Xining

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This article is about the city. For the emperor, see Emperor Shenzong of Song.
Xining
西宁市
Prefecture-level city
Clockwise from top: Ma Bufang Mansion,  Duoba Mosque, Dongguan Mosque, Ta'er Temple.
Clockwise from top: Ma Bufang Mansion, Duoba Mosque, Dongguan Mosque, Ta'er Temple.
Location of Xining City jurisdiction in Qinghai
Location of Xining City jurisdiction in Qinghai
Xining is located in China
Xining
Xining
Location in China
Coordinates: 36°38′N 101°46′E / 36.633°N 101.767°E / 36.633; 101.767Coordinates: 36°38′N 101°46′E / 36.633°N 101.767°E / 36.633; 101.767
Country People's Republic of China
Province Qinghai
Area
 • Prefecture-level city 7,372 km2 (2,846 sq mi)
 • Urban 343 km2 (132 sq mi)
 • Metro 343 km2 (132 sq mi)
Elevation 2,275 m (7,464 ft)
Population (2010 Census)
 • Prefecture-level city 2,208,708
 • Density 300/km2 (780/sq mi)
 • Urban 1,198,304
 • Urban density 3,500/km2 (9,000/sq mi)
 • Metro 1,198,304
 • Metro density 3,500/km2 (9,000/sq mi)
Time zone China Standard (UTC+8)
Postal code 810000
Area code(s) 971
License plate prefixes 青A
Website http://www.xining.gov.cn/ (Chinese)
Xining
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese 西寧
Simplified Chinese 西宁
Postal Map Sining or Ziling
Literal meaning western calm or western peace
Tibetan name
Tibetan ཟི་ལིང
Mongolian name
Mongolian Cyrillic Сэлэнг
Mongolian script ᠰᠢᠨᠢᠩ

Xining (Chinese: 西宁; Standard Tibetan: ཟི་ལིང་།, Mongolian: ᠰᠢᠨᠢᠩ) is the capital of Qinghai province in western China,[1] and the largest city on the Tibetan Plateau. It has 2,208,708 inhabitants at the 2010 census whom 1,198,304 live in the built up area made of 4 urban districts.

The city was a commercial hub along the Northern Silk Road's Hexi Corridor for over 2000 years, and was a stronghold of the Han, Sui, Tang, and Song dynasties' resistance against nomadic attacks from the west. Although long a part of Gansu province, Xining was added to Qinghai in 1928. Xining holds sites of religious significance to Muslims and Buddhists, including the Dongguan Mosque and Ta'er Monastery. The city lies in the Huangshui River valley, and owing to its high altitude, has a cold semi-arid climate. It is connected by rail to Lhasa, Tibet and Lanzhou, Gansu.

History[edit]

People's Park, the biggest park in downtown Xining

Xining has a history of over 2,100 years[2] and was a chief commercial hub on the Hexi Corridor caravan route to Tibet, handling especially timber, wool and salt in ancient times. The trade along the Hexi Corridor was part of a larger trade corridor along the Northern Silk Road, whose use was intensified in the 1st century BC after efforts by the Han dynasty to control this route.[3]

Under the Han dynasty (206 BC – 220 AD) a county called Linqiang was established to control the local Qiang tribesmen. It was again a frontier county under the Sui (581–618) and Tang (618–907) dynasties; during the 7th and early 8th centuries it was a center of constant warfare with Tuyuhun and Tibet. In 763, it was overrun by the Tibetans and while under Tibetan control was known to the Chinese as Qingtangcheng. Recovered by the Song dynasty in 1104, it received the name Xining (meaning "peace in the west") and has been the seat of a prefecture or superior prefecture under that name since that time. In the late 16th century, the Ta'er Monastery was founded some 19 km (12 mi) to the southeast, establishing Xining as an important religious center for the Yellow Hat sect of Buddhists.

A major earthquake occurred May 22, 1927 and measured 8.6 on Richter scale. It was one of the deadliest earthquakes with a total count of 200,000 deaths. It also caused large land fractures.

Xining was the extraterritorial capital of the Koko Nor territory and remained in Gansu until 1928, when it became the provincial capital of the newly established independent province of Qinghai.[4][5] Xining was given municipal status in 1945.

Under Governor 1928's reign, Xining, like the rest of Qinghai, underwent industrialization and modernization. In 1947 the USA sold Ma Bufang a piped water (sewage) system which was installed in Xining.[6] Ma Bufang also promoted education. He made businessmen methodically clean up Xining by serving as insect exterminators, killing flies and neatly throwing them away.[7]

Since the late 1950s, when the Liujia Gorge Dam and hydroelectric project came into operation in neighboring Gansu province, Xining has been linked by a high-tension electrical grid to both Liujia and Lanzhou. It also uses local coal from mines at Datongxian to the north. A modern woolen mill was installed at Xining before 1957. The city also has a leather industry and is a market for salt from the Qaidam region. During the late 1950s medium-sized iron and steelworks were built there, supplying metal to Lanzhou.

Construction of a highway to the mineral-rich Qaidam basin and completion in 1959 a link to the Chinese rail network via Lanzhou in Gansu province has spurred industrial development. This effort was part of a plan of the central government to rapidly exploit oil and pasturage in the Xining area beginning in the 1950s.[8]

Geography[edit]

A street in Xining
Xining
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
1.2
 
1
−14
 
 
2.2
 
4
−10
 
 
7
 
10
−4
 
 
19
 
16
2
 
 
43
 
20
6
 
 
59
 
23
10
 
 
88
 
25
12
 
 
74
 
24
11
 
 
54
 
19
8
 
 
21
 
14
2
 
 
3.9
 
8
−6
 
 
1.2
 
3
−12
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: CMA

Xining is located in the eastern part of Qinghai Province and lies on the Huangshui River. It has a total area of 350 km2 (140 sq mi).[dubious ]

Xining is located on the eastern edge of the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau and the upper reaches of the Huangshui River. It is the political, economic, and cultural center of Qinghai Province with an average altitude of about 2,200 metres (7,200 ft). Human activity in the region can be traced to 2,100 years ago. During the Western and Eastern Han dynasties, owing to its developing agriculture, Xining was paid noticed due to its economic and military significance. As well as being an important hinge between the Central Plains and the western part of China in ancient times, Xining was an important link in the Silk Road. It continues to be an important rail and road link to the hinterlands of the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau.

Xining has also been dubbed the Summer Resort Capital of China owing to its cool summer, with a cold semi-arid climate (Köppen BSk). Conditions are influenced by the aridity and high altitude. Nights are cold or cool throughout the year, and the diurnal temperature variation often reaches or exceeds 15 °C (27 °F). The monthly 24-hour average temperatures ranges from −7.4 °C (18.7 °F) in January to 17.3 °C (63.1 °F) in July; the annual mean is 6.10 °C (43.0 °F), still making it one of the warmest locations in Qinghai due to the low elevation by provincial standards. Rainfall falls mainly from May to September, and the area is often dry and sunny; With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 53 percent in September to 69 percent in November and January, the city receives 2,676 hours of bright sunshine per year. Extreme temperatures have ranged from −26.6 °C (−16 °F) to 36.5 °C (98 °F).[9]

Climate data for Xining (1971–2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 1.4
(34.5)
4.3
(39.7)
9.5
(49.1)
15.9
(60.6)
19.8
(67.6)
22.6
(72.7)
24.6
(76.3)
23.9
(75)
19.0
(66.2)
13.9
(57)
7.8
(46)
2.8
(37)
13.79
(56.81)
Average low °C (°F) −13.6
(7.5)
−10
(14)
−3.7
(25.3)
1.9
(35.4)
6.3
(43.3)
9.5
(49.1)
11.5
(52.7)
11.1
(52)
7.5
(45.5)
1.5
(34.7)
−5.6
(21.9)
−11.6
(11.1)
0.40
(32.72)
Precipitation mm (inches) 1.2
(0.047)
2.2
(0.087)
7.0
(0.276)
19.0
(0.748)
43.0
(1.693)
59.2
(2.331)
88.2
(3.472)
74.0
(2.913)
54.4
(2.142)
20.5
(0.807)
3.9
(0.154)
1.2
(0.047)
373.8
(14.717)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 2.7 3.4 5.2 6.5 10.7 14.6 15.0 13.8 13.1 7.3 2.4 2.2 96.9
 % humidity 45 44 47 48 53 60 65 66 68 63 54 49 55.2
Mean monthly sunshine hours 209.8 204.9 222.5 241.0 253.9 236.5 243.8 244.4 196.9 208.1 212.7 201.2 2,675.7
Percent possible sunshine 69 67 60 62 58 54 55 58 53 60 69 67 60
Source: China Meteorological Administration

River management[edit]

In 2007, the World Bank lent US$1 billion to aid river treatment in Xining, including Sanxian County's anti-flooding project, with an added US$1 billion to support infrastructure. Qinghai has invested large amounts in the treatment of Huangshui Main River and Nanchuan River, totalling 24.5 km (15.2 mi). However, a treatment on a 40 km (25 mi) river course and 10 flash flood relief channels remain pending due to lack of equipment. In Sanxian County, a 108.4 m (356 ft) long river course and 80 flash flood relief channels need treatment.

Air quality[edit]

According to a 2011 World Health Organization (based on Chinese statistics), Xining has the second worst air quality (annual mean PM10 ug/m3 of 141) among eleven western China cities, and is worse than Beijing (121).[10]

Economy[edit]

The GDP per capita was ¥19,494 (ca. US$2,800) in 2008, ranked no. 382 among 659 Chinese cities. Its main industries are wool spinning and textiles, fur, meat, milk, salt, and light processing industries.

Economic and Technological Development Zones[edit]

  • Xining Economic & Technological Development Zone

Xining Economic & Technological Development Zone (ZETDZ) was approved as state-level development zone in July 2000. It has a planned area of 4.4 km2 (1.7 sq mi). XETDZ lies in the east of Xining, 5 km (3.1 mi) away from downtown. The XETDZ is the first of its kind at the national level on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. It is established to fulfill the nation's strategy of developing the west.

XETDZ enjoys a convenient transportation system, connected by the Xining–Lanzhou expressway and run through by two main roads, the broadest roads of the city. It is 4 km (2.5 mi) away from the railway station,[which?] 15 km (9.3 mi) from Xining Airport.

It focuses on the development of following industries: chemicals based on salt lake resources, nonferrous metals, and petroleum and natural gas processing; special medicine, foods and bio-chemicals using local plateau animals and plants; new products involving ecological and environmental protection, high technology, new materials as well as information technology; and services such as logistics, banking, real estate, tourism, hotel, catering, agency and international trade.[11]

Demographics[edit]

Nan Chuan Xi Lu (南川西路); street scene in Xining

According to the 2010 Census, the prefecture-level city of Xining has a population of 2,208,708 inhabitants, 229,508 persons more than in 2000 (and the demographic growth for the period 2000–2010 was of 1.1 percent per year).[12]

At present, four districts, three counties, and a national economic and technological development zone are under the administration of the local government. With a population of more than two million, Xining is the first city on the upper reaches of the Yellow River to achieve a population in the millions. There are about 37 nationalities living here, though it is only the Han, Hui, Monguor (Tu people in Chinese: 土族) and Tibetan who are numerically significant. Local traditions and customs are influenced by the Tibetans, Monguor, Muslims, and Han. On 2010 Census numbers, Han Chinese represent 74.04 percent of the total population of Xining, while Hui (16.26 percent), Tibetan (5.51 percent) and Tu (2.6 percent) are the main minority groups in the city.

Administrative divisions[edit]

The municipality oversees seven districts and counties. The data here are presented in km² and in population according to 2010 Census:

Map # English Name Simplified Traditional Pinyin Area Population Density
Xining mcp.png
City proper
1 Chengzhong District 城中区 城中區 Chéngzhōng Qū 11 296,987 26,999
Suburban
2 Chengdong District 城东区 城東區 Chéngdōng Qū 115 359,688 3,128
3 Chengxi District 城西区 城西區 Chéngxī Qū 79 242,627 3,071
4 Chengbei District 城北区 城北區 Chéngběi Qū 138 299,002 2,167
Rural
5 Huangyuan County 湟源县 湟源縣 Huángyuán Xiàn 1,609 136,632 85
6 Huangzhong County 湟中县 湟中縣 Huángzhōng Xiàn 2,430 437,835 180
7 Datong Hui and Tu Autonomous County 大通回族土族自治县 大通回族土族自治縣 Dàtōng Huízú Tǔzú Zìzhìxiàn 3,090 435,937 139

Education[edit]

Colleges and universities[edit]

Transportation[edit]

Xining is situated in a fertile mountain basin in the valley of the Huangshui (river), a tributary of the Yellow River, that acts as a river port. The city lies about 200 km (120 mi) west of Lanzhou, the capital of Gansu province, on what was traditionally the main trade route from northern China into Tibet and the Qaidam Basin. These routes are now followed by modern highways.

Railway[edit]

Since 1959 Xining has been connected by rail to the main Chinese system at Lanzhou; this railway extends into the Qaidam area via Haiyan near Qinghai Lake to Golmud and extends, since 2006, to Lhasa, Tibet.

Air[edit]

Xining Caojiabu Airport serves the area with regularly scheduled passenger flights to major Chinese cities including Beijing, Shanghai, Hong Kong, Chengdu, Kunming, Xi'an, and Wuhan.

Highway[edit]

Tourism[edit]

Religion[edit]

Located in the southwest part of Xining City, the Kumbum Monastery or Ta'er Monastery is one of six famous monasteries in the Gelug (also called Yellow Hat Sect) of Tibetan Buddhism and has hundreds of monks. Having a history of over 600 years, the Dongguan Mosque, located in the Xining City Zone, is one of the most famous mosques in the northwest region of China. It has splendid and diversiform towers, walls and halls in the mosque. Another unique religious structure is the Beishan Si (North Mountain Temple), a Taoist facility.

There are more than 300 Christian meeting points in Xining.[13]

Food[edit]

A halal butcher's shop

As the capital of Qinghai province, Xining almost boasts all varieties of local flavors. Xining's cuisine is distinct from other varieties of Chinese cities using mainly food products native to the area. Food here is substantial, but quite inexpensive.[citation needed]

In Xining, some restaurants serve varieties of 'plateau flavor', such as Feng'er Liji (a round lamb tenderloin), Danbai Chongcao Ji (a medicine cuisine made of chicken, Chinese caterpillar fungus and eggs), Jinyu Facai (pork wrapped in flagelliform nostoc and shaped as a goldfish) among others. These dishes are often cooked by the locals at home.[citation needed]

There are also many small restaurants offering noodles. Gan Ban is a very common noodle dish. Perhaps Mian Pian, which means "noodle leaves" is the most common noodle plate among the Qinghai people. On the streets, many Muslims sell spicy lamb brochettes. Due to the cold climate, residents of Xining are also fond of strong spirits—Xining has the reputation of being one of the heaviest regions of alcohol consumption in China.[citation needed]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Illuminating China's Provinces, Municipalities and Autonomous Regions". PRC Central Government Official Website. Retrieved 2014-05-17. 
  2. ^ [1][dead link]
  3. ^ "Silk Road, North China [Northern Silk Road, North Silk Road] Ancient Trackway : The Megalithic Portal and Megalith Map:". Megalithic.co.uk. Retrieved 2014-02-07. 
  4. ^ Frederick Roelker Wulsin, Joseph Fletcher, Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, National Geographic Society (U.S.), Peabody Museum of Salem (1979). Mary Ellen Alonso, ed. China's inner Asian frontier: photographs of the Wulsin expedition to northwest China in 1923 : from the archives of the Peabody Museum, Harvard University, and the National Geographic Society (illustrated ed.). The Museum : distributed by Harvard University Press. p. 49. ISBN 0-674-11968-1. Retrieved 2010-06-28. (Original from the University of Michigan)
  5. ^ Graham Hutchings (2003). Modern China: a guide to a century of change (illustrated, reprint ed.). Harvard University Press. p. 351. ISBN 0-674-01240-2. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  6. ^ "CITY IN WEST CHINA TO GET PIPED WATER; American 'Sells' Warlord at Sining on System to Aid Health --People Suspect Clear Fluid". THE NEW YORK TIMES. 3 February 1947. Retrieved 2010-11-28. 
  7. ^ HENRY R. LIEBERMAN (15 September 1948). "ENLIGHTENED RULE BOLSTERS TSINGHAI; General Ma, War Lord, Enjoys Passion for Education -- He Taxes as Need Arises". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-11-28. 
  8. ^ Greg Rohlf (2003-10-01). "Dreams of Oil and Fertile Fields". Mcx.sagepub.com. Retrieved 2014-02-07. 
  9. ^ 中国气象科学数据共享服务网
  10. ^ WHO report OAP_database_8_2011.xls
  11. ^ "Xining Economic & Technology Development Zone | China Industrial Space". Rightsite.asia. 2013-11-18. Retrieved 2014-02-07. 
  12. ^ "Data from the Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China" (in Chinese). Compilation by LianXin website. Retrieved 2014-02-07. 
  13. ^ "Discovering China: CityScape". Library.thinkquest.org. Retrieved 2014-02-07. 

External links[edit]