Anglo American plc
|Type||Public limited company|
|Traded as||LSE: AAL, JSE: ANGLO|
|Industry||Metals and Mining|
(Anglo American plc)
|Headquarters||London, United Kingdom|
|Key people||Sir John Parker
(Chairman of the Board)
|Products||Copper, diamonds, iron ore, metallurgical coal, nickel, platinum and thermal coal|
|Revenue||US$29.342 billion (2013)|
|Operating income||US$6.168 billion (2013)|
|Net income||US$0.426 billion (2013)|
|Employees||Approximately 100,000 (2011)|
Lafarge Tarmac (50%)
Anglo American plc is a British multinational mining company headquartered in London, United Kingdom. It is the world's largest producer of platinum, with around 40% of world output, and a major producer of diamonds, copper, nickel, iron ore and metallurgical and thermal coal. It has operations in Africa, Asia, Australasia, Europe, North America and South America.
Anglo American has a primary listing on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index. It had a market capitalisation of approximately £31.2 billion as of 23 December 2011, the 15th-largest company of any company with a primary listing on the London Stock Exchange. It has a secondary listing on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange.
1917 to 1960
Sir Ernest Oppenheimer, along with the American bank J.P. Morgan & Co., founded the Anglo American Corporation, a gold mining company, in 1917 with £1 million, raised from UK and US sources, and ultimately derived the name of the company. The AAC became the majority stakeholder in the De Beers company in 1926. Two years later, the AAC began mining in the Zambian copper belt.
In 1945, the AAC moved into the coal industry by acquiring Coal Estates. Twelve years later, in 1957, Sir Ernest died in Johannesburg and was succeeded by his son, Harry Oppenheimer, who also became chairman of De Beers. In the late 1940s and 1950s, the AAC focused on the development of the Free State goldfields (seven major mines simultaneously) and the Vaal Reefs mine. The success of the mines enabled the company to become the world’s largest gold-mining group.
1960 to 1990
In 1961, the AAC expanded outside of southern Africa for the first time and became a major investor in the Hudson Bay Mining and Smelting Company in Canada. In 1967, the company moved into the steel industry by acquiring Scaw Metals. From 1967 to 1975, it continued to grow and established a number of ventures, including the Mondi Group (timber, pulp and paper), Amgold (later AngloGold Ashanti) and then Amcoal (through the consolidation of several of its mining operations in South Africa and later known as Anglo Coal and in 2010 changed to Anglo Thermal). In 1982, Harry Oppenheimer retired as chairman of the AAC and was succeeded by Gavin Relly. Two years later, Oppenheimer retired from De Beers and passed the chairmanship to Julian Ogilvie Thompson, who in 1990 also became chairman and chief executive of the AAC.
1990 to 2010
Anglo American Corporation merged with Minorco on 24 May 1999 to form Anglo American plc with its primary listing on the London Stock Exchange and a secondary listing on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange. Its gold mining operations were spun off into the separate AngloGold corporation, which in 2004 merged with the Ashanti Goldfields Corporation to form AngloGold Ashanti. Anglo American reduced its stake in AngloGold Ashanti to 16.6 percent in 2008 and exited the company completely in 2009.
In 2000, Julian Ogilvie Thompson retired as chief executive of Anglo American and was succeeded by Tony Trahar. Ogilvie Thompson also retired as chairman in 2002 and was replaced by Sir Mark Moody-Stuart. In the same year, Anglo American acquired Tarmac, a supplier of building materials, and Shell Petroleum Company’s Australian coal assets In 2001, De Beers was privatised after being a listed company for more than 70 years.
In 2002, South Africa’s Mining Charter was approved and Anglo American and other mining companies with operations in the country were mandated to transfer a percentage of their South African production to historically disadvantaged South Africans. From 2002 to July 2008 Anglo American carried out black community economic empowerment transactions (across all businesses with operations in South Africa) totalling R26 billion. Also, in 2002, Anglo Base Metals acquired the Disputada copper operations in Chile from Exxon Mobil Corporation and opened a representative office in Beijing, China. In 2003, Anglo American acquired a major stake in iron ore producer Kumba Resources.
In 2007, Cynthia Carroll succeeded Tony Trahar, becoming the first non-South African and first female chief executive of Anglo American. The Mondi Group, a paper and packaging business, was also spun out in 2007. During the next two years, Anglo American opened a representative office in New Delhi, India, acquired control of the Michiquillay copper project in northern Peru and the MMX Minas-Rio and Amapa iron ore projects in Brazil and later acquired stakes in the Pebble copper project in Alaska and Foxleigh coal mine in Australia.
2010 to present
On 4 November 2011 it was announced that Anglo American had agreed to acquire the Oppenheimer family's 40% stake in De Beers for $5.1 billion (£3.2 billion), raising its stake to 85% (with the remainder owned by the Botswana government).
Anglo American Plc. sold a 24.5 percent share in its Chilean copper unit for $5.39 billion to Japan's Mitsubishi Corporation paid with a promissory note which is due on 10 November 2011. With this deal, the Anglo American Sur complex was valued at $22 billion.
In November 2012, Anglo completed the sale of steel maker Scaw South Africa Ltd unit and its connected companies for a total of 3.4 billion rand in cash.
The company focuses on natural resources with five core business units: base metals, coal, diamonds, iron ore (or ferrous metals and industries) and platinum. Its operating footprint includes Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, North America and South America.
Wholly owned subsidiaries include Anglo Base Metals, Anglo Ferrous Metals and Industries, Anglo Thermal and Anglo Industrial Minerals (Tarmac). Partially owned subsidiaries include Copebras (Brazil), Anglo American Platinum Ltd (South Africa) (79.8%)and 70% of Kumba Iron Ore. The paper and packaging business Mondi Group was spun out in 2007. It also holds 45% of the diamond mining company De Beers. Anglo-American entered into talks in November 2011 with the Oppenheimer family to purchase an additional 40% stake in De Beers for $5.1 billion, which would increase their stake to 85%.
In 2008, the company had 105,000 permanent employees and 39,000 contract employees in its managed operations located in 45 countries.
Anglo American's biggest project is the Minas-Rio iron ore project in Brazil; it has faced delays and high costs, but in December 2010 Anglo American gained a key license from the government that would allow work to start. Production is initially expected to be 26.5Mt/y; iron ore would be sent through a 525 km slurry pipeline to a port at Açu
In 2008, Anglo American (excluding De Beers) spent $212 million on exploring 21 countries for resources including copper, nickel, niobium phosphates and zinc. The two main types of exploration for the company are Greenfield and Brownfield with nearly 70% devoted to Greenfield projects.
Research and development
Anglo American established Boart Products South Africa Limited in 1936 (later named Boart International) to turn the company’s stockpile of boart, or low-grade natural diamonds, into drilling products. This initiative resulted in the development of the first mechanically set diamond drill bit and later led to additional research into cutting and abrasive tools.
Anglo American is a member of the World Business Council for Sustainable Development. Additionally, Anglo American committed to support the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative which strengthens governance by improving transparency and accountability in the extractives sector.
A socio economic toolkit originally developed by Anglo American to manage the social aspects of its operational impacts, was released into the public domain for non-profits and other companies to use. The program was commended by the World Business Awards program of the United Nations Development Programme
With a significant number of operations and employees in South Africa, Anglo American faces the HIV/AIDS challenge on a large scale. In response, it runs a workplace program for HIV/AIDS testing and counselling. In 2002, it started to provide antiretroviral drugs for employees with AIDS
In 1977, the company demanded that the paper it owned, Rand Daily Mail, tone down its equal-rights support after exposing the murder of South African activist Steve Biko amid the subsequent government backlash.
In August 2007, the British charity, War on Want, published a report accusing Anglo American of profiting from the abuse of people in the developing countries in which the company operates. According to the charity, "in the Philippines and South Africa, local communities threatened with Anglo American mines have faced severe repression in their fight to stay on their land, while in Ghana and Mali, local communities see little of the huge profits being made by AngloGold Ashanti but suffer from fear and intimidation and from the damaging impact of its mines on their environment, health and livelihoods". Anglo American subsequently published a report responding to War on Want and separately disclosed its safety performance in its most recent annual earnings report, along with immediate measures to address safety concerns
Anglo American was also accused in 2007 of damaging environmental practices: in order to complete its planned Alaskan Pebble Mine in collaboration with Northern Dynasty Minerals, the global mining giant may build a massive dam at the headwaters of the world's largest sockeye salmon fishery, which it would risk obliterating. Opponents are also pointing to the use of cyanide, heavy metals, and acid mine drainage which can all have potentially devastating effects on the pristine environment of the Bristol Bay area. Opponents of the Pebble Mine created Ballot Measure 4 to impose additional water quality standards on new large-scale mines in the state. However, in August 2007, Alaskans voted against the initiative. The Pebble Limited Partnership has not yet put forward a project proposal and is working to prepare a Prefeasibility Study for the project in the second half of 2009. The mine proposal must still undergo environmental studies and the permitting process, including being subject to state and federal water protections
Nunamta Aulukestai (Caretakers of Our Land) and the Renewable Resources Coalition commissioned a report regarding Anglo American and their current and past subsidiaries. The report is written by Philip Mattera, a corporate reporter. The report, released in July 2008, criticises Anglo American for community, worker safety, public health, and environmental problems at their mining operations in South Africa, Zimbabwe, Ghana, Mali, Ireland, and the United States (Nevada) and notes the difference between Anglo's stated corporate goals and their actual corporate performance.
- List of mining companies
- Mineral Policy Institute
- Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative
- International Council on Mining and Metals
- United Nations Global Compact
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