From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This is a list of
aviation-related events from 1919:
January [ edit ]
February [ edit ]
An airmail service begins between
Folkestone. England, and Cologne, Germany. March 1 – The German
airline Deutsche Luft-Reederei (DLR) begins scheduled flights to Hamburg, Germany. March 3 – The first U.S. international airmail is carried between
Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, and Seattle, Washington, in the United States by William Boeing in a Boeing CL-4S. March 10 –
Prime Minister of Australia Billy Hughes announces a £10,000 reward to the first aviator who will fly from the United Kingdom to Australia in less than 30 days. March 22 – The first regular international commercial route opens between Paris and
Brussels, flown by an F.60 Goliath from Farman airlines. March 24 –
Igor Sikorsky flees Europe for the United States.
Imperial Japanese Army further increases the independence of its aviation element by reorganizing it as the Army Air Division under the command of Major General Ikutaro Inouye. [3 ] April 5 – In a
Breguet 14, Lieutenant Roget of the French Army 's makes a flight from Aéronautique Militaire Lyons, France, to Rome, Italy, to Nice, France. Later in the year, again flying a Breguet 14, Roget and Capitaine Coli will set a French flight distance record, flying 1,900 km (1,180 miles) from Paris – Le Bourget Airport in France to Kenitra, French Morocco. [2 ] April 15 – The
United States Navy selects the collier USS for conversion into its first Jupiter aircraft carrier. [4 ] April 18 – CMA (
Compagnie des Messageries Aériennes) commences a mail and freight service between Paris and Lille, using ex-military Breguet 14s. April 23 – The
North Sea Aerial Navigation Company starts a passenger service between Leeds and Hounslow Heath Aerodrome in ex-military Blackburn Kangaroos
Fairey IIIC seaplane is used for a regular newspaper run, carrying the to towns along the Evening Times Kent coast of England. May 8 –
United States Navy flying boat Curtiss NC-4, piloted by United States Coast Guard pilot Elmer F. Stone under the command of Albert Cushing Read begins an Atlantic crossing in company, to fly by short stages from Naval Air Station Rockaway on Long Island, New York to Lisbon, Portugal. May 15
United States Post Office inaugurates an intercity air route between Chicago, Illinois, and Cleveland, Ohio. The U.S. Navy
blimp completes a pioneering overnight flight from its base at C-5 Cape May, New Jersey, to St. John's in the Dominion of Newfoundland, becoming the first airship to visit St. John 's. The U.S. Navy plans for C-5 to become the first airship to fly across the Atlantic Ocean, from St. John 's to Europe. However, shortly after arriving at St. John 's, C-5 breaks her mooring lines during high winds and drifts out unmanned into the Atlantic, where she crashes in the evening 85 miles from St. John 's. Recovered by a British ship, C-5 never flies again. [5 ] [6 ] [7 ] May 16–17 –
Curtiss NC-4 flies from Trepassey Bay (Newfoundland) to Horta (Azores). May 18 –
Harry Hawker and Lieutenant Commander Kenneth Mackenzie-Grieve attempt a non-stop transatlantic flight but are forced to ditch their aircraft only 2,253 km (1,400 mi) after leaving Newfoundland. London's newspaper awards them a prize of £5,000 for their attempt anyway. Daily Mail May 27 –
Curtiss NC-4 flies from the Azores to Lisbon, completing the first transoceanic flight. On May 30–31 she is flown on to Plymouth in England.
June 1 – A permanent flight of aircraft is stationed in
San Diego to serve as a forest fire patrol. The machines are World War I-surplus Curtiss JN-4s. June 2 –
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom David Lloyd George and the British Colonial Office approve a Royal Air Force proposal to send a self-contained air unit (the "Z Unit") to British Somaliland to regain control over the colony from the Dervish State of Mohammed Abdullah Hassan, the "Mad Mullah." The campaign, which will begin in January 1920, will be the first test of the RAF concept of "aerial policing" – the use of independent air power to suppress colonial rebellions. [8 ] June 7 – Flying a
Caudron G.3, Raymonde de Laroche of France sets a women's altitude record of nearly 13,000 feet (3,962 m). [9 ] June 8 – In the
Russian Civil War, Royal Air Force Fairey IIIC seaplanes attack four armed Bolshevik steamers on Russia 's Lake Onega. Although their attack has little physical effect on the ships, the Bolsheviks are taken by surprise and flee, pursued by four smaller and less-well-armed Royal Navy torpedo boats. [10 ] [11 ] June 10 –
Ruth Law of the United States breaks the women's altitude record, flying to 14,700 feet (4,481 m). [9 ] June 12 – Raymonde de Laroche again breaks the women's altitude record, flying to a height of 5,150 m (16,896 ft).
[12 ] June 14–15 – Captain
John Alcock and Lieutenant Arthur Whitten Brown make the first successful non-stop Atlantic crossing by air, flying a Vickers Vimy. from [13 ] St. John's, Newfoundland, to Clifden, County Galway, Ireland in 16 hours. They win £10,000 from the Daily Mail and are both [13 ] knighted. June 23 – Six
Zeppelins ( LZ 46, LZ 79, LZ 91, LZ103, LZ 110, and LZ 111) are destroyed at Nordholz Airbase by their own crews in order to prevent them from falling into Allied hands. June 28 – The
Treaty of Versailles is signed. Among its many provisions is one which prohibits Germany from ever again possessing armed aircraft.
After resuming flying lessons (which he had discontinued in June 1914) during the first half of 1919,
Winston Churchill, the United Kingdom 's first Secretary of State for Air, suffers only severe bruises in the crash of an airplane which he is piloting during a lesson; his instructor, however, is hospitalised for several months with severe injuries and undergoes numerous reconstructive surgeries. Churchill never again takes flying lessons. [14 ] July 1 – London 's first
airport is opened, at Hounslow Heath Aerodrome. The facilities include a permanent Customs hall. July 2 – The U.S. Navy
blimp explodes while landing at the U.S. Army post at C-8 Camp Holabird, Maryland, injuring approximately 80 adults and children who were watching it and shattering windows in homes a mile (1.6 km) away. [15 ] [16 ] July 2–6 – The British
airship begins the first R34 lighter-than-air crossing of the Atlantic Ocean and the first east-to-west Atlantic flight, leaving East Fortune, Scotland, and arriving in Mineola, New York, on July 6. Major E. M. Pritchard parachutes from R34 at Mineola, becoming the first person to arrive in the United States by air from Europe. [17 ] July 10 – While flying his
Morane-Saulnier AI repeatedly between two telephone poles and under a wire between them to practice for an unauthorized first-ever flight under the arches of the Arc de Triomphe to protest against pilots having to parade on foot at the upcoming July 14 Bastille Day World War I victory parade on the Champs-Elysées in Paris, French World War I fighter ace and Morane-Saulnier chief test pilot Jean Navarre dies in a crash. [18 ] July 10–13 –
R34 makes a 75-hour return flight from the United States to RNAS Pulham, Norfolk, England, to complete the first two-way crossing of the Atlantic by air. [17 ] July 11 –
President Woodrow Wilson signs the Naval Appropriations Act of 1920, which includes funding for the conversion of the collier USS into the Jupiter United States Navy 's first aircraft carrier. [4 ] July 14 – A
Fiat BR makes the first nonstop flight from Rome to Paris. July 15 – The British
Royal Air Force airship NS.11 explodes over the North Sea during a mine-hunting patrol and crashes in a ball of fire off Cley next the Sea, Norfolk, killing all nine members of her crew. July 18 – Riding as a passenger,
Raymonde de Laroche dies along with the pilot in the crash of an experimental Caudron airplane at Le Crotoy airfield in France. [9 ] July 21
August 2 – In
Italy 's first civil aviation disaster, a Caproni Ca.48 airliner crashes near Verona, killing all on board. Sources differ on the death toll, placing it at 14, 15, [21 ] and 17. [22 ] [23 ] August 3 – In the
Russian Civil War, four Royal Air Force Fairey IIIC seaplanes attack three Bolshevik steamboats on Russia 's Lake Onega, causing their crews to panic and allowing Royal Navy submarine chasers to capture them easily. [24 ] August 7
August 11 – The
Felixstowe Fury (Porte Super-Baby) crashes on the eve of a flight to South Africa, killing one of the crew. August 15 – France reports that 60 percent of its aviators were killed or wounded during World War I.
[27 ] August 18 –
Royal Air Force aircraft based at Biorko, Finland, under the command of Squadron Leader Grahame Donald bomb and strafe the Bolshevik naval base at Kronstadt in support of the Kronstadt Raid, a Royal Navy night torpedo boat attack on Russian warships there during Baltic campaign of the Russian Civil War. [28 ] August 19 – The United States readopts its pre-January 1918
official national insignia for U.S. Army, U.S. Navy, and U.S. Marine Corps aircraft, a white star centered in a blue circle with a red disc centered within the star . The marking will remain in use until June 1, 1942. [29 ] August 23 - With the Polish head of state, Marshal
Józef Piłsudski, looking on, the first aircraft built in a free Poland – a CWL Słowik, a copy of the German Hannover CL.II – crashes during a public ceremonial flight due to faulty bracing wires, killing its two crewmen. The aircraft 's constructor, Karol Słowik, is one of the dead. [30 ] August 25 – The first regularly scheduled airline service between
London and Paris begins, with the British [31 ] Aircraft Transport and Travel company flying a de Havilland DH.16 between Hounslow Heath Aerodrome and Paris - Le Bourget Airport.
September [ edit ]
Aircraft of the Royal Air Force 's
No. 47 Squadron bomb and machine-gun a Bolshevik fleet of 40 boats assembled at Dubrovka on the Volga River for a bombardment of Tsaritsyn. By the third day of their constant attacks, 11 of the boats have been sunk and the rest flee up the river. Lieutenant Howard Mercer, an observer in one of the aircraft, receives the Distinguished Flying Cross for his actions during the attacks. [20 ] [32 ] September 19 –
Compagnie des Messageries Aériennes (CMA) commences a regular service between Paris and London, using ex-military Breguet 14s. September 24 – The 1919
Schneider Trophy race – the first since 1914 – is flown at Bournemouth, UK. An Italian Savoia S.13 is the only finisher, but is disqualifed for missing a turning buoy. When judges ask pilot Guido Janello to complete another lap, he runs out of fuel. September 30
British Aerial Transport Company begins domestic flights between London and Birmingham in a Koolhoven FK.26. Commander Biard, flying the Supermarine route between Southampton and
Le Havre, knocks his passenger out during the flight. The man, a Belgian banker named Lowenstein, wanted to open his umbrella to protect himself from the wind and rain.
October [ edit ]
October 4 – A new altitude world record of 9,622 meters (31,569 feet) is set by American pilot Rudolph Schroeder, flying a
Packard-Le Peré LUSAC-11. October 7 – The airline
KLM is formed. October 8 – The
US Army Air Service begins a transcontinental air race. By the time Lt Belvin Maynard wins it on October 31, seven airmen have died in the attempt. October 11 –
Handley Page Transport begins offering the first in-flight meals, on its London- Brussels service. The meals, consisting of a sandwich, fruits and chocolate, are sold at 3 shillings each. October 13 –
Convention relating to the Regulation of Aerial Navigation signed in Paris. October 20 – The French pilot
Bernard de Romanet, flying a Nieuport-Delage 29v, sets a new world speed record of 268.79 km/hr (166.92 mph). October 22 –
Flying boat pioneer John Cyril Porte dies suddenly of tuberculosis at Brighton.
November [ edit ]
November 1 –
West Indies Airways begins service between Key West, Florida, and Havana, Cuba. November 12 – Brothers
Keith and Ross Macpherson Smith set out on the first flight from England to Australia, flying Vickers Vimy G-EAOU. They will arrive in Darwin, Australia, on December 10 after flying 18,175 km (11,294 miles), winning a prize of £10,000 from the Government of Australia. [13 ] November 14 – The
American Railway Express Company hires a Handley Page V/1500 to carry 1,000 pounds (454 kg) of parcels from New York to Chicago, but the attempt fails due to mechanical problems. November 15 –
Alameda, California, officials announce that suspected criminals will be subjected to perilous flight to make them confess their crimes. November 16 – Captain
Henry Wrigley and Sergeant Arthur Murphy set out on the first flight crossing Australia from south to north (see 1920 in aviation and Frank Briggs for the first east to west flights). Wrigley and Murphy fly a Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.2e from Melbourne to Darwin and arrive on December 12, having spent a total of 47 hours in the air. [13 ]
December [ edit ]
First flights [ edit ]
January [ edit ]
February [ edit ]
September [ edit ]
November [ edit ]
December [ edit ]
Entered service [ edit ]
Retired [ edit ]
References [ edit ]
^ Scheina, Robert L., Latin America: A Naval History 1810-1987, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1987, ISBN 0-87021-295-8, p. 199.
^ a b Donald, David, ed., The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft, New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1997, ISBN 0-7607-0592-5, p. 186.
^ Francillon, René J., Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1979, ISBN 0-87021-313-X, p. 30.
^ a b Layman, R.D., Before the Aircraft Carrier: The Development of Aviation Vessels 1849-1922, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1989, ISBN 0-87021-210-9, p. 122.
^ "Blimp Loosed By Gale; The Navy Dirigible C-5, Blown to Sea from Newfoundland and Picked Up by British Ship.\," The New York Times, May 16, 1919, pp. 1.
^ "Our Runaway Airship Captured by British Ship Eighty-five Miles at Sea, East of St. John's, N.F.", The New York Times, May 16, 1919, pp. 1.
^ Shock, James R., US Navy Airships, Edgewater, Florida: Atlantic Press, 2001, ISBN 0-9639743-8-6, pp. 22-27.
^ O'Connor, Derek, "The Hunt For the Mad Mullah," Aviation History, July 2012, pp. 44-45.
^ a b c Pawlak, Debra Ann, "The Baroness of Flight," Aviation History, July 2008, p. 17.
^ Thetford, Owen, British Naval Aircraft Since 1912, Sixth Edition, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1991, ISBN 1-55750-076-2, p. 121.
^ Dobson, Christopher, and John Miller, The Day They Almost Bombed Moscow: The Allied War in Russia, 1918-1920, New York: Atheneum, 1986, no ISBN number, pp. 222-223.
^ Pawlak, Debra Ann, "The Baroness of Flight," Aviation History, July 2008, p. 17, claims the heigh reached was 15,748 feet (4,800 m).
^ a b c d Mondey, David, ed., The Complete Illustrated History of the World 's Aircraft, Secaucus, New Jersey: Chartwell Books, Inc., 1978, ISBN 0-89009-771-2, p. 28.
^ Colvin, Perry, "Churchill's Aerial Adventures: The Future Prime Minister 's Passion For Flying Helped Transform Military Aviation in Britain," Aviation History, January 2012, p. 19.
^ a b Mondey, David, ed., The Complete Illustrated History of the World 's Aircraft, Secaucus, New Jersey: Chartwell Books, Inc., 1978, ISBN 0-89009-771-2, p. 29.
^ Hollway, Don, "The Sentinel of Verdun," Aviation History, November 2012, p. 40.
^ Dobson, Christopher, and John Miller, The Day They Almost Bombed Moscow: The Allied War in Russia, 1918-1920, New York: Atheneum, 1986, no ISBN number, p. 257.
^ a b Dobson, Christopher, and John Miller, The Day They Almost Bombed Moscow: The Allied War in Russia, 1918-1920, New York: Atheneum, 1986, no ISBN number, p. 20.
^ Guttman, Jon, "Crazy Capronis," Aviation History, July 2008.
^ Venice Airport Lido: On the Wings of the Sparrow
^ Guttman, Jon, "Crazy Capronis," Aviation History, July 2008, p. 55.
^ Dobson, Christopher, and John Miller, The Day They Almost Bombed Moscow: The Allied War in Russia, 1918-1920, New York: Atheneum, 1986, no ISBN number, pp. 224, 225.
^ Hollway, Don, "Through the Arc," Aviation History, November 2012, p. 41.
^ Daniel, Clifton, Chronicle of the 20th Century, Mount Kisco, New York: Chronicle Publications, 1987, ISBN 0-942191-01-3, p. 304.
^ Dobson, Christopher, and John Miller, The Day They Almost Bombed Moscow: The Allied War in Russia, 1918-1920, New York: Atheneum, 1986, no ISBN number, pp. 63-64.
^ Swanborough, Gordon, and Peter M. Bowers, United States Navy Aircraft Since 1911, Second Edition, London: Putnam, 1976, ISBN 0-370-10054-9, pp. 24, 27.
^ Morgała, Andrzej. O samolocie inż. Słowika raz jeszcze in: "Lotnictwo z szachownicą" nr. 21(1/2007), pp.30-33 (Polish)
^ Mondey, David, ed., The Complete Illustrated History of the World 's Aircraft, Secaucus, New Jersey: Chartwell Books, Inc., 1978, ISBN 0-89009-771-2, p. 27.
^ Dobson, Christopher, and John Miller, The Day They Almost Bombed Moscow: The Allied War in Russia, 1918-1920, New York: Atheneum, 1986, no ISBN number, p. 21.
^ Francillon, René J., Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1979, ISBN 0-87021-313-X, p. 26.
^ Aviation Hawaii: 1879-1919 Chronology of Aviation in Hawaii
^ Angelucci, Enzo, The American Fighter: The Definitive Guide to American Fighter Aircraft From 1917 to the Present, New York: Orion Books, 1987, ISBN 0-517-56588-9, p. 460.
^ Peattie, Mark R., Sunburst: The Rise of Japanese Naval Air Power 1909-1941, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 2001, ISBN 1-55750-432-6, p. 17.
^ Gardiner, Robert, ed., Conway(('))s All the World(('))s Fighting Ships 1906-1921, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1985, ISBN 0-87021-907-3, p. 240.
^ Angelucci, Enzo, The American Fighter: The Definitive Guide to American Fighter Aircraft From 1917 to the Present, New York: Orion Books, 1987, p. 94.
^ Angelucci, Enzo, The American Fighter: The Definitive Guide to American Fighter Aircraft From 1917 to the Present, New York: Orion Books, 1987, p. 197.
^ Angelucci, Enzo, The American Fighter: The Definitive Guide to American Fighter Aircraft From 1917 to the Present, New York: Orion Books, 1987, ISBN 0-517-56588-9, p. 421.
^ Angelucci, Enzo, The American Fighter: The Definitive Guide to American Fighter Aircraft From 1917 to the Present, New York: Orion Books, 1987, ISBN 0-517-56588-9, p. 430.
^ Angelucci, Enzo, The American Fighter: The Definitive Guide to American Fighter Aircraft From 1917 to the Present, New York: Orion Books, 1987, p. 196.
^ Angelucci, Enzo, The American Fighter: The Definitive Guide to American Fighter Aircraft From 1917 to the Present, New York: Orion Books, 1987, p. 115.
^ Donald, David, ed., The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft, New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1997, ISBN 978-0-7607-0592-6, p. 77.