Interglossa

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Interglosa
Created by Lancelot Hogben
Date 1943
Setting and usage international auxiliary language
Purpose
Sources Latin and Greek
Language codes
ISO 639-3 igs
Linguist list
igs

The auxiliary language Interglossa was devised by biologist Lancelot Hogben during World War II, as an attempt to put the international lexicon of science and technology, mainly of Greek and Latin origin, into a language with a purely isolating grammar. Interglossa was published in 1943 as just a draft of an auxiliary.[1] Hogben applied semantic principles to provide a reduced vocabulary of just over 880 words which suffices for basic conversation among peoples of different nationality.

History[edit]

In 1943 Hogben published Interglossa: A draft of an auxiliary for a democratic world order. As a professor, Hogben had seen how hard it was for the students to memorize the terms of biology, as they were poorly acquainted with etymology and the classical languages. So he began to show them the international Greek and Latin roots of these terms to aid their memory. He started to compile a vocabulary, and later, during World War II at Birmingham, he devised some guidelines of syntax, thus completing the draft of a new auxiliary language especially based on the lexicon of modern science:

Because natural science is the only existing form of human co-operation on a planetary scale, men of science, who have to turn to journals published in many languages for necessary information, are acutely aware that the babel of tongues is a social problem of the first magnitude. Men of science, more than others, have at their finger-tips an international vocabulary which is already in existence (...)

— Hogben (1943, p. 7)

Eventually, Hogben became convinced that such an auxiliary language appeared to be more necessary than ever before, so he decided to publish his proposal, insisting that it was simply a draft:

A good enough reason for publishing this draft is that the post-war world may be ripe, as never before, for recognition of need for a remedy which so many others have sought. When need becomes articulate, it will be relatively simple for an international committee (...).
(...) the author modestly consigns this first draft in the hope that readers will make suggestions and offer constructive criticisms as a basis for something better. It is not a primer for the beginner.

— Hogben (1943, p. 7)

Interglossa might be seen as the draft of its descendant auxiliary language Glosa,[2] which has partly changed and expanded the lexicon.

Alphabet and pronunciation[edit]

Interglossa has a Latin alphabet using the 26 letters of the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

Capital letters
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Lower case
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z
IPA phonemes
a b k d e f g h i j k l m n o p k r s t u v w ks i ts

Most letters of the alphabet are pronounced in accordance with the symbols of the international phonetic alphabet, with the following exceptions:

y is equivalent to /i/.
c and q are equivalent to /k/.
ph, th, ch, rh, have respectively the value /f/, /t/, /k/, /r/.
Initial x is /z/, otherwise /ks/.

In the following initial consonant combinations, the first element is silent: ct-, gn-, mn-, pn-, ps-, pt-.

These rules admit of no inconsistencies. The inconvenience of having a few anomalies which go into a dozen lines of print is far less than the disadvantage which would result from mutilating roots beyond visual recognition.

— Hogben (1943, p. 30)

The stress is generally on the penultimate syllable, e.g. billEta (ticket), nEsia (island). If the word ends with two vowels (-io, -ia, etc.), these might sound as a diphthong. But Hogben rather keeps an hiatus, stating that the stress in nEsia is on the antepenultimate syllable (nE-si-a).

Parts of Speech[edit]

A classification of parts of speech relevant to an isolating language would not follow the categories appropriate to the flexional system of the Indo-European group. The vocables of Interglossa can be classified following the function of individual vocables in the “sentence-landscape”[1] (p. 32-3):

  • Substantives (items no. 483 to 860; and no. 874 to 880; additionally no. 881 to 954): Names for concrete things. Any one of them can act as an adjective, as it increasingly happens in English. Examples (from the sample text below): crati (government), geo (earth), pani (bread), parenta (parent), urani (heaven).
    • Parts of the Body (no. 483 to 550)
    • Zoological and Botanical terms (no. 551 to 630)
    • Geographical names (no. 631 to 668)
    • Food, Clothes and Furniture (no. 669 to 702)
    • Architectural terms; Shapes and Units (no. 703 to 732)
    • Instruments (no. 733 to 783)
    • Substances and Manufactured Articles (other than Foods and Clothes) (no. 784 to 808)
    • Human Affairs (no. 809 to 860)
  • There is a set of generic substantives (no. 47 to 60) used in compounds. Examples: -pe [from persona] (person), dirigo-pe (driver, pilot), tene-pe (keeper), pan-pe (everybody).
  • Amplifiers” (no. 141 to 462; and no. 862 to 873): Abstract words, anyone of which can take the place of a noun, adjective or corresponding adverb. Examples: accido (happening, real, -ity, etc.), demo (population), dirigo / controlo (direction, control, etc.), dyno (power, -ful, etc.), eu (good, -ness, well, etc.), famo (reputation, fame), eu-famo (good fame, glory, etc.), libero (free, -dom), malo (evil), nomino (name), offero (offer, -ing), pardo (forgiving, forgiveness), revero (reverent, -ence).
    • Some of them do the work of place or time particles (no. 61 to 101). Examples: a(d) (to, toward(s)), apo (away from, etc.), di (day, daily, on (the day...), etc.), epi (on), in (in, inner, etc.), tem (time, while, etc.).
    • Some of them do the work of associative particles with additional meaning as prepositions and/or conjunctions (no. 102 to 128). Examples: causo (cause, because, etc.), de (of, in relation to, etc.), harmono (harmony, according to, etc.), hetero (different, unlike, otherwise, etc.), homo (similar, -ly, like), metro (measure, in so far as, etc.), plus (addition, -al, in addition, and, etc.), tendo (aim, will, in order to, etc.).
    • Some of them do the work of auxiliary verbs (no. 129 to 140). Example: volo (willing, wish, wish to, want to, would like to).
  • Verboids” (no. 463 to 482): Names of processes and states. Examples: acte (do, act, etc.), date (give, etc.), dicte (say, express, etc.), gene (get, etc.), habe (have, etc.), tene (keep, etc.). They may not act like a verb, e.g.: plu malo acte (the evil acts, the sins).
    • They may form natural combinations with abstract words, analogous to such Basic English constructions. Examples: acte dirigo (direct, control, etc.), acte malo (do evil, sin, trespass), acte pardo (forgive), date libero (give freedom, free), dicte petitio (say a request, request), dicte volo (wish, etc.), habe accido (happen, etc.).
  • Pseudonyms” (no. 1 to 11): They function both as pronouns and as equivalents for nouns or for corresponding adjectives. Examples: na (we, us, our), mu (they, those, etc. (multitude)), su (who... (relative pronoun when subject)), tu (thou, thee, thy, you, your).
  • Interrogative, Imperative, Negative and Comparative Particles (no. 41 to 46), two of which allow for question, request or command without deviation from the invariant word-pattern. Examples: no(n) (not, no!), peti (request). While peti is a brief way to express the polite imperative, dicte petitio would be the whole expression.
    • In the sample text below, the expression dicte volo may be equivalent to the English subjunctive: Na dicte volo; tu Nomino gene revero : hallowed be thy name.
  • Articles (no. 12 to 40): General words and numerals which have the function of predicating plurality or otherwise in relation to noun-equivalents (all of which are invariant like English sheep). Examples: pan (all), plu (some, a number of, the), u(n) (a(n), any, the).

“Sentence-landscape”[edit]

For ready recognition, a language free of flexions can benefit from two types of signposts of “sentence-landscape”: articles (see “Parts of Speech”), and terminals (that is, final vowels):

  • Substantives end in -a or -i. (Exceptions are: geo, cardo, acu, occlu, bureau, computo).
  • Amplifiers” end in -o. (Exceptions are: anni, di, hora, post, pre, tem, ad, contra, epi, ex, extra, in, inter, para, littora, peri, tele, trans, anti, de, minus, per, plus, syn, vice).
  • Verboids” end in -e.
  • Pseudonyms”, otherwise, end in no particular terminal: mi, tu, na, an[dro], fe[mina], re, pe[rsona], mu[lti], auto, recipro, su[bject].

Hogben prefers to have this number of exceptions instead of the disadvantage of mutilating a familiar international stem or of unduly lengthening the word.[1] (p. 37)

Syntax[edit]

Interglossa is a purely isolating language like Chinese, not depending on suffixes, neither flexional nor derivational, yet it uses a kind of composites whose second component is a monosyllabic noun. Like in Chinese (and English), composite nouns are essential, and so is the context. According to Hogben, such composite nouns may be self-explicit while we take into account its common context of use [1] (p. 21).

Interglossa provides a minimal grammar with a series of syntactic rules, yet differing from the usual grammar of inflexional-agglutinative languages like the Indo-European ones:

Inevitably, we find our-selves gravitating away from the grammatical pattern of the Aryan [Indo-European] family to a more universal idiom with features common to Chinese. The result is that learning a language so designed is a lively training in clear thinking of a kind which anyone can usefully undertake. In fact, the grammar of Interglossa, as is largely true of Basic English, is semantics.

— Hogben (1943, p. 24)

Lexicon[edit]

Unlike other auxiliary languages, Hogben’s Interglossa tends to adopt the international words from Greek, on account of the intense infiltration of Greek roots into everyday life, which come from modern science and technology. For instance: microbe, microphone, telephone, etc.[1] (p. 30). Even so, a great part of the lexicon is of Latin origin. The term Inter-glossa itself is composed of the Latin inter and the Greek glossa. At times Hogben wavers between Greek and Latin, and suggests pairs of equivalent synonyms (e.g. hypo and infra, soma and corpora), for an eventual international committee to decide between them.

Mass observation on the basis of questionnaires sent out to different groups of people of different nationalities would settle which words in each pigeon-hole are entitled to first-rank.

— Hogben (1943, p.15-16)

In 1943 Hogben announced the preparation of an additional volume, A short English-Interglossa Dictionary. It seems that this volume was not in fact published. Its manuscript is kept among Hogben's papers at the University of Birmingham.[3]

Sample text[edit]

The following is the Lord's Prayer, in Interglossa “U Petitio de Christi”[1] (p.242):

Interglossa version: Text in Greek: English version (with final doxology):

Na Parenta in Urani:
Na dicte volo; tu Nomino gene revero;
plus tu Crati habe accido;
plus u Demo acte harmono tu Tendo
epi Geo homo in Urani;
Na dicte petitio: Tu date plu di Pani a Na;
plus Tu acte pardo plu malo Acte de Na;
metro Na acte pardo Mu; Su acte malo de Na.
Peti Tu non acte dirigo Na a plu malo Offero;
Hetero, Tu date libero Na apo Malo.
Causo Tu tene u Crati plus u Dyno plus un eu Famo
pan Tem.
Amen.

Πάτερ ημών ο εν τοις ουρανοίς,
αγιασθήτω το όνομά Σου,
ελθέτω η Βασιλεία σου,
γενηθήτω το θέλημά σου
ως εν ουρανώ και επί της γης.
Τον άρτον ημών τον επιούσιον δος ημίν σήμερον,
και άφες ημίν τα οφειλήματα ημών,
ως και ημείς αφίεμεν τοις οφειλέταις ημών.
Και μη εισενέγκης ημάς εις πειρασμόν,
αλλά ρύσαι ημάς από του πονηρού.
Ότι σου εστί η βασιλεία και η δύναμις και η δόξα
εις τους αιώνας.
Αμήν.

Our Father who art in heaven,
hallowed be thy name.
Thy kingdom come.
Thy will be done,
on earth as it is in heaven.
Give us this day our daily bread,
and forgive us our trespasses,
as we forgive those who trespass against us,
and lead us not into temptation,
but deliver us from evil.
For thine is the kingdom,
and the power, and the glory,
for ever and ever.
Amen.

Word-list[edit]

Hogben provides a numbered list of 880 words with etymologic clues[1](pp. 256-82). Some of the items (about 100) are pairs of synonyms, for example: dirigo / controlo (item no. 185).
Hogben also provides an additional list of 74 international words, so actually there would be a lexicon of 954.
Hogben finally provides an alphabetical list (pp. 249-56), which unfortunately has frequent mistakes in the item numbers (here corrected).
Syllables in bold type are "generic substantives" used in compound words.

Item no. Word
483 abdomini
551 acantha
141 accido
784 acidi
463 acouste
142 acro
464 acte
143 activo
733 acu
144 acuto
076 a(d)
180 adapto
145 adhesio
146 aero
147 aetio
809 agenda
455 aggresso
631 agri
148 algo
149 alieno
102 allo
633 alluvia
150 alto
151 amico
703 amorphi
669 ampulla
552 amygda
670 amyla
004 an
553 ana
152 anemo
175 angio
061 anni
554 anseri
077 antero
785 anthraci
103 anti
810 anthropi
556 api
078 apo
734 ara
274 arbitro
153 archo
786 argenta
811 arma
329 aromo
154 arrogo
484 arthri
812 arti
735 artilleri
669 asci
556 asini
772 aspi
155 assuro
633 astra
634 asyla
704 atria
156 attendo
334 attitudo
463 audie
787 aura
153 authorito
009 auto
557 avi
736 axi
737 baci
635 baia
705 balconi
465 balle
813 banca
157 baro
158 baso
159 batho
028 bi
814 bibli
160 bibo
815 billeta
161 bio
738 blada
162 blasto
739 bomba
079 boreo
558 bovi
485 brachi
163 bronto
558 brya
486 bucca
560 bulba
816 bureau
671 bursa
672 butyri
673 caca
674 cafa
487 calca
196 callo
675 calyci
861 cambio
561 cameli
047 cameri
676 campani
562 canabi
636 canali
563 canceri
564 cani
488 cantha
164 canto
460 capacito
546 capilla
817 capitali
818 capitula
819 capsa
165 captivo
788 carba
489 cardia
740 cardo
565 cari
682 carni
566 carpa
490 carpi
637 carta
874 cartoni
617 casea
166 catalyso
741 catena
548 cauda
567 caula
104 causo
167 cavito
168 celebro
169 celero
037 centi
706 centra
491 cephali
707 cera
492 cerebra
168 ceremonio
170 certifo
155 certo
568 cervi
492 cervica
862 charito
494 chiri
171 chloro
678 choani
172 cholo
495 chondra
173 choro
820 christi
174 chromo
062 chron
569 chyma
863 cido
789 cigara
790 cigaretta
570 citra
821 classi
175 claustro
742 clavi
743 cleidi
105 cleisto
176 clepto
638 clima
679 clinica
177 clino
571 cochlea
572 cocoa
167 coelo
178 cogito
179 coito
744 colea
791 colla
822 coloni
708 columni
180 comico
823 commisari
824 commita
181 communo
825 compani
106 comparo
182 competo
839 computo
864 concessio
530 concha
107 conditio
680 confecti
183 confessio
871 confusio
108 congruo
709 coni
573 coniferi
184 consolo
639 continenti
080 contra
185 controlo
745 copa
505 copra
746 copula
514 cornua
681 corona
541 corpora
875 corpuscula
747 coryna
640 cosmi
496 costa
534 coxa
497 crania
826 crati
682 crea
186 credito
187 credo
792 creta
188 critico
710 cruci
189 cryo
190 crypto
793 crystali
748 cteni
711 cuba
574 cucurbi
191 culino
192 culto
794 cupra
193 curo
206 curso
194 curvo
195 cyano
712 cycli
575 cygni
713 cylindri
498 cysti
499 cyti
500 dactyli
827 data
466 date
109 de
129 debito
036 deca
196 decoro
197 defecto
198 demo
199 demonstro
576 dendra
501 denti
749 dentili
501 dermi
641 deserta
200 desicco
467 detecte
642 detriti
081 dextro
063 di
468 dicte
353 dieto
865 diffusio
110 digito
297 diluto
185 dirigo
750 disca
828 discipuli
201 disputo
202 dissipo
203 divino
204 diviso
048 domi
097 dorsi
205 dramo
206 dromo
207 duco
064 duro
208 dyno
551 echini
209 eco
084 ecto
751 elasti
210 electio
211 electro
212 elemento
577 elepha
503 entera
065 eo
082 epi
213 equatio
469 eque
578 equi
214 ergo
518 eri
215 erro
216 erythro
130 espero
217 espio
470 esthe
158 evido
218 eu
083 e(x)
219 examino
220 excesso
221 expecto
219 experimento
222 experto
163 explosio
084 extra
579 faba
223 fabrico
504 facia
224 facilo
471 facte
752 falci
829 famili
225 famo
315 fantaso
643 farina
049 fascio
226 fatigo
005 fe
505 feci
580 feli
714 fenestra
227 fero
795 ferra
228 fertilo
050 fi
622 fici
830 fili
581 filici
229 fino
230 fisco
231 fissuro
232 fixo
233 flagello
234 flavoro
866 flexio
582 flora
644 fonta
867 foramino
715 forma
583 formici
831 formula
235 forto
236 fortuno
716 fossa
237 fracto
238 frequo
239 frictio
240 frigo
241 frustro
242 fugo
243 fumo
111 functio
753 furca
584 galli
244 gameo
796 gasi
506 gastri
832 gazeta
472 ge
162 gemmo
473 gene
245 geneto
018 geno
683 geli
645 geo
876 glacia
754 gladi
507 glandi
246 glauco
508 glena
509 glossa
247 gluco
585 gluma
510 glutea
664 glypha
511 gnatha
248 gono
586 gossypi
249 grado
716 grami
587 gramini
833 gramma
250 grapho
251 gratio
252 gravito
253 gravo
254 grego
834 gyna
255 gyro
474 habe
512 haema
256 hagio
797 hali
212 haplo
588 harengi
112 harmono
131 hedo
207 hegemo
646 heli
755 helica
257 helico
626 helminthi
258 helo
040 hemi
513 hepa
033 hepta
066 hespero
259 hetero
032 hexa
260 historo
021 holo
589 homari
590 homini
113 homo
067 hora
591 hordea
261 horizo
647 horti
262 humano
263 hydro
085 hypo
178 ideo
868 idio
264 immuno
265 impacto
836 imperia
266 impero
086 in
756 inci
110 indico
837 industri
835 infanti
267 inflatio
085 infra
268 inhibito
051 instrumenti
269 insuro
087 inter
270 investo
271 iodeo
172 iro
044 iso
272 itero
273 itinero
832 journali
274 judico
275 juro
514 kerati
038 kilo
475 kine
515 labi
516 lacrima
517 lacti
088 laevo
757 lamina
717 lampa
518 lana
758 lancea
276 lapso
089 latero
592 latici
396 latrio
277 laudo
278 lavo
279 lecto
280 lego
593 legumi
594 lepi
519 lepidi
281 leuco
331 liabilo
282 liberalo
283 libero
284 libido
285 ligato
286 limito
648 limni
595 lina
287 lineo
520 lipi
288 liquo
052 lithi
718 litri
090 littora
053 loco
289 logo
290 longo
521 lophi
166 lubrico
878 luciferi
291 luco
649 luna
596 lupi
292 luteo
759 lyra
293 lyso
760 machina
294 magico
295 magneto
045 major
761 mallea
296 malo
297 mano
798 margara
650 mari
684 marsupia
869 massago
298 masso
054 materia
299 maturo
055 mechani
022 mega
300 melano
308 memo
068 mensi
301 merco
091 meridio
019 mero
092 meso
799 metali
638 meteori
302 methodo
719 metri
114 metro
001 mi
023 micro
303 milito
039 million
762 mimi
651 mina
069 mini
304 ministro
046 minor
115 minus
305 miro
306 miso
763 missili
685 mitra
307 mixo
308 mnemo
056 mobili
309 monito
027 mono
652 monti
310 mordo
132 moro
311 morpho
312 morto
476 mote
008 mu
653 muci
720 mura
597 muri
838 musea
313 musico
314 muto
539 mya
039 myria
315 mytho
003 na
316 narco
522 nari
523 nasa
317 natio
318 nato
764 navi
655 nebuli
319 necro
133 necesso
870 necto
320 negotio
321 neo
656 nepheli
524 nephri
655 nesia
525 neura
623 nicoti
070 nocti
322 nocuo
323 nomino
324 nomo
043 no(n)
035 nonnea
325 normo
839 nota
326 nullo
327 numero
071 nu(n)
328 occasio
093 occidento
765 occlu
657 oceani
034 octa
526 oculi
329 odoro
527 oesophagi
330 offero
686 olea
014 oligo
331 onero
332 oppresso
528 ora
596 orangi
333 ordino
877 organa
334 orientatio
094 oriento
335 orno
336 ortho
453 oscillo
337 osculo
529 ostea
530 ostraca
531 oti
532 ova
721 ovali
599 ovi
338 oxidatio
144 oxyo
339 pachyo
340 paco
341 paleo
699 pallia
015 pan
687 pani
600 panica
342 papillo
800 papyri
095 para
343 parallelo
344 paralyso
345 parasito
346 pardo
840 parenta
254 partio
347 patho
748 pectini
348 pecunio
533 pedi
349 pedio
766 peleci
534 pelvi
116 pendo
350 penito
767 penna
351 peno
031 penta
117 per
477 perde
383 perforato
096 peri
134 permito
871 perplexo
332 persecuto
601 persica
007 persona
041 petitio
801 petrolea
352 phaeo
353 phago
354 phanero
135 pheno
355 philo
878 phlogista
356 phobo
602 phoeni
357 phono
358 phoro
359 photo
658 phrea
360 phreno
603 phylla
361 physio
604 phyta
362 picto
535 pinna
605 pisa
606 pisci
768 pista
688 placa
363 plano
802 plasti
364 plato
365 pleno
366 plico
013 plu
803 plumba
118 plus
367 pluto
368 pluvio
369 pneumo
536 poda
841 poeti
246 polio
842 politica
843 polizi
016 poly
607 pomi
721 ponti
722 porta
136 posso
072 post
844 posta
119 postulo
659 potami
608 potati
137 poto
370 praxo
073 pre
371 premio
138 preparo
723 prisma
372 privilegio
102 pro
373 producto
374 profito
342 projectio
845 proletari
375 promisso
846 propaganda
376 proposo
847 propria
848 prosa
724 prosceni
377 prospecto
378 protesto
139 proto
121 proximi
609 pruni
661 psamma
379 pseudo
537 pteri
380 publico
381 pudo
538 pulmoni
689 pulvini
382 puro
510 pygea
383 pylo
725 pyrami
610 pyri
384 pyro
726 quadra
385 qualito
042 questio
326 quito
024 quo
386 radio
611 rami
387 rapo
388 raso
389 ratio
006 re
478 reacte
414 recepto
727 recessi
010 recipro
390 recto
391 reflecto
849 regi
392 religio
524 rena
850 rentieri
393 reparo
209 resido
394 residuo
395 resisto
369 respiro
396 revero
769 reti
097 retro
612 rhabdi
397 rheo
613 rhiza
398 rhodo
399 rigo
400 riso
168 rituo
770 rota
051 ru
401 rugo
660 rura
690 sacari
671 sacci
841 sacramenta
256 sacro
402 sado
771 sagitta
614 salmi
403 salto
404 saluto
405 sano
406 sapio
804 saponi
407 sapro
539 sarca
615 sardini
025 satio
728 scala
540 scapa
408 schizo
409 scholo
852 scientia
410 sclero
411 scopo
772 scuta
616 secala
074 seci
853 secretari
412 secto
691 sedi
617 selachi
413 semao
414 sensitivo
805 sepia
440 sepso
720 septa
122 sequo
415 serio
258 servo
773 seta
416 severo
854 sibi
774 signa
417 significo
661 sili
618 simi
017 singulo
418 siphono
715 skeleta
419 societo
420 solemno
428 solido
020 solo
421 solutio
541 soma
423 somno
422 sopho
423 soporo
775 spatula
424 specio
662 spectra
619 sperma
776 sphena
730 sphera
879 sphinctra
692 spiriti
257 spiro
425 sporto
232 stabilo
426 stalagmo
806 stanna
777 stapi
427 stato
520 stea
428 stereo
429 stigmo
479 stimule
528 stoma
693 strata
430 strategico
011 su
620 suberi
542 sudori
621 sui
807 sulphi
431 summatio
694 supa
098 supero
622 syca
432 sympto
123 syn
778 syringi
433 systemo
623 tabaca
124 tacto
388 talo
695 tapea
156 tardo
543 tarsi
779 taxi
696 tea
222 techno
731 tecti
099 tele
855 telefon
856 telegram
075 tem
126 tendo
480 tene
434 tensio
140 tentato
663 terra
697 testa
435 testimonio
030 tetra
057 texti
305 thaumo
698 theca
544 thela
857 thema
436 theo
437 thermo
545 thoraci
699 toga
438 tolero
624 tomati
439 tono
100 topo
440 toxo
481 tracte
101 trans
700 trapeza
441 traumo
749 trepana
029 tri
546 tricha
625 tritica
442 tropo
002 tu
732 tubi
701 tunica
664 tunneli
443 turbo
780 tympana
444 typo
099 ultra
445 umbro
012 un
547 ungua
446 uniformo
447 unio
880 unita
858 universita
872 universo
548 ura
665 urani
666 urba
549 urini
550 uteri
873 utilo
448 vacuo
781 vagoni
667 valli
449 valo
859 valuta
450 vaporo
314 vario
058 vasa
782 vecti
783 vela
169 veloco
451 vendo
860 verba
452 verito
626 vermi
126 verso
627 vespi
059 vesto
668 via
453 vibro
127 vice
454 victo
544 villi
702 vini
455 violo
456 viro
482 vise
457 visito
628 viti
808 vitri
458 vivo
459 voco
128 volo
460 volumo
461 vulno
629 vulpi
292 xantho
149 xeno
026 zero
630 zoa
060 zona
462 zygo
881* acarina
882* alfalfa
883* alga
884* alkali
885* anguilla
886* anura
887* anus
888* araneida
889* area
890* arteria
891* avena
892* bacteria
893* banana
894* betula
895* branchia
896* brassica
897* camera
898* capra
899* carina
900* cetacea
901* chela
902* chelonia
903* coleoptera
904* corolla
905* coryza
906* crocodilia
907* diptera
908* dyspepsia
909* embryo
910* erica
911* fungi
912* gemini
913* inertia
914* insecta
915* lacertilia
916* lactuca
917* larva
918* lens
919* leo
920* lepidoptera
921* libra
922* mamma
923* manifesto
924* maxima
925* mica
926* minima
927* nausea
928* ophidia
929* oryza
930* ostrea
931* pediculina
932* pelecypoda
933* piano
934* picea
935* porifera
936* protesta
937* pterygia
938* pyrexia
939* reptilia
940* sago
941* saliva
942* scorpionida
943* sex
944* silica
945* siphanaptera
946* soya
947* trachea
948* ursa
949* vena
950* vertebra
951* violin
952* virgo
953* viscera
954* zea

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Hogben, Lancelot (1943). Interglossa. A draft of an auxiliary for a democratic world order, being an attempt to apply semantic principles to language design. [1] Harmondsworth, Middlesex, Eng. / New York: Penguin Books. OCLC 1265553.
  2. ^ Glosa Education Organisation (GEO) (2006). History behind Glosa. (pdf) [2]
  3. ^ Catalog record for the papers of Lancelot Hogben, University of Birmingham Special Collections, Cadbury Research Library.