|Systematic (IUPAC) name|
|[(2S)-2,3-Dihydroxypropyl] 2-trimethylazaniumylethyl phosphate|
|Mol. mass||257.221 g/mol|
|(what is this?)|
L-Alpha glycerylphosphorylcholine (alpha-GPC, choline alfoscerate) is a natural choline compound found in the brain and in milk. It is also a parasympathomimetic acetylcholine precursor which may have potential for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and dementia. Alpha-GPC is also used as a nootropic dietary supplement to enhance memory and cognition.
Alpha-GPC rapidly delivers choline to the brain across the blood–brain barrier and is a biosynthetic precursor of the acetylcholine neurotransmitter.. It is a non-prescription drug in most countries due to it's Generally Recognised As Safe (GRAS) status.
Studies have investigated its efficacy for cognitive disorders including stroke and Alzheimer’s disease. An Italian multicentre clinical trial on 2,044 patients suffering from recent stroke were supplied alpha-GPC in doses of 1,000 mg/day for 28 days and 400 mg three times per day for the five ensuing months. The trial confirmed the therapeutic role of alpha-GPC on the cognitive recovery of patients based on four measurement scales, three of which reached statistical significance.. Commonly used doses are 300 to 1,200 mg daily..
Alpha-GPC may be derived from highly purified soy lecithin in small volumes. Industrially, it is produced by the chemical or enzymatic deacylation of phosphatidylcholine enriched soya phospholipids followed by chromatographic purification.
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- Parnetti, Lucilla; et al. (2007). "Cholinergic precursors in the treatment of cognitive impairment of vascular origin: Ineffective approaches or need for re-evaluation?". Journal of the Neurological Sciences 257 (1–2): 264–9. doi:10.1016/j.jns.2007.01.043. PMID 17331541.
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- Takashi Kawamura M.S. a, Takeshi Okubo Ph.D. b, Koji Sato Ph.D. a, Satoshi Fujita Ph.D. a, Kazushige Goto Ph.D. a, Takafumi Hamaoka M.D., Ph.D. a, Motoyuki Iemitsu Ph.D. (2012). "Glycerophosphocholine enhances growth hormone secretion and fat oxidation in young adults". Nutrition 28: 1122–1126.
- Barbagallo Sangiorgi G, et al. "Alpha-Glycerophosphocholine in the mental recovery of cerebral ischemic attacks." An Italian multicenter clinical trial. Ann NY Acad Sci 1994; 717:253-69.