Yoshkar-Ola

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For other uses of "Yoshkar-Ola", see Yoshkar-Ola (disambiguation).
Yoshkar-Ola (English)
Йошкар-Ола (Russian)
Йошкар-Ола (Mari)
-  City[1]  -
Collage of Yoshkar-Ola (2009).png
Top: Wall clock display in the Yoshkar-Ola National Art Gallery. Middle left: Yoshkar-Ola City Hall. Middle right: Flower-style lantern in Obolensky-Nogotkov Square. Bottom left: Monument to Obolensky-Nogotkov. Bottom right: Monument to Tsar Cannon in the National Art Gallery.
Map of Russia - Mari El Republic (2008-03).svg
Location of the Mari El Republic in Russia
Yoshkar-Ola is located in Mari El
Yoshkar-Ola
Yoshkar-Ola
Location of Yoshkar-Ola in the Mari El Republic
Coordinates: 56°38′N 47°52′E / 56.633°N 47.867°E / 56.633; 47.867Coordinates: 56°38′N 47°52′E / 56.633°N 47.867°E / 56.633; 47.867
Coat of Arms of Yoshkar-Ola (Mariy-El) (2005).png
Flag of Yoshkar-Ola (Mariy-El).png
Coat of arms
Flag
City Day Third Saturday of August[citation needed]
Administrative status (as of December 2013)
Country Russia
Federal subject Mari El Republic[1]
Administratively subordinated to city of republic significance of Yoshkar-Ola[1]
Capital of Mari El Republic[2]
Administrative center of city of republic significance of Yoshkar-Ola[1]
Municipal status (as of December 2013)
Urban okrug Yoshkar-Ola Urban Okrug[3]
Administrative center of Yoshkar-Ola Urban Okrug[3]
Head[citation needed] Oleg Voinov[citation needed]
Statistics
Area 100.39 km2 (38.76 sq mi)[4]
Population (2010 Census) 248,782 inhabitants[5]
Rank in 2010 74th
Density 2,478 /km2 (6,420 /sq mi)[6]
Time zone MSK (UTC+04:00)[7]
Founded 1584[citation needed]
City status since 1781[citation needed]
Postal code(s)[8] 424000—424045
Dialing code(s) +7 8362[citation needed]
Official website
Yoshkar-Ola on WikiCommons

Yoshkar-Ola (Russian: Йошка́р-Ола́; Mari: Йошкар-Ола) is the capital city of the Mari El Republic, Russia. Population: 248,782 (2010 Census);[5] 256,719 (2002 Census);[9] 241,601 (1989 Census).[10]

Names[edit]

Yoshkar-Ola means red city in Mari. The current name is the third to have been given to the city. The city was known as Tsaryovokokshaysk (Царёвококшайск) before 1919 and as Krasnokokshaysk (Краснококшайск) between 1919 and 1927. These names were derived from the name of the Malaya Kokshaga River, which runs through the city. The city's old Mari name was Charla (Чарла).

History[edit]

Yoshkar-Ola was established as a military fortress in 1584, following the Russian conquest of the Mari region.

During the Soviet era, especially after World War II, the city was a regional industrial and transport center and grew to its current size. The collapse of the Soviet Union removed support for state enterprises, and led to the shutdown of most manufacturing activity in the area. Much of the city's economic activity was supported by shuttle traders who would transport (often counterfeit) goods from the bustling markets of Moscow to Yoshkar-Ola's bazaars. The sharp decline in living standards led to the emigration of specialized professionals to larger cities in Russia.

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

Yoshkar-Ola is the capital of the republic.[2] Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with ten rural localities, incorporated as the city of republic significance of Yoshkar-Ola—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, the city of republic significance of Yoshkar-Ola is incorporated as Yoshkar-Ola Urban Okrug.[3]

Transportation[edit]

Yoshkar-Ola is linked to other cities and regions in Russia by a series of train and bus routes. The local train station is currently served by a daily train to and from the capital Moscow with other short-service trains running to and from Kazan. Moscow and various other nearby towns and regions can also be reached by buses departing from the local bus station. The Yoshkar-Ola Airport is also located 9 km north of the city and handles small aircraft Moscow-bound flights (Vnukovo International Airport) since April 2012. It is planned to expand the range of destinations in the near future.

Destinations within the city limits can be reached through a network of buses, trolleys, and route taxis, or marshrutkas. There are currently seven different bus routes, eleven different trolley routes, and seventeen marshrutka routes.[citation needed]

A train leaves Yoshkar-Ola every evening at 19:00 to Moscow, stopping at routes along the way.

Climate[edit]

The city is situated in a temperate continental climate. The winters are long and cold with lots of snow, with temperatures going as low as −30 °C (−22 °F) in January, which is the coldest month. The city enjoys very warm summers, marred by only occasional, brief intervals of sultry or rainy conditions with July as the hottest month, when the temperatures may stay around +35 °C (95 °F) every day.

Education[edit]

Yoshkar-Ola is home to several institutions of higher education:

There are also many schools for Primary Students aged between 7 and 18

Military[edit]

The 14th Kiev-Zhitomir Rocket Division of the 27th Guards Missile Army of the Strategic Rocket Forces is located nearby.[11]

Twin towns and sister cities[edit]

Yoshkar-Ola is twinned with:

External links[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Law #22-Z
  2. ^ a b Constitution of the Mari El Republic, Article 16
  3. ^ a b c Law #15-Z
  4. ^ БД ПМО Республики Марий Эл. Город Йошкар-Ола
  5. ^ a b "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  6. ^ The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population.
  7. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  8. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Russian)
  9. ^ "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  10. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров." [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989) (in Russian). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  11. ^ 14th Kievsko-Zhitomirskaya order of Kutuzov Missile Division

Sources[edit]

  • 24 июня 1995 г. «Конституция Республики Марий Эл», в ред. Закона №49-З от 27 августа 2012 г. «О поправках к Конституции Республики Марий Эл». Вступил в силу 7 июля 1995 г. (за исключением отдельных положений). Опубликован: "Марийская правда", 7 июля 1995 г. (June 24, 1995 Constitution of the Mari El Republic, as amended by the Law #49-Z of August 27, 2012 On Amending the Constitution of the Mari El Republic. Effective as of July 7, 1995 (with the exception of several clauses).).
  • Государственное Собрание Республики Марий Эл. Закон №22-З от 3 мая 2006 г. «О порядке решения вопросов административно-территориального устройства (деления) Республики Марий Эл», в ред. Закона №67-З от 30 декабря 2013 г. «О преобразовании некоторых административно-территориальных единиц и муниципальных образований в Республике Марий Эл и о внесении изменений в отдельные законодательные акты Республики Марий Эл». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Марийская правда", №81, 6 мая 2006 г. (State Assembly of the Mari El Republic. Law #22-Z of May 3, 2006 On the Procedures of the Administrative-Territorial Structure (Division) of the Mari El Republic, as amended by the Law #67-Z of December 30, 2013 On the Transformation of Several Administrative-Territorial Units and Municipal Formations in the Mari El Republic and on Amending Certain Legislative Acts of the Mari El Republic. Effective as of the official publication date.).
  • Государственный Совет Республики Марий Эл. Закон №15-З от 18 июня 2004 г. «О статусе, границах и составе муниципальных районов, городских округов в Республике Марий Эл», в ред. Закона №67-З от 30 декабря 2013 г. «О преобразовании некоторых административно-территориальных единиц и муниципальных образований в Республике Марий Эл и о внесении изменений в отдельные законодательные акты Республики Марий Эл». Вступил в силу через 10 дней после официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Марийская правда", №116, 24 июня 2004 г. (State Council of the Mari El Republic. Law #15-Z of June 18, 2004 On the Status, Borders, and Composition of the Municipal Districts, Urban Okrugs in the Mari El Republic, as amended by the Law #67-Z of December 30, 2013 On the Transformation of Several Administrative-Territorial Units and Municipal Formations in the Mari El Republic and on Amending Certain Legislative Acts of the Mari El Republic. Effective as of after 10 days after the official publication.).