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|Saint-Étienne de Bourges|
|Elevation||120–169 m (390–554 ft)
(avg. 153 m or 502 ft)
|Land area1||68.74 km2 (26.54 sq mi)|
|- Density||1,454 /km2 (3,770 /sq mi)|
|INSEE/Postal code||18033/ 18000|
|1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.|
|2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.|
The name of the city is either derived from the Bituriges, the name of the original inhabitants, or from the Germanic Burg (French: Bourg. Spanish: Burgos. English, others: Burgh, Berg, or Borough), for "hill/village". Its Celtic name was Avaricon and its Latin name was Avaricum. In the Gallic Wars, the Gauls practised a scorched-earth policy, but the inhabitants of Avaricum begged not to have their city burned, and it was spared due to its good defences provided by the surrounding marshes and a strong southern wall. Following the siege of Avaricum in the winter of 52 BC, Julius Caesar's forces destroyed the city and killed all but 800 of its inhabitants.
The city was reconstructed as a Roman city, with a monumental gate, aqueducts, thermae and an amphitheatre, reaching a greater size than it would attain during the Middle Ages. The massive walls surrounding the late Roman city, enclosing 40 hectares, were built in part re-using stone from earlier public buildings.
The third century Saint Ursinus, also known as Saint Ursin, is considered the first bishop of the city. Bourges is the seat of an archbishopric. During the 8th century Bourges lay on the northern fringes of the Duchy of Aquitaine and was therefore the first town to come under Frankish attacks when they crossed the Loire. It was captured by the Frankish Charles Martel in 731 but immediately reconquered by the duke Odo the Great. It remained under the rule of counts who pledged allegiance to the Aquitanian dukes up to the destructive assault of Pepin the Short on independent Aquitaine starting in 760, when Basque troops are found defending the town along with its count.
The Gothic Cathedral of Saint Etienne, begun at the end of the twelfth century, is listed as a World Heritage Site. It is considered the earliest example of the high gothic style of the thirteenth century.
During the Middle Ages, Bourges was the capital of a Viscounty until the fourteenth century. The future king, Charles VII, sought refuge there. His son, Louis XI, was born there in 1423. In 1438, Charles decreed the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges. During this period, Bourges was also a major capital of alchemy.
The city has a long tradition of art and history, other sites of importance include the Palace of Jacques Cœur and a sixty-five-hectare district of half-timbered houses and fine town houses.
- Its Gothic cathedral (built 1195–1255) was added to the list of the World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 1992
- Jacques Cœur's Palace
- The Maurice Estève Museum
- The marshes of the Yèvre and Voiselle Rivers were listed in 2003 as a French Natural Monument or Site
- The ruins of the Gallo-Roman walls
- The Conservatoire national du Pélargonium
The railway station Gare de Bourges offers direct connections to Paris (2 hours), Orléans, Tours, Lyon and several regional destinations. The A71 motorway connects Bourges with Orléans and Clermont-Ferrand. Bourges Airport is a small regional airport.
Sport and Recreation 
Bourges has a football team called Bourges Football 18. It is also home to the women's basketball club CJM Bourges Basket, which has won multiple titles in domestic and European basketball. Bourges XV is the premier rugby team in the region, currently playing in French National Division, Federal 3.
Colleges and universities 
- Emmanuel Imorou footballer
Twin towns – sister cities 
Bourges is twinned with:
- Augsburg, Germany
- Aveiro, Portugal
- Forlì, Italy
- Koszalin, Poland
- Palencia, Spain
- Peterborough, United Kingdom
- – Yoshkar-Ola, Russia
The Printemps de Bourges music festival takes place in Bourges every year.
See also 
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Bourges|