|City & State Capital|
|City of Jackson|
Downtown Jackson in August 2009, as from the 11th floor of the Walter Sillers Building; the Mississippi State Capitol building can be seen in the right foreground.
|Nickname(s): "Crossroads of the South"|
|Motto: "City with Soul"|
Location in Hinds County, Mississippi
|Country||United States of America|
|Counties||Hinds, Madison, Rankin|
|• Type||Strong Mayor-Council|
|• Mayor||Charles Tillman (acting)|
|• City Council||Quentin Whitwell Ward 1, Melvin Priester Jr Ward 2,
LaRita Cooper-Stokes Ward 3, De'Keither Stamps Ward 4,
Charles Tillman Ward 5, Tony Yarber Ward 6,
Margaret C. Barrett-Simon Ward 7
|• Chief of Police||Lindsey Horton|
|• City & State Capital||276.7 km2 (106.8 sq mi)|
|• Land||271.7 km2 (104.9 sq mi)|
|• Water||5.0 km2 (1.9 sq mi)|
|Elevation||85 m (279 ft)|
|• City & State Capital||175,437 (US: 135th)|
|• Metro||576,800 (US: 92nd)|
|Time zone||CST (UTC-6)|
|• Summer (DST)||CDT (UTC-5)|
|Area code(s)||601, 769|
|GNIS feature ID||0711543|
|For additional city data see City-Data|
Jackson is the capital and largest city of the U.S. state of Mississippi. Located south of the Yazoo River, it is considered to be at the southern border of the Mississippi Delta and is one of two county seats of Hinds County, with the city of Raymond being the other. The city, the anchor for its metro area, is named after Andrew Jackson, who was a general at the time of the naming and later became US president. The current slogan for the city is "Jackson, Mississippi: City with Soul."
The population of the city declined from 184,256 at the 2000 census to 173,514 at the 2010 census. The 2010 census ascribed a population of 539,057 to the five-county Jackson metropolitan area. Nevertheless the city is ranked third out of America's 100 largest metro areas for the best "Bang For Your Buck" city according to Forbes magazine. The study measured overall affordability, housing rates, and more.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Cityscape
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Transportation
- 6 Industry
- 7 Religion
- 8 Cultural organizations and institutions
- 9 Government and infrastructure
- 10 Education
- 11 Media
- 12 Points of interest
- 13 Sports
- 14 Notable people
- 15 See also
- 16 References
- 17 External links
The region which is now the city of Jackson was historically part of the large territory occupied by the Choctaw Nation, the historic culture of the indigenous peoples who had inhabited the area for thousands of years before European encounter. The area now called Jackson was obtained by the United States under the terms of the Treaty of Doak's Stand in 1820, by which the Choctaw ceded some of their land. After the treaty was ratified, European-American settlers began to move into the area, so many that they encroached on remaining Choctaw land.
Under pressure from the U.S. government, the Choctaw Native Americans agreed to removal after 1830 from all their lands east of the Mississippi River under the terms of several treaties. Although most of the Choctaw moved to Indian Territory in present-day Oklahoma, along with the other of the Five Civilized Tribes, a significant number chose to stay in their homeland, citing Article XIV of the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek. They gave up their tribal membership and became state and United States citizens at the time. Today, most Choctaw in Mississippi are part of the federally recognized Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians and live in several majority-Indian communities located throughout the state. The largest community is located in Choctaw 100 mi (160 km) northeast of Jackson.
Founding and antebellum period (to 1860)
The area that is now Jackson was initially referred to as Parkerville and was settled by Louis LeFleur, a French Canadian trader, along the historic Natchez Trace trade route. The area then became known as LeFleur's Bluff. LeFleur's Bluff was founded based on the need for a centrally located capital for the state of Mississippi. In 1821, the Mississippi General Assembly, meeting in the then-capital of Natchez, had sent Thomas Hinds (for whom Hinds County is named), James Patton, and William Lattimore to look for a site. The absolute center of the state was a swamp, which forced the group to look close by for a new capital.
After surveying areas north and east of Jackson, they proceeded southwest along the Pearl River until they reached LeFleur's Bluff in Hinds County. Their report to the General Assembly stated that this location had beautiful and healthful surroundings, good water, abundant timber, navigable waters, and proximity to the trading route Natchez Trace. And so, a legislative Act passed by the Assembly on November 28, 1821, authorized the location to become the permanent seat of the government of the state of Mississippi. One Whig politician lamented the new capital as a "serious violation of principle" because it was not at the absolute center of the state.
During the late 18th century and early 19th century, the area was traversed by the Natchez Trace and had a trading post. It connected the area to markets in Tennessee. A treaty with the Choctaw, the Treaty of Doak's Stand in 1820, formally opened the area for non-Native American settlers.
Jackson was originally planned, in April 1822, by Peter Van Dorn in a "checkerboard" pattern advocated by Thomas Jefferson, in which city blocks alternated with parks and other open spaces. Over time, many of the park squares have been developed.
The state legislature first met in Jackson on December 23, 1822.
In 1839, Jackson was the site of the passage of the first state law that permitted married women to own and administer their own property.
Jackson was first linked with other cities by rail in 1840. An 1844 map shows Jackson linked by an east-west rail line running between Vicksburg, Raymond, and Brandon. Unlike Vicksburg, Greenville, and Natchez, Jackson is not located on the Mississippi River, and did not develop like those cities from that river commerce. Instead, construction of railroad lines to the city sparked growth in the decades after the American Civil War.
American Civil War and late nineteenth century (1861–1900)
Despite its small population, during the Civil War, Jackson became a strategic center of manufacturing for the Confederate States of America. In 1863, during the campaign which ended in the capture of Vicksburg, Union forces captured Jackson during two battles—once before the fall of Vicksburg and once after the fall of Vicksburg.
On May 13, 1863, Union forces won the first Battle of Jackson, forcing Confederate forces to flee northward towards Canton. On May 15, Union troops under the command of William Tecumseh Sherman burned and looted key facilities in Jackson, a strategic manufacturing and railroad center for the Confederacy. After driving the Confederate forces out of Jackson, Union forces turned west and engaged the Vicksburg defenders at the Battle of Champion Hill in nearby Edwards. The siege of Vicksburg began soon after the Union victory at Champion Hill. Confederate forces began to reassemble in Jackson in preparation for an attempt to break through the Union lines surrounding Vicksburg and end the siege there. The Confederate forces in Jackson built defensive fortifications encircling the city while preparing to march west to Vicksburg.
Confederate forces marched out of Jackson to break the siege of Vicksburg in early July 1863. However, unknown to them, Vicksburg had already surrendered on July 4, 1863. General Ulysses S. Grant dispatched General Sherman to meet the Confederate forces heading west from Jackson. Upon learning that Vicksburg had already surrendered, the Confederates retreated back into Jackson, thus beginning the Siege of Jackson, which lasted for approximately one week. Union forces encircled the city and began an artillery bombardment. One of the Union artillery emplacements still remains intact on the grounds of the University of Mississippi Medical Center in Jackson. Another Federal position is still intact on the campus of Millsaps College. One of the Confederate Generals defending Jackson was former United States Vice President John C. Breckenridge. On July 16, 1863, Confederate forces slipped out of Jackson during the night and retreated across the Pearl River. Union forces completely burned the city after its capture this second time, and the city earned the nickname "Chimneyville" because only the chimneys of houses were left standing. The northern line of Confederate defenses in Jackson during the siege was located along a road near downtown Jackson, now known as Fortification Street.
Today few antebellum structures remain standing in Jackson. One surviving structure is the Governor's Mansion, built in 1842, which served as Sherman's headquarters. Another is the Old Capitol building, which served as the home of the Mississippi state legislature from 1839 to 1903. The Mississippi legislature passed the ordinance of secession from the Union on January 9, 1861 there, becoming the second state to secede from the United States.
During Reconstruction, Mississippi had considerable insurgent action, as whites struggled to maintain supremacy. In 1875 the Red Shirts were formed, one of a second wave of insurgent paramilitary organizations that essentially operated as "the military arm of the Democratic Party" to take back political power from the Republicans and to drive blacks from the polls. Democrats regained control of the state legislature in 1876. The constitutional convention of 1890, which produced Mississippi's Constitution of 1890, was also held at the capitol.
This was the first of new constitutions or amendments ratified in southern states through 1908 that effectively disfranchised African Americans and poor whites, through provisions making voter registration more difficult: such as poll taxes, residency requirements, and literacy tests. These provisions survived a Supreme Court challenge in 1898. As 20th-century Supreme Court decisions began to find such provisions unconstitutional, Mississippi and other southern states rapidly devised new methods to continue disfranchisement of most blacks.
The economic recovery from the Civil War was slow through the start of the 20th century, but there were some developments in transportation. In 1871, the city introduced mule-drawn streetcars which ran on State Street, which were replaced by electric ones in 1899.
The so-called New Capitol replaced the older structure upon its completion in 1903. Today the Old Capitol is operated as a historical museum. A third important surviving antebellum structure is the Jackson City Hall, built in 1846 for less than $8,000. It is said that Sherman, a Mason, spared it because it housed a Masonic Lodge, though a more likely reason is that it housed an army hospital.
Early twentieth century (1901–1960)
Pulitzer Prize-winning author Eudora Welty was born in Jackson in 1909, lived most of her life in the Belhaven section of the city, and died there in 2001. Her memoir of development as a writer, One Writer's Beginnings (1984), presented a picture of the city in the early twentieth century. The main Jackson Public Library was named in her honor.
The highly acclaimed African-American author Richard Wright lived in Jackson as an adolescent and young man in the 1910s and 1920s. He related his experience in his memoir Black Boy (1945). He described the harsh and largely terror-filled life most African Americans experienced in the South and northern ghettos under segregation in the early twentieth century.
Jackson saw significant growth in the early twentieth century, as reflected in changes in the city's skyline. Jackson's new Union Station downtown reflected the city's service by multiple rail lines, including the Illinois Central. Across the street, the new, luxurious King Edward Hotel, long the center of Jackson society and Mississippi politics, opened its doors in 1923, having been built according to a design by New Orleans architect William T. Nolan. Nearby, the 18-story Standard Life Building, designed in 1929 by Claude Lindsley, became the largest reinforced concrete structure in the world upon its completion. Jackson's economic growth was further stimulated in the 1930s by the discovery of natural gas fields nearby.
Speculators began searching for oil and natural gas in Jackson beginning in 1920. The initial drilling attempts of the early twenties came up empty. This initial failure did not stop Ella Render from obtaining a lease from the state’s insane asylum to begin a well in 1924. Render found natural gas, but eventually lost the rights when courts determined that the asylum did not have the right to lease the state’s property. Businessmen jumped on the opportunity and dug wells in the Jackson area. The continued success of these ventures attracted further investment and by 1930, there were fourteen derricks in the Jackson skyline. Governor Theodore Bilbo stated “it is no idle dream to prophecy that the state’s share [of the oil and natural gas profits] properly safe-guarded would soon pay the state’s entire bonded indebtedness and even be great enough to defray all the state’s expenses and make our state tax free so long as obligations are concerned.” This enthusiasm was subdued when the first well’s failed to produce oil of a sufficiently high gravity for commercial success. The barrels of oil had considerable amounts of salt water which lessened the quality. However, all was not lost. The governor’s prediction is wrong in hindsight, but the oil and natural gas industry was a tremendous business for the city and state. The effects of the Great Depression were mollified by the industry’s success. At its height in 1934, there were one hundred and thirteen producing wells in the state. The overwhelming majority were closed by 1955.
During World War II, Hawkins Field in northwest Jackson became a major airbase. Among other facilities and units, the Royal Netherlands Military Flying School was established there, after Nazi Germany occupied the Netherlands. From 1941, the base trained all Dutch military aircrews.
In 1949, the poet Margaret Walker began teaching at Jackson State University, a historically black college. She would teach there until 1979, founding the Center for African-American Studies. Her collection won a Yale Younger Poets Prize and her second novel, Jubilee (1966), is considered a major work of African-American literature. She influenced many younger writers.
Civil Rights Movement in Jackson
Since 1960, Jackson has undergone a series of dramatic changes and growth. In 1960, the Census Bureau reported Jackson's population as 64.3% white and 35.7% black. As the state capital, it became a site for civil rights activism that was heightened by mass demonstrations during the 1960s. On May 24, 1961, during the African-American Civil Rights Movement, more than 300 Freedom Riders were arrested in Jackson for disturbing the peace after they disembarked from their bus. They were riding the bus to demonstrate against segregation on public transportation, as the Constitution provided for unrestricted public transportation. Although the Freedom Riders had intended New Orleans, Louisiana as their final destination, Jackson was the farthest that any of them managed to travel.
Efforts to desegregate Jackson facilities began before the Freedom Rides when nine Tougaloo students were arrested for attempting to read books in the "white only" public library. Founded as a historically black college (HBCU) by the American Missionary Movement after the Civil War, Tougaloo College brought both black and white students together to work for civil rights. It also created partnerships with neighboring mostly white Millsaps College to work with student activists. It has been recognized as a site on the Civil Rights Trail by the National Park Service. After the Freedom Rides, students and activists of the Freedom Movement launched a series of merchant boycotts, sit-ins and protest marches, from 1961 to 1963.
In Jackson, shortly after midnight on June 12, 1963, Medgar Evers, civil rights activist and leader of the Mississippi chapter of the NAACP, was murdered by Byron De La Beckwith, a white supremacist. Thousands marched in his funeral procession to protest the killing. In 1994, prosecutors Ed Peters and Bobby DeLaughter finally obtained a murder conviction of De La Beckwith. A portion of U.S. Highway 49, all of Delta Drive, a library, the central post office for the city, and Jackson-Evers International Airport were named in honor of Medgar Evers. During 1963 and 1964, organizers gathered local residents for voter education and voter registration. In a pilot project, they rapidly registered 80,000 voters across the state, demonstrating the desire of African Americans to vote. In 1964 they created the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party as an alternative to the all-white state Democratic Party, and sent an alternate slate of candidates to the national party convention.
Segregation and the disfranchisement of African Americans gradually ended after the Civil Rights Movement gained passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Voting Rights Act of 1965. In June 1966, Jackson was also the terminus of the James Meredith March, organized by James Meredith, the first African American to enroll at the University of Mississippi. The march, which began in Memphis, Tennessee, was an attempt to garner support for implementation of civil rights legislation. It was accompanied by a new drive to register African Americans to vote in Mississippi. In this latter goal, it succeeded in registering between 2,500 and 3,000 black Mississippians to vote. The march ended on June 26 after Meredith, who had been wounded by a sniper's bullet earlier on the march, addressed a large rally of some 15,000 people in Jackson.
White riots followed the enrollment of Meredith at the University of Mississippi, and residents took down street signs to hinder the travel of US Army forces. US Marshals held back rioters during the night at the University, and the city of Jackson was placed under martial law by the Army for a one-year period by order of Congress and President John F. Kennedy.
Gradually the old barriers came down. Since then, both whites and African Americans in the state have had a high rate of voter registration and turnout.
The first successful cadaveric lung transplant was performed at the University of Mississippi Medical Center in Jackson in June 1963 by Dr. James Hardy. Hardy transplanted the cadaveric lung into a patient suffering from lung cancer. The patient survived for eighteen days before dying of kidney failure.
Since 1968, Jackson has been the home of Malaco Records, one of the leading record companies for gospel, blues and soul music in the United States. In January 1973, Paul Simon recorded the songs "Learn How To Fall" and "Take Me To the Mardi Gras", found on the album There Goes Rhymin' Simon, in Jackson at the Malaco Recording Studios. Many well-known Southern artists recorded on the album including the Muscle Shoals Rhythm Section (David Hood, Jimmy Johnson, Roger Hawkins, Barry Beckett), Carson Whitsett, the Onward Brass Band from New Orleans, and others. The label has recorded many leading soul and blues artists including Bobby Bland, ZZ Hill, Latimore, Shirley Brown, Denise LaSalle and Tyrone Davis.
On May 15, 1970 police killed two students and wounded 12 at Jackson State University (then called Jackson State College) after a protest of the Vietnam War included students' overturning and burning some cars. These killings occurred eleven days after the National Guard killed four students in an anti-war protest at Kent State University in Ohio, and were part of national social unrest. Newsweek cited the Jackson State killings in its issue of May 18 when it suggested that U.S. President Richard Nixon faced a new home front.
In 1997, Harvey Johnson, Jr. was elected as the city's first African-American mayor. During his term, he proposed the creation of a convention center, to attract more business to the city. In 2004, during his second term, 66 percent of the voters passed a referendum for a tax to build the Convention Center.
Mayor Johnson was replaced by Frank Melton on July 4, 2005. Melton subsequently generated controversy through his unconventional behavior, which included acting as a law enforcement officer. A dramatic spike in crime also ensued, despite Melton's efforts to reduce crime. The lack of jobs contributed to crime.
2007 saw a historic first for Mississippi as Hinds County sheriff Malcolm McMillin was appointed as the new police chief in Jackson. McMillin was both the county sheriff and city police chief until 2009 when he stepped down due to the disagreements with the previous mayor. Mayor Frank Melton died in May 2009 and City Councilman Leslie McLemore served as acting mayor of Jackson until July 200,9 when former Mayor Harvey Johnson assumed the Mayor position.
On June 26, 2011, 49-year-old James Craig Anderson was killed in Jackson after being beaten and robbed by a group of white teenagers. The district attorney described it as a "crime of hate", and it was investigated b the FBI as a civil rights violation.
On March 18, 2013, a severe hailstorm hit the Jackson metro area. The hail caused major damage to roofs, vehicles,and siding damage to multiple mobile homes in the Jackson metro. The size of the hail ranged from golfball-sized to baseball-sized. There were over 40,000 hailstorm claims of homeowner & automobile damage.
On July 1, 2013, Chokwe Lumumba was sworn into office as mayor of the city. The council members were also sworn in with two new members. The new members were Melvin Priester, Jr. & De'Keither Stamps.
In 2013, Jackson was named one of the top 10 friendliest cities in the United States. The capital city was tied with Natchez with a number 7. The city was noticed for friendly people, great food & green and pretty public places.
Jackson is located on the Pearl River, and is served by the Ross Barnett Reservoir, which forms a section of the Pearl River and is located northeast of Jackson on the border between Madison and Rankin counties. A tiny portion of the city containing Tougaloo College lies in Madison County, bounded on the west by I-220 and on the east by US 51 and I-55. A second portion of the city is located in Rankin County. In the 2000 census, 683,723 of the city's 684,256 residents (99.7%) lived in Hinds County and 1,533 (0.3%) in Madison County. Although no Jackson residents lived in the Rankin County portion in 2000, that figure had risen to 172 by 2006.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 106.8 square miles (277 km2), of which, 104.9 square miles (272 km2) is land, and 1.9 square miles (4.9 km2), or 1.80% of the total, is water.
Jackson sits atop the Jackson Volcano and is the only capital city in the United States to have this feature. The peak of the volcano is located 2,900 feet (880 m) directly below the Mississippi Coliseum.
Jackson is located in the humid subtropical climate zone (Köppen Cfa), with hot, humid summers and mild winters. Rain occurs throughout the year, though the winter and spring are the wettest seasons, and the late summer and early autumn is usually the driest time of the year. Snow is rare, and accumulation very seldom lasts more than a day. Much of Jackson's rainfall occurs during thunderstorms. Thunder is heard on roughly 70 days each year. Jackson lies in a region prone to severe thunderstorms which can produce large hail, damaging winds and tornadoes. Among the most notable tornado events was the F5 Candlestick Park Tornado on March 3, 1966 which destroyed the shopping center of the same name and surrounding businesses and residential areas, killing 19 in South Jackson.
|Climate data for Jackson-Evers International Airport (1981–2010 normals)|
|Record high °F (°C)||85
|Average high °F (°C)||56.1
|Average low °F (°C)||35.3
|Record low °F (°C)||−5
|Precipitation inches (mm)||4.97
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||9.8||9.8||9.4||7.9||8.9||9.4||10.7||9.9||7.0||7.6||8.6||9.6||108.6|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||155.0||166.7||223.2||252.0||275.9||297.0||282.1||272.8||234.0||235.6||174.0||151.9||2,720.2|
|Source: NOAA (extremes 1896–present), HKO (sun only, 1961–1990)|
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (July 2010)|
The bulk of the city is to the west of I-55, while a section of Jackson known as Northeast Jackson is to the east of I-55. In recent years there has been an effort to revitalize downtown Jackson, west Jackson communities, and south Jackson communities. Over 2 billion dollars of revitalization and development has been poured into the city from private redevelopment groups and federal and local funding.
Jackson remained a small town for much of the 19th century. Before the American Civil War, Jackson's population remained small, particularly in contrast to those towns located along the commerce-laden Mississippi River. Despite the city's status as the state capital, the 1850 census counted only 1,881 residents, and by 1900 the population of Jackson had grown only to approximately 8,000. It was during this period, roughly between 1890 and 1930, that Meridian became Mississippi's largest city. By 1944, Jackson's population had risen to some 70,000 inhabitants. Since that time, it has continuously been the largest city in the state. Large-scale growth, however, did not come until the 1970s, after the turbulence of the Civil Rights Movement. The 1980 census counted over 200,000 residents in the city for the first time. Since then, Jackson has steadily seen a decline in its population, while its suburbs have evidenced a boom. This change has occurred in part due to white flight, a trend that has slowed over the past decade.
As of the census of 2010, there were 173,514 people, and 62,400 households. The population density was 1,562.5 people per square mile. There were 74,537 housing units. The racial makeup of the city was 79.4% Black or African American, 18.4% White or Euro American, 0.1% Native American, 0.4% Asian, and 0.9% from two or more races. 1.6% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. Non-Hispanic Whites were 18% of the population in 2010, down from 60% in 1970.
There were 267,841 households out of which 39.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.4% were married couples living together, 25.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 34.4% were non-families. 28.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.24. Same-sex couple households comprised 0.8% of all househoulds.
The age of the population was spread out with 28.5% under the age of 18, 12.4% from 18 to 24, 29.1% from 25 to 44, 19.1% from 45 to 64, and 10.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females, there were 86.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 81.5 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $30,414, and the median income for a family was $36,003. Males had a median income of $29,166 versus $23,328 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,116. About 19.6% of families and 23.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 33.7% of those under age 18 and 15.7% of those age 65 or over.
Jackson ranks number 10 in the nation in concentration of African-American same-sex couples.
In 2012, WAPT posted an article about Jackson projected to grow after 30 years. While Jackson's population declined, its suburbs experienced growth, but it could soon change. After 1980, the population decreased all the way to the 2010 Census with 173,514 citizens. "Whether it is flattening out, or what it could be, we don't know exactly," said Mark Monk of the Central Mississippi Planning and Development District. Monk also mentioned that it is just a one year estimate, so it is not all accurate. Jackson was projected to grow, but only by 1.1%. On the other hand, Madison was projected to grow 1.8% & Rankin had a projection of 1.5%. One interesting demographic showed that of those moving in, some 60 percent were from Rankin County & Madison County that moved back into the city. Thirty percent were female. Thirty-three percent were African-American.
Jackson is served by Jackson-Evers International Airport, located at Allen C. Thompson Field, east of the city in Pearl in Rankin County. Its IATA code is JAN. The airport has non-stop service to 12 cities throughout the United States and is served by 5 scheduled carriers (American, Delta, United, Southwest, and US Airways)
On December 22, 2004, Jackson City Council members voted 6–0 to rename Jackson International Airport in honor of slain civil rights leader and field secretary for the Mississippi chapter of the NAACP, Medgar Evers. This decision took effect on January 22, 2005.
Formerly Jackson was served by Hawkins Field Airport, located in northwest Jackson, with IATA code HKS, which is now used for private air traffic only.
Underway is the Airport Parkway project. The environmental impact study is complete and final plans are drawn and awaiting Mississippi Department of Transportation approval. Right-of-way acquisition is underway at an estimated cost of $19 million. The Airport Parkway will connect High Street in downtown Jackson to Mississippi Highway 475 in Flowood at Jackson-Evers International Airport. The Airport Parkway Commission consists of the Mayor of Pearl, the Mayor of Flowood, and the Mayor of Jackson, as the Airport Parkway will run through and have access from each of these three cities.
Runs east-west from near El Paso, Texas to Florence, South Carolina. Jackson is roughly halfway between Dallas and Atlanta. The highway is six lanes from Interstate 220 to MS 468 in Pearl.
Runs north-south from Chicago through Jackson towards Brookhaven, McComb, and the Louisiana state line to New Orleans. Jackson is roughly halfway between New Orleans and Memphis, Tennessee. The highway maintains eight to ten lanes in northern part of city, six lanes in the center and four lanes south of I-20.
Connects Interstates 55 and 20 on the north and west sides of the city and is four lanes throughout its route.
U.S. Highway 51
Known in Jackson as State Street, it roughly parallels Interstate 55 from the I-20/I-55 western split to downtown. It multiplexes with I-55 from Pearl/Pascagoula St northward to County Line Road, where the two highways split.
U.S. Highway 80
Roughly parallels Interstate 20.
JATRAN (Jackson Transit System) operates hourly or half-hourly during daytime hours on weekdays, and mostly hourly on Saturdays. No evening or Sunday Service provided.
Jackson is served by the Canadian National Railway (CN) and Kansas City Southern Railway (KCS). CN has a medium-sized yard downtown which Mill Street parallels and KCS has a large classification yard in Richland. Amtrak, the national passenger rail system, provides service to Jackson. The Amtrak station is located at 300 West Capitol Street. Amtrak's southbound City of New Orleans provides service from Jackson to New Orleans and some points between. The northbound City of New Orleans provides service from Jackson to Memphis, Carbondale, Champaign-Urbana, Chicago and some points between. Efforts to establish service with another Amtrak train, the Crescent Star, an extension of the Crescent westward from Meridian, Mississippi to Dallas, failed in 2003.
Jackson is home to several major industries. These include electrical equipment and machinery, processed food, and primary and fabricated metal products. The surrounding area supports agricultural development of livestock, soybeans, cotton, and poultry. Major private companies based in Jackson include Ergon.
Publicly traded companies
The following companies are headquartered in Jackson:
- Cal-Maine Foods, Inc. (NASDAQ:CALM)
- EastGroup Properties Inc. (NYSE:EGP)
- Parkway Properties, Inc. (NYSE:PKY)
- Trustmark Corporation (NASDAQ:TRMK)
- Jackson is the see city of the Episcopal Diocese of Mississippi
- Jackson is the episcopal see of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Jackson
- Jackson is home to the original campus of the Reformed Theological Seminary
- Jackson is home to the Mississippi Annual Conference of the United Methodist Church
- Jackson is home to the First Presbyterian Church in Jackson, Mississippi one of the biggest Presbyterian churches in the South.
- Jackson is the headquarters of the Church of Christ (Holiness) U.S.A., founded by Charles Price Jones
- Jackson is home to Beth Israel Congregation, the only Jewish congregation in Jackson and the largest in Mississippi.
- Jackson is home to the Sikh Foundation of Greater Mississippi
Cultural organizations and institutions
- Ballet Mississippi
- Celtic Heritage Society of Mississippi
- Crossroads Film Society
- International Museum of Muslim Cultures
- Jackson State University Botanical Garden
- Jackson Zoo
- Mississippi Agriculture and Forestry Museum
- Mississippi Arts Center
- Mississippi Chorus
- Mississippi Civil Rights Museum (opening 2017)
- Mississippi Department of Archives and History, which contains the state archives and records
- Mississippi Heritage Trust
- Mississippi Hispanic Association
- Mississippi Metropolitan Ballet
- Mississippi Museum of Art
- Mississippi Opera
- Mississippi Symphony Orchestra (MSO), formerly the Jackson Symphony Orchestra, founded in 1944
- Municipal Art Gallery
- Mynelle Gardens
- New Stage Theatre
- Russell C. Davis Planetarium
- Smith-Robertson Museum and Cultural Center
- USA International Ballet Competition
Government and infrastructure
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (September 2011)|
In 1985, Jackson voters opted to replace the three-person mayor-commissioner system with a city council. Jackson's city council members represent the city's seven wards, and the body is headed by the mayor who is elected by the entire city.
Jackson's current mayor is Charles Tillman (acting mayor).
The current City Council of Jackson is listed below:
- Quintin Whitwell, Ward 1
- Melvin Priester Jr., Ward 2
- LaRita Cooper Stokes, Ward 3
- De'Keither Stamps, Ward 4
- Charles Tillman, Ward 5
- Tony Yarber, Ward 6
- Margaret Barrett-Simon, Ward 7
|This section requires expansion. (September 2011)|
The Mississippi Department of Corrections (MDOC) operates the Jackson Probation & Parole Office in Jackson. The MDOC Central Mississippi Correctional Facility, in unincorporated Rankin County, is located in proximity to Jackson.
Jackson is home to the international headquarters of Phi Theta Kappa, an honor society for students enrolled in two-year colleges.
Colleges and universities
- Antonelli College (1947)
- Belhaven University (1883)
- Hinds Community College's campuses in Jackson are the Nursing/Allied Health Center (1970) and the Academic/Technical Center
- Jackson State University (1877)
- Millsaps College (1890)
- Mississippi College (1826)
- Mississippi College School of Law (1930)
- Reformed Theological Seminary (1966)
- Tougaloo College (1869)
- University of Mississippi Medical Center (1955), health sciences campus of the University of Mississippi
- Wesley Biblical Seminary (1974)
- Virginia College (1983)
Primary and secondary schools
Jackson Public School District operates 60 public schools. It is one of the largest school districts in the state with about 30,000 students. 38 elementary schools, 13 middle schools, 7 high schools & 2 special schools. Jackson Public Schools is the only urban school district in the state.
The district's high schools include:
- Callaway High School
- Career Development Center
- Forest Hill High School
- Jim Hill High School
- Lanier High School
- Murrah High School
- Provine High School
- Wingfield High School
Private secondary schools include:
- Christ Missionary & Industrial (CM&I) College High School
- Hillcrest Christian School
- Jackson Academy
- Jackson Preparatory School
- The Veritas School
- St. Andrew's Episcopal School (Mississippi)
Private primary schools include:
- Jackson Academy
- First Presbyterian Day School
- Magnolia Speech School
- St. Andrew's Episcopal Lower School – South Campus
- St. Richard Catholic School
- St. Therese Catholic School
- The Clarion-Ledger – statewide daily newspaper
- Jackson Advocate – weekly newspaper and oldest newspaper serving the state's African-American community
- Jackson Free Press – alternative newsweekly featuring local news, investigative reporting, and arts and entertainment coverage
- The Mississippi Link – weekly newspaper serving the state's African American community
- Mississippi Business Journal – weekly newspaper, with focus on business and economic development
- The Northside Sun – weekly newspaper, with focus on the northeastern portion of the Jackson Metropolitan area
- The Mississippian Daily Gazette – also often referred to as The Jackson Mississippian because of its location, circulated during the 19th century, a major newspaper during the Civil War
- The Standard – circulated during the 19th century, after the Civil War The Eastern Clarion moved to Jackson and merged with The Standard, soon changed name to The Clarion
- State Ledger – circulated during the 19th century, in 1888 The Clarion merged with the State Ledger and became known as The Clarion-Ledger
- The Jackson Daily News – originally known as The Jackson Evening Post in 1882, changed the name to The Jackson Daily News in 1907, purchased along with The Clarion-Ledger by Gannett in 1982
- University Press of Mississippi, the state's only not-for-profit publishing house and collective publisher for Mississippi's eight state universities, producing works on local history, culture and society
- Channel 3, WLBT: NBC
- Channel 6, WJMF-LP: Radio service (as "EZ 87.7")
- Channel 8, WBXK-CA: dark
- Channel 10, WBMS-CA: independent (simulcast of WXMS)
- Channel 12, WJTV: CBS
- Channel 16, WAPT: ABC
- Channel 23, W23BC: America One (owned by Jackson State University)
- Channel 27, WXMS-LP: independent
- Channel 29, WMPN: PBS/Mississippi Public Broadcasting
- Channel 34, WRBJ-TV: TBN
- Channel 35, WLOO: My Network TV
- Channel 40, WDBD: Fox
- Channel 64, WJKO-LP: Daystar
- 620 WJDX: Fox Sports Radio
- 780 WIIN: simulcast of WUSJ
- 810 WSJC: Family Talk radio
- 930 WSFZ: Sporting News Radio
- 970 WFQY: classic country
- 1120 WTWZ: bluegrass gospel
- 1150 WONG: gospel
- 1180 WJNT: news-talk
- 1240 WPBQ: news-talk
- 1300 WOAD: gospel
- 1370 WMGO: gospel
- 1400 WJQS: adult standards
- 1590 WZRX: CNN Headline News
Points of interest
Tourism and culture
The Rolling Stones sat "in a bar tippling a jar in Jackson" in their song 'Country Honk' on the 1969 album 'Let It Bleed'. "And on the street the summer sun it shines. There's many a bar-room queen I've had in Jackson, but I just can't seem to drink you off my mind."
"Jackson" is a song written by Jerry Leiber and Billy Edd Wheeler about newlyweds making the discovery that, after jumping much too quickly into marriage, the "fire" has gone out of their relationship. They both want to go to Jackson, where each looks forward to a new life free of the other. Although the song does not specify whether Jackson, TN or Jackson, MS is the destination, the lyrics do clearly reference gambling. During the period from the 1920s until the 1960s, illegal gambling casinos flourished on the east side of the Pearl River, along the original U.S. Route 80 just outside the city of Jackson, MS in Flowood. The infamous casinos might have been the inspiration for those lyrics.
In any event, the best-known single releases of the song include the 1968 Grammy Award winner by Johnny Cash and June Carter Cash, and the hit Nancy Sinatra and Lee Hazlewood version from the same year. Much later, the song was performed by Joaquin Phoenix and Reese Witherspoon (playing Johnny Cash and June Carter) in the 2005 film Walk the Line.
Those illegal casinos referenced (perhaps) by the song, along with bootleg liquor stores and nightclubs, made up the Gold Coast, a strip of mostly black-market businesses which operated for decades along Flowood Road, just across the Pearl River from downtown Jackson. Though it existed outside the law, the Gold Coast was a thriving center of nightlife and music, with many local blues musicians appearing in the clubs regularly. The Gold Coast disappeared after Mississippi's prohibition laws were repealed in 1966, allowing Hinds County, including Jackson, to go "wet".
In 1978, the USA International Ballet Competition was founded in Jackson by Thalia Mara, who is also the namesake of Thalia Mara Hall where the competition is held. The following year saw the first USA International Ballet Competition held as part of the worldwide International Ballet Competition (IBC), which itself originated in Varna, Bulgaria in 1964. The competition eventually expanded to rotating annual events between Jackson, Varna, Moscow and Tokyo. It was in 1979 that the event first came to the United States, to Jackson, where it now returns every four years. The rotation is currently among Jackson, Varna, Helsinki, and Shanghai. Jackson has been the host of the IBC in 1979, 1982, 1986, 1990, 1994, 1998, 2002, 2006, and 2010. The next competition in Jackson will be in 2014. The United States Congress recognized Jackson and the USA IBC in 1982 by passing a Joint Resolution designating Jackson as the official home of the USA IBC.
Periodic cultural events
- CelticFest Mississippi (annual, September)
- Crossroads Film Festival (annual, April)
- Festival Latino (annual, September)
- Jubilee!Jam (annual, June)
- Mal's St. Pattys Day Parade (annual, third Saturday of March, before/after March 17, the fourth largest in the nation with over 50,000 people)
- Sweet Potato Queens Million Queen March Weekend
- Mississippi State Fair (annual, held in October)
- USA International Ballet Competition (every four years, June)
Downtown Jackson attractions
Museums and historic sites
Jackson, Mississippi received its first Mississippi Blues Trail designation. The ceremony was held and the historic marker placed on the former site of the Subway Lounge on Pearl Street. The Subway Lounge was in the basement of the old Summers Hotel, one of two hotels available as lodging to blacks before desegregation when it opened in 1943. In the 1960s, the hotel added a lounge in the basement that featured jazz. In the 1980s, when the lounge was revived, it was catered to late night blues performers. In 2002, the Subway Lounge was filmed for a documentary entitled Last of the Mississippi Jukes.
- Battlefield Park
- Grove Park
- LeFleur's Bluff State Park
- Parham Bridges Park
- Sheppard Brothers Park
- Smith Park
- Sykes Park
Downtown Jackson renaissance
Currently, Jackson is experiencing $1.6 billion in downtown development. The public-private projects include new construction, renovation and adaptation of some existing buildings, including conversions into residential space; and improvements to public infrastructure and amenities.
|Regions Plaza (formerly AmSouth)||96.9 m||1975|
|Jackson Marriott Downtown||77.7 m||1975|
|Regions Bank Building (formerly AmSouth)||77.4 m||1989|
|Standard Life Building||76.2 m||1989|
|Trustmark National Bank Building||65.5 m||1995|
|Lamar Life Building||58.2 m||1994|
- Magnolia Roller Vixens – All Female Flat Track Roller Derby League. Formed in 2008.
Summer training camp
- New Orleans Saints – Jackson's Millsaps College is the former summer home for the NFL's New Orleans Saints.
- Mississippi Veterans Memorial Stadium – Concerts, Football (home of Jackson State University)
- Mississippi Coliseum – Basketball, Hockey, Track, Rodeo, Concerts
- Smith Wills Stadium – Baseball, Softball, Football, Soccer, Concerts (home of the Belhaven College baseball team)
- Jackson Rugby Football Club - Mens 15s amateur Rugby team
Former professional sports teams
- Jackson Mets – former Texas League AA affiliate of the New York Mets (1975–1990); Smith-Wills Stadium
- Jackson Generals – former Texas League AA affiliate of the Houston Astros (1991–1999); Smith-Wills Stadium
- Jackson Diamond Kats – of the independent Texas-Louisiana League (later changed its name to the Central Baseball League) (2000); Smith-Wills Stadium
- Jackson Senators – Independent (2001–2004); Smith-Wills Stadium
- 2012 estimates Metro & City
- "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
- "Jackson, Mississippi | City With Soul". Jacksoncitywithsoul.com. Retrieved January 31, 2010.
- Forbes, December 2009 http://www.forbes.com/2009/11/30/cities-affordable-cheap-lifestyle-real-estate-housing-foreclosures_chart.html
- "Navy Names Littoral Combat Ships Jackson and Montgomery" DOD press release. March 25, 2011
- "History of Meridian, MS". Official website of Meridian, MeridianMS.org. Retrieved June 7, 2008.
- Bob Ferguson (2004). "Choctaw Treaties – Dancing Rabbit Creek". Choctaw Museum of the Southern Indian. Retrieved June 7, 2008.[dead link]
- "WorldWeb.com Travel Guide". Jacksonmississippi.worldweb.com. Retrieved January 31, 2010.
- "Official City of Jackson, Mississippi Website – Jackson's History". Jacksonms.gov. Retrieved January 31, 2010.
- William C. Davis, A Way Through the Wilderness: The Natchez Trace and Civilization of the Southern Frontier (New York: Harper Collins, 1995), 30.
- George C. Rable, But There Was No Peace: The Role of Violence in the Politics of Reconstruction, Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1984, p. 132
- Richard H. Pildes, "Democracy, Anti-Democracy, and the Canon", Constitutional Commentary, Vol.17, 2000, pp.12–13. Retrieved March 10, 2008.
- Michael Perman, Struggle for Mastery: Disfranchisement in the South, 1888–1908, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001
- Todd Sanders, Images of America: Jackson’s North State Street (Charleston: Arcadia Publishing, 2009), 58 and 40.
- Dudley J. Hughes, Oil in the Deep South: A History of the Oil Business in Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida, 1859–1945 (Jackson: University of Mississippi Press, 1993), 67–86.
- "Mississippi - Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Cities and Other Places: Earliest Census to 1990". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved May 1, 2012.
- Civil Rights Movement Veterans. "Freedom Rides".
- Civil Rights Movement Veterans. "Tougaloo 9".
- Civil Rights Movement Veterans. "Jackson MS, Boycotts".
- Civil Rights Movement Veterans. "Jackson Sit-in & Protests".
- Medgar Evers Assassination ~ Civil Rights Movement Veterans
- History of Beth Israel, Jackson, Mississippi, Goldring/Woldenberg Institute of Southern Jewish Life website, History Department, Digital Archive, Mississippi, Jackson, Beth Israel. Retrieved August 17, 2008.
- Edward Blum and Abigail Thernstrom, Executive Summary of the Bullock-Gaddie Expert Report on Mississippi, Apr 17, 2006, American Enterprise Institute, Retrieved March 21, 2008.
- Tim Spofford, Lynch Street: The May 1970 Slayings at Jackson State College, Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 1988, pp. 17 and 19
- "Jackson Mississippi Tourism- City of Jackson Travel, MS Vacations, Event Planning". Visitjackson.com. Retrieved January 31, 2010.[dead link]
- Associated Press (July 27, 2006). "Mayor of U.S. city failing the hard test of crime prevention". The Taipei Times. Retrieved March 9, 2007.
- USA Today (November 16, 2007). "Mayor appoints sheriff who arrested him – twice – as police chief". USA Today. Retrieved November 19, 2007.
- Sperling, Nicole (August 15, 2011). "March Aims to draw attention to Slaying of Black Mississippi Man". Sacramento Bee. Retrieved August 22, 2011.
- Severson, Kimberly (August 22, 2011). "Killing of Black Man Prompts Reflection on Race in Mississippi". New York Times. Retrieved August 22, 2011.
- "James Craig Anderson's Death: FBI Investigates Fatal Rundown Of Black Man In Mississippi". Associated Press. August 18, 2011. Retrieved August 22, 2011.
- March 18, 2013: Severe Weather Event
- Insurers see more than 40,000 hailstorm claims
- "It's Official: Lumumba Sworn In", Jackson Free Press, 1 July 2013
- "The Friendliest and Unfriendliest Cities in the U.S.", CN Traveler
- Mississippi, University of (December 12, 2003). "The Geology of Mississippi" (PDF). University of Mississippi. Retrieved September 27, 2007.
- "http://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/normals/1981-2010/products/station/USW00003940.normals.txt". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 2011. Retrieved July 1, 2011.
- "Climatological Normals of Jackson". Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved May 31, 2010.
- United States Census Bureau. "Census of Population and Housing". Retrieved August 12, 2013.
- "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2012". Retrieved August 12, 2013.
- Some Census Quick Hits
- White Flight Slows Down Last Decade
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- "Jackson (city), Mississippi". State & County QuickFacts. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved May 1, 2012.
- "2000 Census Data on Same-sex couple households". Factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved January 31, 2010.
- Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2000, United States Census Bureau
- Ost, Jason. "Facts and Findings from ''The Gay and Lesbian Atlas''". Urban.org. Retrieved January 31, 2010.
- For the first time in 30 years, Jackson's population projected to grow
- History of Beth Israel, Jackson, Mississippi, Goldring/Woldenberg Institute of Southern Jewish Life website, History Department, Digital Archive, Mississippi, Jackson, Beth Israel. Retrieved November 17, 2008.
- Waibel, Elizabeth. "Museum Needs Civil Rights Stories." Jackson Free Press. January 27, 2012. Accessed March 3, 2012.
- "Hinds County." Mississippi Department of Corrections. Retrieved September 24, 2011.
- "MDOC QUICK REFERENCE." Mississippi Department of Corrections. Retrieved May 21, 2010. "3794 Hwy 468 – Pearl, MS 39208"
- "GARRISON COULD BE BACK IN JAIL SOON." Biloxi Sun-Herald. February 15, 1995. C2 Coast and State. Retrieved September 24, 2011. "[...]County jail to the central Mississippi prison near Jackson in mid- 1994."
- "Post Office™ Location – JACKSON." United States Postal Service. Retrieved September 24, 2011.
- About Jackson Public Schools
- Jackson State University Institutional Partners
- "USA International Ballet Competition". Usaibc.com. Retrieved January 31, 2010.
- "Jackson To Honor Fallen Juke Joint with Mississippi Blues Trail Marker" (PDF). Mississippi Development Authority. Archived from the original on October 4, 2007. Retrieved June 1, 2008.
- "Last of the Mississippi Jukes – Photo Album". robertmugge.com. Retrieved June 1, 2008.
- "Downtown Jackson Partners". Itsdowntown.com. Retrieved January 31, 2010.
- "Mississippi Maddogs". www.mississippimaddogs.com/. Retrieved June 5, 2013.
- "Magnolia Football League". www.magnoliafootballleague.com. Retrieved June 5, 2013.
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