85 I
audio speaker icon40 ٱلْحَسِيبُ الحسيب al-Ḥasiyb/

al-Ḥasīb

al-Hasib

[al-Haseeb]

The Bringer of Judgment/ Ever-Reckoner [the One Who Takes Account of All Matters] 4:6, 4:86, 33:39 I
audio speaker icon41 ٱلْجَلِيلُ الجليل al-Jaliyl/

al-Jalīl

al-Jalil

[al-Jaleel]

The Majestic/ Exalted/ Oft-Important/ Splendid 55:27, 7:143 A, V
audio speaker icon42 ٱلْكَرِيمُ الكريم al-Kariym/

al-Karīm

al-Karim

[al-Kareem]

The Noble/ Bountiful/ Generous/ Precious/ Honored/ Benefactor 27:40, 82:6 D
audio speaker icon43 ٱلْرَّقِيبُ \ الرّقيب

الرقيب

ar-Raqiyb/

ar-Raqīb

Ar-Raqib

[Ar-Raqeeb]

The Watchful/ Observer/ Ever-Watchful/ Watcher 4:1, 5:117 D
audio speaker icon44 ٱلْمُجِيبُ المجيب al-Mujiyb/

al-Mujīb

al-Mujib

[al-Mujiyb]

The Responsive/ Answerer/ Supreme Answerer/ Accepter of Invocation 11:61 A
audio speaker icon45 \* ٱلْوَٰسِعُ

ٱلْوَاسِعُ

[* = classical written form]

\* الوٰسع

الواسع

[* = classical written form]

’al-Wāsi‘/

’al-Wāsi‘

al-Wasi‘/ al-Wasie

[al-Waasi‘/ al-Waasie]

The Vast/ All-Embracing/ Omnipresent/ Boundless/ All-Encompassing 2:268, 3:73, 5:54 A
audio speaker icon46 ٱلْحَكِيمُ الحكيم al-Ḥakiym/

al-Ḥakīm

al-Hakim

[al-Hakeem]

The Wise/ Ever-Wise/ Endowed with Sound Judgment 31:27, 46:2, 57:1, 66:2 D
audio speaker icon47 ٱلْوَدُودُ الودود al-Wadūd/

al-Wadūd

al-Wadud

[al-Wadoud/ al-Wadood]

The Affectionate/ Ever-Affectionate/ Loving One/ Loving/ the Lover/ the One Who Tenders and Warm Hearts 11:90, 85:14 D
audio speaker icon48 ٱلْمَجِيدُ المجيد al-Majiyd/

al-Majīd

al-Majid

[al-Majeed]

The All-Glorious/ Majestic/ Ever-Illustrious

[Oft-Brilliant in Dignity, Achievements or Actions]

11:73 A
audio speaker icon49 ٱلْبَاعِثُ الباعث al-Bāʿith/

al-Bāʿith

al-Baʿith / al-Baʿeith

[al-Baaʿith/ al-Baaʿeith]

The Resurrector/ Awakener/ Arouser/ Dispatcher 22:7 V
audio speaker icon50 ٱلْشَّهِيدُ \ الشّهيد

الشهيد

ash-Shahiyd/

ash-Shahīd

ash-Shahid

[Ash-Shaheed]

The Witness/ Testifier/ Ever-Witnessing 4:166, 22:17, 41:53, 48:28 A
audio speaker icon51 ٱلْحَقُّ \ الحقّ

الحق

ʾal-Ḥaqq al-Haqq The Truth/ Reality/ the Only One Certainly Sound and Genuine in Truth 6:62, 22:6, 23:116, 24:25 D
audio speaker icon52 ٱلْوَكِيلُ الوكيل al-Wakiyl/

al-Wakīl

al-Wakil

[al-Wakeel]

The Trustee, The Dependable, The Advocate 3:173, 4:171, 28:28, 73:9 A
audio speaker icon53 ٱلْقَوِيُّ \ القويّ

القوي

al-Qawiyy al-Qawi

[al-Qawee]

The Strong 22:40, 22:74, 42:19, 57:25 D
audio speaker icon54 ٱلْمَتِينُ المتين al-Matiyn/

al-Matīn

al-Matin

[al-Mateen]

The Firm, The Steadfast 51:58 D
audio speaker icon55 ٱلْوَلِيُّ \ الوليّ

الولي

al-Waliyy al-Wali

[al-Walee]

The Friend, Helper 4:45, 7:196, 42:28, 45:19 D
audio speaker icon56 ٱلْحَمِيدُ الحميد al-Ḥamiyd/

al-Ḥamīd

al-Hamid

[al-Hameed]

The All Praiseworthy 14:8, 31:12, 31:26, 41:42 D
audio speaker icon57 \* ٱلْمُحْصِىُ

ٱلْمُحْصِيُ

[* = classical written form]

\* المحصى

المحصي

[* = classical written form]

al-Muḥṣiy/

al-Muḥṣī

al-Muhsi

[al-Muhsee]

The Accounter, The Numberer of All 72:28, 78:29 V
audio speaker icon58 ٱلْمُبْدِئُ المبدئ ’al-Mubdi’

[’al-Mubdiy]

al-Mubdiʾ

[al-Mubdie]

The Originator, The Producer, The Initiator 10:34, 27:64, 29:19, 85:13 V
audio speaker icon59 ٱلْمُعِيدُ المعيد al-Muʿiyd/

al-Muʿīd

al-Muʿid

[al-Muʿeid/ al-Muʿeyd]

The Restorer, The Reinstater Who Brings Back All 10:34, 27:64, 29:19, 85:13 V
audio speaker icon60 \* ٱلْمُحْىِ

\ ٱلْمُحْيِى

ٱلْمُحْيِي

[* = classical written form]

\* المحى

\ المحيى

المحيي

[* = classical written form]

al-Muḥ·yi */

al-Muḥ·yiy

[* = classical written form]

al-Muhyi

[al-Muhyee]

The Giver of Life 7:158, 15:23, 30:50, 57:2 V
audio speaker icon61 ٱلْمُمِيتُ المميت al-Mumiyt/

al-Mumīt

al-Mumit

[al-Mumeet]

The Bringer of Death 3:156, 7:158, 15:23, 57:2 V
audio speaker icon62 ٱلْحَىُّ \ الحىّ

الحى

al-Ḥayy al-Hayy The Living 2:255, 3:2, 20:111, 25:58, 40:65 D
audio speaker icon63 ٱلْقَيُّومُ \ القيّوم

القيوم

al-Qayyūm/

al-Qayyūm

al-Qayyum

[al-Qayyoum/

al-Qayyoom]

The Subsisting, The Independent 2:255, 3:2, 20:111 D
audio speaker icon64 \* ٱلْوَٰجِدُ

ٱلْوَاجِدُ

[* = classical written form]

\ الوٰجد

الواجد

al-Wājid/

al-Wājid

al-Wajid

[al-Waajid]

The Perceiver, The Finder, The Unfailing 38:44 V
audio speaker icon65 ٱلْمَاجِدُ الماجد al-Mājid/

al-Mājid

al-Majid

[al-Maajid]

The Illustrious, The Magnificent, The Glorious 85:15, 11:73; al-Kafʿamī (1992:48) A
audio speaker icon66 \* ٱلْوَٰحِدُ

ٱلْوَاحِدُ

[* = classical written form]

\ الوٰحد

الواحد

al-Wāḥid/

al-Wāḥid

al-Wahid

[al-Waahid]

The Unique, The Single 13:16, 14:48, 38:65, 39:4 D
audio speaker icon67 ٱلْأَحَد \ الأحد

الاحد

al-ِِِʿAḥad al-Ahad The One, The Indivisible 112:1 A
audio speaker icon68 ٱلْصَّمَدُ \ الصّمد

الصمد

aṣ-ِِِṢamad As-Samad

[As-Ssamad/ As-Swamad]

The Eternal, The Absolute, The Self-Sufficient 112:2 D
audio speaker icon69 \* ٱلْقَـٰدِرُ

ٱلْقَادِرُ

[* = classical written form]

\ القـٰدر

القادر

al-Qādir/

al-Qādir

al-Qadir

[al-Qaadir]

The All-Powerful, He Who is able to do Everything 6:65, 46:33, 75:40 D
audio speaker icon 70 ٱلْمُقْتَدِرُ المقتدر al-Muqtadir al-Muqtadir The Determiner, The Dominant 18:45, 54:42, 6:65 A
audio speaker icon 71 ٱلْمُقَدِّمُ \ المقدّم

المقدم

al-Muqaddim al-Muqaddim The Expediter, He Who Brings Forward 16:61 V
audio speaker icon 72 ٱلْمُؤَخِّرُ \ المؤخّر

المؤخر

al-Muʿakh·khir al-Muʾakhkhir

[al-Moʾakhkhir]

The Delayer, He Who Puts Far Away 71:4 V
audio speaker icon 73 ٱلأَوَّلُ \ الأوّل

الاول

al-ʿAwwal al-Awwal The First, The Beginning-less 57:3 D
audio speaker icon 74 ٱلْأَخِرُ *\ ٱلْآخِرُ

[* = classical written form]

\الأخر*\ الآخر

الاخر

[* = classical written form]

al-ʿAkhir */

al-ʿĀkhir [variant]

[* = classical written form]

al-Akhir */

al-Aakhir

[* = classical written form]

The Last, The Endless 57:3 D
audio speaker icon 75 ٱلْظَّـٰهِرُ *\ ٱلْظَّاهِرُ

[* = classical written form]

\* الظـٰهر

الظاهر

[* = classical written form]

aẓ-Ẓāhir/

aẓ-Ẓāhir

Az-Zahir/ Az-ZZahir/ Az-Zwahir

[Az-Zaahir/

Az-Zzaahir/

Az-Zwaahir]

The Manifest, The Evident, The Outer 57:3 D
audio speaker icon 76 ٱلْبَاطِنُ الباطن al-Bāṭin/

al-Bāṭin

al-Batin/ al-Battin/ al-Batwin

[al-Baatin/ al-Baattin/ al-Baatwin]

The Hidden, The Unmanifest, The Inner 57:3 D
audio speaker icon 77 \* ٱلْوَالِى

ٱلْوَالِي

[* = classical written form]

\* الوالى

الوالي

[* = classical written form]

al-Wāliy/

al-Wālī

al-Wali

[al-Waali]

The Patron, The Protecting Friend, The Friendly Lord 13:11 I
audio speaker icon 78 \* ٱلْمُتَعَالِى

ٱلْمُتَعَالِي

[* = classical written form]

\* المتعالى

المتعالي

[* = classical written form]

al-Mutaʿāliy/

al-Mutaʿālī

al-Mutaʿali

[al-Muta'aali]

The Supremely Exalted, The Most High 13:9 D
audio speaker icon 79 ٱلْبَرُّ \ البرّ

البر

al-Barr al-Barr The Good, The Beneficent 52:28 D
audio speaker icon80 ٱلْتَّوَّابُ \ التّوّاب

التواب

at-Tawwāb/

at-Tawwāb

At-Tawwab

[At-Tawwaab]

The Ever-Returning, Ever-Relenting 2:128, 4:64, 49:12, 110:3 D
audio speaker icon81 ٱلْمُنْتَقِمُ المنتقم al-Muntaqim al-Muntaqim The Avenger 32:22, 43:41, 44:16 P
audio speaker icon82 ٱلْعَفُوُّ \ العفوّ

العفو

al-ʿAfuww/

al-ʿAfūw

al-ʿAfu

[al-ʿAfou]

The Pardoner, The Effacer, The Forgiver 4:43, 4:99, 4:149, 22:60, 58:2 V, I
audio speaker icon83 \* ٱلْرَّءُوفُ

ٱلْرَّؤُفُ

[* = classical written form]

\* الرّءوف

\ الرّؤف

\* الرءوف

الرؤف

[* = classical written form]

ar-Raʿwūf/

ar-Raʿūf

Ar-Rauf

[Ar-Raʿouf/ Ar-Rawʿouf]

The Kind, The Pitying 9:117, 57:9, 59:10 I
audio speaker icon84 \* مَـٰلِكُ ٱلْمُلْكُ

مَالِكُ ٱلْمُلْكُ

[* = classical written form]

\* مـٰلك الملك

\ مالك الملك

\* مـٰلك الملك

مالك الملك

[* = classical written form]

Māliku ʼl-Mulk/

Māliku ʼl-Mulk

Malik ul-Mulk

[Maalik ul-Mulk]

The Owner of all Sovereignty 3:26 D
audio speaker icon85 \* ذُو ٱلْجَلَـٰلِ وَٱلْإِكْرَامُ

ذُو ٱلْجَلَالِ وَٱلْإِكْرَامُ

[* = classical written form]

\* ذو الجلـٰل والإكرام

ذو الجلال والإكرام

[* = classical written form]

Ḏuʼl-Jalāli waʼl-ʼIkrām, Dhuʼl-Jalāli waʼl-ʼIkrām/

Ḏuʼl-Jalāli waʼl-ʼIkrām, Dhuʼl-Jalāli waʼl-ʼIkrām/

Zul-Jalali wal-Ikram/ Dzhul-Jalali wal-Ikram
[Zul-Jalaali wal-Ikraam/ Dzhul-Jalaali wal-Ikraam]
The Owner, Lord of Majesty and Honour 55:27, 55:78 D
audio speaker icon86 ٱلْمُقْسِطُ المقسط al-Muqsiṭ al-Muqsit

[al-Muqsitt]

The Equitable, The Requiter 3:18; al-Kafʿamī (1992:58f) O
audio speaker icon87 ٱلْجَامِعُ الجامع al-Jāmiʿ/

al-Jāmi

al-Jamiʿ/ al-Jamie

[al-Jaamiʿ/ al-Jaamie]

The Gatherer, The Unifier 3:9 I
audio speaker icon88 \* ٱلْغَنىُّ

ٱلْغَنيُّ

[* = classical written form]

\* ّالغنى

\ الغنيّ

\* الغنى

الغني

[* = classical written form]

al-Ghāniyy/

al-Ghānī

al-Ghani

[al-Ghaani]

The Rich, The Independent 39:7, 47:38, 57:24 I, A, D
audio speaker icon89 \* ٱلْمُغْنِىُّ

ٱلْمُغْنِيُّ

[* = classical written form]

\* المغنىّ

\ المغنيّ

\* المغنى

المغني

[* = classical written form]

al-Mugh·niyy/

al-Mugh·nī

al-Mughni The Enricher, The Emancipator 9:28 V
audio speaker icon90 ٱلْمَانِعُ المانع al-Māniʿ/

al-Mānīʿ

al-Maniʿ/ al-Manie

[al-Maaniʿ/ al-Maanie]

The Preventer, The Withholder, The Shielder, The Defender See al-Kafʿamī (1992:61)
audio speaker icon91 ٱلْضَّارُ \ الضّار

الضار

aḍ-Ḍārr/

aḍ-Ḍārr

Adh-Dharr

[Adh-Dhaarr]

The Distressor, The Harmer, The Afflictor 6:17; al-Kafʿamī (1992:58)
audio speaker icon92 ٱلْنَّافِعُ \ النّافع

النافع

an-Nāfiʿ/

an-Nāfīʿ

An-Nafi‘/ An-Nafie

[An-Naafiʿ/ al-Naafie]

The Propitious, The Benefactor, The Source of Good 30:37
audio speaker icon93 ٱلْنُّورُ \ النّور

النور

an-Nūr/

an-Nūr

An-Nur

[An-Nour]

The Light 24:35 I
audio speaker icon94 \* ٱلْهَادِى

ٱلْهَادِي

[* = classical written form]

\* الهادى

الهادي

[* = classical written form]

al-Hādiy/

al-Hādī

al-Hadi

[al-Haadi]

The Guide, The Way 22:54 I
audio speaker icon95 ٱلْبَدِيعُ البديع al-Badiyʿ/

al-Badīʿ

al-Badiʿ[al-Badiyʿ/ al-Badiye] The Originator, The Incomparable, The Unattainable, The Beautiful 2:117, 6:101 I
audio speaker icon96 \* ٱلْبَاقِى

ٱلْبَاقِي

[* = classical written form]

\* الباقى

الباقي

[* = classical written form]

al-Bāqiy/

al-Bāqī

al-Baqi

[al-Baaqi]

The Immutable, The Infinite, The Everlasting 55:27; al-Kafʿamī (1992:64) V
audio speaker icon97 \* ٱلْوَٰرِثُ

ٱلْوَارِثُ

[* = classical written form]

\* الوٰرث

الوارث

[* = classical written form]

al-Wārith/

al-Wārith

al-Warith

[al-Waarith]

The Heir, The Inheritor of All 15:23, 57:10 P
audio speaker icon98 ٱلْرَّشِيدُ \ الرّشيد

الرشيد

ar-Rashiyd/

ar-Rashīd

Ar-Rashid

[Ar-Rasheed]

The Guide to the Right Path 11:87 (Used Not referring to Allah)
audio speaker icon99 ٱلْصَّبُورُ \ الصّبور

الصبور

aṣ-Ṣabūr/

aṣ-Ṣabūr

As-Sabur/ As-Ssabur/ As-Swabur

[As-Sabour/ As-Ssabour/ As-Swabour]

The Timeless, The Patient 2:153, 3:200, 103:3 I
[* = classical calligraphic short written form]
a[by whom?].      b D = Direct;[clarification needed] V = from Verb; A = from Adjective or Adjectival Phrase; I = from Indefinite noun;

P = from Plural noun; O = Other

Hadith[edit]

By what they said to Sahih Bukhari Hadith:[4]

Abu Hurairah reported that God has ninety-nine Names, i.e., one hundred minus one, and whoever believes in their meanings and acts accordingly, will enter Paradise; and God is witr (one) and loves 'the witr' (i.e., odd numbers).

— Sahih Bukhari, Vol. 8, Book 75, Hadith 419

There is another Sahih Muslim Hadith:[5]

Allah's Messenger () said, "God has ninety-nine Names, one-hundred less one; and he who memorized them all by heart will enter Paradise." To count something means to know it by heart.

— Sahih Bukhari, Vol. 9, Book 93, Hadith 489

The Quran refers to God's Most Beautiful Names (al-ʾasmāʾ al-ḥusná) in several Surahs.[6] Gerhard Böwering refers to Surah 17 (17:110) as the locus classicus to which explicit lists of 99 names used to be attached in tafsir. A cluster of more than a dozen Divine epithets which are included in such lists is found in Surah 59.[7] Sunni mystic Ibn Arabi surmised that the 99 names are "outward signs of the universe's inner mysteries".[1]

Islamic mysticism[edit]

There is a tradition in Sufism to the effect the 99 names of God point to a mystical "Most Supreme and Superior Name" (ismu l-ʾAʿẓam (الاسْمُ ٱلْأَعْظَم).[8] This "Greatest Name of God" is said to be "the one which if He is called (prayed to) by it, He will answer."[9]

According to a hadith narrated by Abdullah ibn Masud, some of the names of God have also been hidden from mankind.[10] More than 1000 names of God are listed in the Jawshan Kabir (جَوْشَنُ ٱلْكَبِير—literally "the Great Cuirass") invocations.

The influential Sunni mystic Ibn Arabi (26 July 1165 – 16 November 1240) did not interpret the names of God as mere epithets, but as actual attributes paring the universe both in created and possible forms. By these names, the divine traits disclose for humans, whose divine potential is hidden, can learn to become a reflection of such names. However, such reflections are limited; the divine traits do not equal the divine essence of the names.[11] Influenced by the metaphysical teachings of Ibn Arabi, Haydar Amuli assigned angels to the different names of God. Accordingly, the good angels as a whole are a manifestation of God's Names of Beauty. Evil angels (shayatin) on the other hand are a manifestation of God's Names of majesty, such as "The Haughty".[12]

Theophoric given names[edit]

Talismanic shirt inscribed with the 99 names of God as well as Quranic verses and prayers, Turkey, 18th century, Khalili Collection of Hajj and the Arts of Pilgrimage

The Arabic names of God are used to form theophoric given names commonly used in Muslim cultures throughout the world, mostly in Arabic speaking societies.

Because the names of God themselves are reserved to God and their use as a person's given name is considered religiously inappropriate, theophoric names are formed by prefixing the term ˁabd (عَبْدُ: "slave/servant of") to the name in the case of male names; in the case of female names, the prefix amat is used in place of ˁabd.[13]

This distinction is established out of respect for the sanctity of Divine names, which denote attributes (of love, kindness, mercy, compassion, justice, power, etc.) that are believed to be possessed in a full and absolute sense only by God, while human beings, being limited creatures, are viewed by Muslims as being endowed with the Divine attributes only in a limited and relative capacity. The prefixing of the definite article would indicate that the bearer possesses the corresponding attribute in an exclusive sense, a trait reserved to God.

Quranic verse 3:26 is cited as evidence against the validity of using Divine names for persons, with the example of Mālik ul-Mulk (مَـٰلِكُ ٱلْمُلْكُ: "Lord of Power" or "Owner of all Sovereignty"):

Say: "O God! Lord of Power, You give power to whom You please, and You strip off power from whom You please. You endue with honour whom You please, and You bring low whom You please. In Your hand is all Good." Verily, over all things You have power.

The two parts of the name starting with ˁabd may be written separately (as in the previous example) or combined as one in the transliterated form; in such a case, the vowel transcribed after ˁabdu is often written as u when the two words are transcribed as one: e.g., Abdur-Rahman, Abdul-Aziz, Abdul-Jabbar, or even Abdullah (عَبْدُ ٱللّٰه: "Servant of God"). (This has to do with Arabic case vowels, the final u vowel showing the normal "quote" nominative case form.)

Examples of Muslim theophoric names include:

  • Rahmān, such as Abdul Rahman Al-Sudais (عَبْدُ ٱلْرَّحْمَان ٱلْسُّدَيْس): Imam of the Grand Mosque of Makkah, KSA
  • Salām, such as Salam Fayyad (سَلَام فَيَّاض): Palestinian politician
  • Jabbār, such as Kareem Abdul-Jabbar (كَرِيم عَبْدُ ٱلْجَبَّار): American basketball player
  • Hakīm, such as Sherman "Abdul Hakim" Jackson (عَبْدُ ٱلْحَكِيم—ˁabdu ʼl-Ḥakiym): American Islamic Studies scholar
  • Ra'ūf, such as Ra'ouf Mus'ad (رَؤُوف مُسَعد): Egyptian-Sudanese novelist
  • Mālik, such as Mālik bin ʼAnas (مَـٰالِك بِن أَنَس): classical Sunni Muslim scholars after whom the Maliki school of fiqh was named
  • Abdul Muqtedar as in Muhammad Abdul Muqtedar Khan (مُحَمَّد عَبْدُ ٱلمُقْتَدِر خَان): Indian-American academic

Use in Baháʼí sources[edit]

Baháʼí sources state that the 100th name was revealed as "Baháʼ" (Arabic: بهاء "glory, splendor"), which appears in the words Bahá'u'lláh and Baháʼí. They also believe that it is the greatest name of God.[14][15] The Báb wrote a noted pentagram-shaped tablet with 360 morphological derivation of the word "Baháʼ" used in it.[14]

According to Baháʼí scholar ‘Abdu’l-Hamíd Ishráq-Khávari, Bahāʾ al-dīn al-ʿĀmilī adopted the Persian poetic pen name "Bahāʾ" after being inspired by the words of the fifth Twelver Imam, Muhammad al-Baqir, and the sixth Imam, Ja'far al-Sadiq, who stated that the greatest name of God was included in either the Duʿāʾu l-Bahāʾ, a dawn prayer for Ramadan, or the ʾAʿmal ʿam Dawūd.[14] In the first verse of the duʿāʾu l-Bahāʾ, the name "Bahāʾ" appears four times.[16]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Morgan, Diane (2010). Essential Islam: A Comprehensive Guide to Belief and Practice. ABC-CLIO. p. 10. ISBN 978-0-313-36025-1.
  2. ^ Please note the written Arabic spelling of the names written in Arabic in the table are in the vowelled Classical/Quranic form (proper = in the Quran and Ahādith) with the square bracketed "[.]" variant of the written Arabic forms given in common or modern texts—usually in media, some long vowels and punctuations are omitted for the easier typing and reading.
  3. ^ "al-Quran (القرآن) :: Online Quran Project :: Translation and Tafsir". Archived from the original on 2009-01-29. Retrieved 2013-10-23.
  4. ^ "Hadith: Book of Invocations - Sahih al-Bukhari - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com. Retrieved 2018-06-15.
  5. ^ "Hadith - Book of Oneness, Uniqueness of Allah (Tawheed) - Sahih al-Bukhari - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com. Retrieved 2018-06-15.
  6. ^ See the Surah "al-A'raf" (7:180 ), "Al-Isra" (17:110 ), "Ta-Ha" (20:8 ) and "al-Hashr" (59:24 ).
  7. ^ http://quran.com/59/22-24 (59:22–24)
  8. ^ Schimmel, Annemarie (1993). The Mystery of Numbers. New York, USA: Oxford University Press. p. 271. ISBN 0-19-508919-7.
  9. ^ Momen, Moojan (2000). Islam and the Bahá'í Faith. George Ronald. p. 241. ISBN 978-0-85398-446-7. The endnote states: "Ibn Májah, Sunan, 34. (Kitáb ad-Du'á), ch. 9, no. 3856, vol. 2, p. 1267. See also: Ad-Dárimí, Sunan, 23 (Fada'il al-Qur'án), ch. 15, no. 3296, vol. 2, pp. 324–325. Similar statements in Shi'i tradition include: Majlisí, Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 26. p. 7.
  10. ^ Taymiyyah, ibn, Taqī ad-Dīn Ahmad (2003). The Goodly Word: al-Kalim al-Ṭayyib. Islamic Texts Society. p. 72. ISBN 1-903682-15-0.
  11. ^ Bruce Lawrence The Qur'an: A Biography Atlantic Books Ltd, 02.10.2014 ISBN 9781782392187 chapter 8
  12. ^ Ayman Shihadeh Sufism and Theology Edinburgh University Press, 21.11.2007 ISBN 9780748631346 pp. 54–56
  13. ^ [1] Archived July 14, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
  14. ^ a b c Lambden, Stephen (1993). "The Word Baháʼ: Quintessence of the Greatest Name". Baháʼí Studies Review. 3 (1).
  15. ^ Smith, Peter (2000). "greatest name". A concise encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. pp. 167–8. ISBN 1-85168-184-1.
  16. ^ Khadem, Dhikru'llah (March 1976). "Bahá'u'lláh and His Most Holy Shrine". Baháʼí News (540): 4–5. Archived from the original on 2017-06-20.

External links[edit]