Legal working age

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Parties to the International Labour Organization's 1973 Minimum Age Convention.
  16
  15
  14

The legal working age is the minimum age required by law for a person to work, in each country or jurisdiction.

Some types of labor are commonly prohibited even for those above the working age, if they have not reached yet the age of majority. Activities that are dangerous, harmful to the health or that may affect the morals of minors fall into this category.

Africa[edit]

Country Legal Working Age
 Kenya 13 (Easy Work)
16 (Restricted working hours and the type of work)
18 (Unrestricted) [1]

Asia[edit]

Country Legal Working Age
 China 16
 Taiwan 15: A worker over fifteen years old, but less than sixteen years old, shall be considered as a child worker.
16: No child worker and no worker less than eighteen years old shall be permitted to do work that is potentially dangerous or hazardous in nature.
18: (Unrestricted).[2]
 Iran 15: Easy Work
18: Hard Work
21 (Unrestricted) [3]
 Malaysia 14: Easy Work.
16: (Unrestricted).[4]
 Indonesia 13: Minimum Employment age.
15: Restricted working hours and the type of work.
18: (Unrestricted).[5]
 Philippines 15: (Restricted working hours and the type of work)
18: (Unrestricted)[6]
 Singapore 13: Generally, a child must be at least 13 years of age before he can start working. The minimum legal age for working in Singapore is governed by the Employment Act and the Employment (Children and Young Persons) Regulations, and is enforced by the Ministry of Manpower.
15: Young persons above 15 may work in an industrial environment. However, the employer must inform the Commissioner of Labour within 30 days of his employment, and submit a medical certificate certifying his fitness for work.
16: Generally speaking, a person who is above the age of 16 is not a child or a young person, and is considered an adult worker (Unrestricted).[7]
 Vietnam 15

Europe[edit]

Country Legal Working Age
 Albania 14:(Easy work performed at school holidays)
16: (Unrestricted)[8]
 Andorra 14: (Easy work performed at school holidays; Maximum 6 hours per day, with minimum 1 hours break; Minimum 2 following days of rest per week)
16: (Maximum 8 hours per day, with minimum 1 hours break; Minimum 2 following days of rest per week)
18: (Unrestricted)[9]
 Armenia 16: (Unrestricted; No person under the age of 16 is allowed to work in Armenia)[10]
 Belarus 18
 Belgium 15: (Must have completed 2 years of secondary education; restricted to light work)
16: (only light work)
18 Unrestricted
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 15: (Restricted to light work; Restricted working hours)
18: (Unrestricted)[11]
 Bulgaria 13: (Only for jobs as film actor or model; Strictly regulated)
15: (Strictly regulated)
16 (Minimum working age; Some occupations prohibited)
18: (Unrestricted)[12]
 Croatia 15: (Restricted by the Labour laws)
18: (Unrestricted)[13]
 Cyprus 15: (Restricted by the Labour laws)
18: (Unrestricted)
 Czech Republic 14: (Only under special circumstances)
15: (Restricted occupations and working hours)
18: (Unrestricted)[14]
 Denmark None: (Only for activities in the cultural or artistic field. However, a police authorization must be obtained for these activities in advance.)
13: (Children 13–15 years of age may only perform light work, that is not in the vicinity of machinery. The working time may be on school days and up to 2 hours on other days up to 7 hours. In school-free weeks, the maximum working time must not exceed 35 hours per week.)
15: (Young people up to 18 years may not work in the following areas: with dangerous tools and equipment within hazardous work processes. The working time may not be between 18.00 und 6.00 clock on weekdays between 14.00 und 6.00 clock on holidays or Sundays. The maximum weekly working time must not exceed 40 hours.)
18: (Unrestricted)[15]
 Estonia 13: A Person aged 13 may work under restrictions and parental permission.
15: Minimum Employment age. Minors under the age of 18 are restricted with working hours and certain occupations.

18: Unrestricted.[16]

 Finland 14: Someone aged 14 may practise "light work".
15: Minimum Employment age. Minors under the age of 18 are restricted with working hours and certain occupations.

18: Unrestricted.[17]

 France 14: (only for light work, regulated by Code du travail; No working at night; Strict time limitation; Parental permission is needed)
16: (No working at night; Strict time limitation; Parental permission is needed)
18: (Unrestricted)[18]
 Germany 13: (with parental permission; and only easy work for example: paper round)
15: (Part-time work with less than 8 hours per day and maximum 40 hours per week; No work on weekends, statutory holidays and at night time or in an imperiling environment). Further restrictions for work break and minimum vacation days.
18: Unrestricted[19]
 Hungary 16: (The Hungarian Labour Code allows for the employment of people over 16 years old. Young workers apply a two-year period of protection: at the time of their working time must not exceed 8 hours. per day and forty hours per week. If you work a minimum of 4.5 hrs., They are entitled to 30 minutes. break, nor can they be employed on a night shift.)
18: (Unrestricted)[20]
 Iceland 16: ( Employers have a duty to protect young workers from working in difficult and dangerous conditions in some sectors also apply to restrictions on working time.)
18: (Unrestricted)[21]
 Ireland 14: (People aged under 16 years are not allowed to work full-time (full-time). The work of persons between the ages of 14 and 15 years must be obliged to comply with conditions:
• perform light work during the holidays - a person must necessarily have then at least 21 days off work
• work as part of the approved apprenticeship or training program.
• work in the film, when cultural undertakings, in advertising, or in connection with sporting events.)
16: (People aged 16 and 17 years old can only work the hours between 6.00 and 22.00.)
18: (Unrestricted.)[22]
 Italy 15: (Restricted working hours and the type of work.)
18: (Unrestricted)[23]
 Latvia 15: ( People between 15 and 18 years of age may work no more than 7 hours a day and 35 hours per week (including time learning - if they learn). There must they stay at work after hours or work at night. It is also prohibited to employ minors under conditions which may threaten their health, safety and morals. Interestingly, workers aged under 18 are entitled to a month's leave, in their case does not apply or trial periods.)
18: (Unrestricted)[24]
 Liechtenstein 14: ( For light it is possible to hire 14-year-olds - but not longer than 9 hours per week during the school year and 15 hours a week during the holidays.)
15: ( People aged over 15 but under 18 may work no more than 40 hours per week.)
18: (Unrestricted)[25]
 Lithuania 14: ( Under certain conditions it is also possible to employ people aged over 14 years old but under 16 years of age. They have the right to perform easy work - during the school year for no more than two hours during the day and 12 hours a week during the holidays - 7 hours a day and 35 hours per week.)
16: ( Persons who have completed 16 years but has not reached the age of majority has no right to work more than 8 hours per day and 36 hours per week.)
18: (Unrestricted)[26]
 Malta 16: (Until they reach adulthood under the special protection of the law - are entitled to work up to 8 hours per day and 40 per week (included in is also a time of learning and training). Young worker has no right to do the work between the hours of 22 and 6 am.)
18: (Unrestricted)[27]
 Netherlands 13: (The minimum age of employment under the supervision and with no guarantee of a minimum wage.)
15: (The right to the minimum wage.)
16: (Persons over 16 years but less than 18 years, has most of the rights and obligations as workers age. However, you will not be able to work in harmful conditions - including noise, cramped quarters and with toxic substances.)
18: (Unrestricted)[28]
 Norway 13: (People aged over 13 but under 15 years of age may be employed only for light work that does not endanger the health, development, and does not interfere with learning.)
15: (Unrestricted)[29]
 Poland None: (Cultural and artistic field)
16: (Light work only)
18: (Unrestricted)[30]
 Portugal 16: (Restricted working hours and the type of work.)
18: (Unrestricted)[31]
 Russia None: (Artistic field only. Must have parental permission. Restricted working hours and shortened working week, must not interfere with school education or violate public morality)

14: (Light work only. Must have parental permission. Restricted working hours and shortened working week, must not interfere with school education)
16: (Light work only. Full school education required. Restricted working hours)
18: Unrestricted

 Serbia 18
 Spain 16: (Must have parental permission)
18: Unrestricted
 Sweden 16: (Minimum Age for Employment but minors must not, however, employ at night.)
18: (Unrestricted)[32]
  Switzerland Age 13: (Must have parental permission; only easy work)
  • During school weeks: Maximum 3 hours per day; and 9 hours per week.
  • During non-school weeks: Maximum 8 hours per day; and 40 hours per week.

Age 15: (Must have parental permission)

  • Maximum 9 hours per day; and 45–50 hours per week. Working maximum until 8 p.m.

Age 16: Minimum age to serve someone in restaurants, café or hotels. Minimum age to work in a circus or cinema.

  • Working maximum until 10 p.m.

Age 18: Unrestricted (and the minimum age to work in: Bars, Discos, Dancinghalls and Nightclubs)[33]

 United Kingdom 13: (For restricted part-time work, with some restrictions like not working before 7am or after 7pm, during school hours, in a hazardous environment, etc. However legal maximum working hours are extended during school holidays. Work must not affect a child's education and not entitled to minimum wage)

16: (For full-time work and national working age to be able to claim legal minimum wage)
18: (To work at a licensed premises that primarily sells alcoholic beverages such as pubs, bars and night clubs)[34]

North America[edit]

Country Legal Working Age
 Anguilla
 Antigua and Barbuda 14: (Restricted working hours)
18: (Unrestricted)[35]
 Aruba
 Bahamas 14: (Employment during school hours is prohibited; Night work is prohibited; Industrial work is prohibited; Conditions in respect of young persons: in a school day, for not more than three hours, in a school week, for not more than twenty-four hours, in a non-school day, for not more than eight hours, in a non-school week, for not more than forty hours.)
18: (Unrestricted)[36]
 Barbados 16: (Employment during school hours is prohibited; Night work is prohibited; Industrial work is prohibited)
18: (Unrestricted)[37]
 Belize
 Bermuda
 British Virgin Islands
 Canada
 Caribbean Netherlands
 Cayman Islands
 Costa Rica
  • 16
 Cuba
 Curaçao
 Dominica 12: (No person shall take into his employment or employ in any occupation whatsoever any child; but a child may be employed in the domestic work or agricultural work of a light nature at home by the parents or guardian of the child.)
18: (Unrestricted)[49]
 Dominican Republic
 El Salvador 18: (Unrestricted)[50]
Children below the age 14 are not allowed to enter the workforce. Minors between the ages of 14 and 18 may work with permission from the Ministry of Labor if their employment is indispensable to either themselves or their family.
 Greenland
 Grenada
 Guadeloupe
 Guatemala
 Haiti
 Honduras
 Jamaica 16
 Martinique
 Mexico

14: (Restricted working hours and the type of work)
18: (Unrestricted)[51]

 Montserrat
 Nicaragua
 Panama
 Puerto Rico
 Saint Barthélemy
 Saint Kitts and Nevis
 Saint Lucia
 Saint Martin
 Saint Pierre and Miquelon
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
 Sint Maarten
 Trinidad and Tobago 14
 Turks and Caicos Islands
 United States

Oceania[edit]

Country Legal Working Age
 Australia Varies by state and territory (Although mostly 15) [69]
 New Zealand 16: (Restricted working hours)
18: For Full Time Work
20: No Restrictions[70]

South America[edit]

Country Legal Working Age
 Bolivia 10: Independent work (e.g. street selling) with parent permission and government supervision

12: Contract work (for a boss) with parent permission and government supervision; no more than 6 hours per day, not during school hours, and if it does not interfere with schooling

 Argentina

It is forbidden to employ workers under 18 years of age for arduous, unhealthy, or hazardous work.
14: The working week for young workers between 14 and under 16 years of age should be not more 6 hours per day and 36 hours per week.
16: Young workers aged over 16 but under 18 years of age, have the right to work during normal business hours.
18: Unrestricted[71]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.africapay.org/kenya/home/labour-laws/fair-treatment-at-work/children-at-work
  2. ^ http://laws.mol.gov.tw/Eng/FLAWDAT0201.aspx?lsid=FL014930&beginpos=5
  3. ^ "Iran Labour Law". Retrieved 28 September 2016. 
  4. ^ http://www.ilo.org/dyn/travail/docs/1529/Children%20and%20Young%20Persons%20Employment%20Act%201966.pdf
  5. ^ http://www.ilo.org/dyn/travail/docs/760/Indonesian%20Labour%20Law%20-%20Act%2013%20of%202003.pdf
  6. ^ http://www.dole.gov.ph/fndr/bong/files/DA%2001-08.pdf
  7. ^ https://singaporelegaladvice.com/law-articles/what-is-the-minimum-legal-age-for-working-in-singapore/
  8. ^ Neni 98 - Mosha minimale. Minimum working age in Albania.
  9. ^ Llei 8/2003, del 12 de juny, sobre el contracte de treball.. Minimum working age in Andorra.
  10. ^ ՀԱՅԱՍՏԱՆԻ ՀԱՆՐԱՊԵՏՈՒԹՅԱՆ ՀԱՅՏԱՐԱՐՈՒԹՅՈՒՆԸ "ՆՎԱԶԱԳՈՒՅՆ ՏԱՐԻՔԻ ՄԱՍԻՆ" ԿՈՆՎԵՆՑԻԱՅԻ ՎԵՐԱԲԵՐՅԱԼ. Minimum working age in Armenia.
  11. ^ ZAKON O RADU Minimum working age in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
  12. ^ Protection of minors (EU). Minimum working age in Bulgaria.
  13. ^ Zakon o radu Minimum working age in Croatia.
  14. ^ zákon c. 65/1965 Minimum working age in Czech Republic (Labour law).
  15. ^ Bekendtgørelse om unges arbejde Minimum working age in Denmark (Labour law).
  16. ^ Töölepingu seadus § 7. Töölepingu sõlmimine alaealisega The Employment Contracts Act § 7 Conclusion of an employment contract with a minor (Estonia).
  17. ^ Nuori työntekijä: Alle 15-vuotiaan töihinotto Employement laws (Finland).
  18. ^ "Code du travail - Legifrance". Retrieved 28 July 2015. 
  19. ^ "JArbSchG - Einzelnorm". Retrieved 28 July 2015. 
  20. ^ http://www.eurodesk.pl/europraca/wegry-pod-prad-ale-skutecznie.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  21. ^ http://www.eurodesk.pl/europraca/islandia-praca-dla-kazdego
  22. ^ http://www.cawt.com/Site/11/Documents/Projects/AIPIP/Polish/roisection3legal.pdf
  23. ^ http://www.eurodesk.pl/europraca/wlochy-dla-ludzi-z-temperamentem
  24. ^ http://www.eurodesk.pl/europraca/lotwa-kraj-ktory-znika
  25. ^ http://www.eurodesk.pl/europraca/liechtenstein-tylko-dla-wybranych
  26. ^ http://www.eurodesk.pl/europraca/litwa-tygrys-ktory-wylizal-rany
  27. ^ http://www.eurodesk.pl/europraca/malta-wyspa-zadowolona-z-siebie
  28. ^ http://www.eurodesk.pl/europraca/holandia-pomaranczowa-szansa
  29. ^ http://www.eurodesk.pl/europraca/norwegia-skarbiec-polnocy
  30. ^ "Labour code". 
  31. ^ "GDDC - Direitos Humanos: Textos Internacionais - Textos Universais". Retrieved 28 July 2015. 
  32. ^ http://www.eurodesk.pl/europraca/szwecja-blisko-i-przyjaznie
  33. ^ Jugendarbeitsschutz - Schweizer Eidgenossenschaft Publication of the "Staatssekretariat für Wirtschaft (SECO)" (State secretary of economy) and "Eidgenössisches Departement für Wirtschaft, Bildung und Forschung (WBF)" (Federal Department of Economic Affairs, Education and Research).
  34. ^ "What kinds of work can be done by children aged 13?". Retrieved 28 July 2015. 
  35. ^ Labour Code Act DIVISION E: Women, Young Persons and Children (Employment) (Antigua and Barbuda)
  36. ^ Employment Act, 2001 PART X - CHILDREN AND YOUNG PERSONS (Bahamas).
  37. ^ Employment (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act PART III: Employment of young persons (Barbados)
  38. ^ "Here's the Law". Retrieved 28 July 2015. 
  39. ^ "Government of B.C., Labour and Citizens' Services, Employment Standards Branch, Employment of Young People Factsheet". Retrieved 28 July 2015. 
  40. ^ "Employment Standards". Retrieved 28 July 2015. 
  41. ^ "Employment of Children". Retrieved 28 July 2015. 
  42. ^ Employment of Children (Newfoundland and Labrador)
  43. ^ "Employment of Children". Retrieved 28 July 2015. 
  44. ^ "Minimum age". Retrieved 28 July 2015. 
  45. ^ Province of Prince Edward Island, Canada. "Labour: Employment Standards". Retrieved 28 July 2015. 
  46. ^ "Work performed by children". Retrieved 28 July 2015. 
  47. ^ "Module 1 - What keeps workplaces fair and safe?". Retrieved 28 July 2015. 
  48. ^ "Employment Standards". Retrieved 28 July 2015. 
  49. ^ EMPLOYMENT OF CHILDREN (PROHIBITION) ACT Prohibition of employment of a child. (Dominica)
  50. ^ "El Salvador Working conditions, Information about Working conditions in El Salvador". Retrieved 28 July 2015. 
  51. ^ http://www.naalc.org/migrant/english/pdf/mgmexchl_en.pdf
  52. ^ a b The Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as amended 29 U.S.C. 201, et seq: Sec. 213(d)
  53. ^ The Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as amended 29 U.S.C. 201, et seq: Sec. 213(c)(1)(c); Sec. 213(c)(3);
  54. ^ The Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as amended 29 U.S.C. 201, et seq: Sec. 213(c)(2); Sec. 213(5); Sec. 213(6)
  55. ^ The Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as amended 29 U.S.C. 201, et seq: Sec. 213(c)(5)(B)(ii); Sec. 213(c)(5)(B)(iv)(III); Sec. 213(c)(5)(C)(i):(I),(II); Sec. 213(c)(7)(A)(ii)(II)
  56. ^ Alabama Child Labor Act Alabama Department of Labor, Montgomery 2009. Retrieved 25.12.2014.
  57. ^ Alabama Code - Section 25-8-32. Retrieved 25.12.2014.
  58. ^ "Summary of Alaska Child Labor Law". Retrieved 28 July 2015. 
  59. ^ Arizona Revised Statutes: Article 3 Youth Employment
  60. ^ CHILD LABOR LAWS (Arkansas Department of Labor). Retrieved 25.12.2014.
  61. ^ CALIFORNIA CHILD LABOR LAWS (California Department of Labor). Retrieved 25.12.2014.
  62. ^ COLORADO YOUTH EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY ACT, TITLE 8, ARTICLE 12, CRS (Colorado Department of Labor and Employment Division of Labor). Retrieved 25.12.2014.
  63. ^ Time & Hour Restrictions For 16 & 17 Year-Old Minors (By Industry) (Connecticut)
  64. ^ Connecticut General Statutes for the Connecticut Department of Labor (Connecticut Department of Labor). Retrieved 25 December 2014.
  65. ^ Delaware Code TITLE 19 - Labor General Provisions - CHAPTER 5. CHILD LABOR (Delaware Delaware Code Online). Retrieved 25.12.2014.
  66. ^ The State of Florida and the Federal Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) (Florida Department of Labor). Retrieved 25.12.2014.
  67. ^ [1]
  68. ^ Child Labor (Hawaii Department of Labor). Retrieved 25.12.2014.
  69. ^ "What age can I start work?". Retrieved 28 July 2015. 
  70. ^ [2] New Zealand Department of Labour
  71. ^ http://www.ilo.org/ifpdial/information-resources/national-labour-law-profiles/WCMS_158890/lang--en/index.htm