Noahidism

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The rainbow is the modern symbol of Noahidism.

Noahidism ((/ˈnə.hd.ɪsm/); alternatively Noachidism (/ˈnə.xd.ɪsm/)) is a monotheistic ideology based on the Seven Laws of Noah, and on their traditional interpretations within Rabbinic Judaism. According to Jewish law, non-Jews are not obligated to convert to Judaism, but they are required to observe the Seven Laws of Noah to be assured of a place in the World to Come (Olam Haba), the final reward of the righteous.[1][2] The penalty for violating any of these Noahide Laws is subject to interpretation in the Talmud. Those who subscribe to the observance of such laws and their supporting organizations are referred to as Bene Noach (B'nei Noah) (Hebrew: בני נח‎), Children of Noah, Noahides (/ˈn.ə.hdɨs/), or Noahites (/ˈn.ə.htɨs/).

Historically, the Hebrew term Bene Noach has applied to all non-Jews as descendants of Noah. However, nowadays it is also used to refer specifically to those non-Jews who observe the Noahide Laws.

Noahic covenant[edit]

According to the Book of Genesis, Noah and his three sons Shem, Ham, and Japheth survived the Flood aboard the Ark, along with their wives. When Noah's family left the Ark, God made a covenant with them (Genesis 9:8-10) and all the animals they had aboard the Ark that he would never again destroy the Earth with flood and sets the rainbow in the sky as a symbol of the covenant. The account in Genesis 9 had earlier referred only to the eating of meat (Genesis 9:2-4) and the prohibition of murder (Genesis 9:5-6), but according to the Talmud this covenant included the Seven Laws of Noah. Therefore to the B'nei Noah all humans, as descendants of Noah, are subject to the Noahide laws.

Maimonides[edit]

Maimonides collected all of the Talmudic and halakhic decisions in his time (c 1135 AD) and laid them out in his work the Mishneh Torah; in addition to Jewish laws and their explanations, the Noahide laws were also collected with their explanation in Maimonides' Sefer Shoftim (Book of Judges) in the last section Hilchot Melachim U’Milchamot ("The Laws of Kings and Wars") 8:9–10:12.[3] Some details of these laws are also found in the Midrashic literature.[4]

The Seven Laws of Noah[edit]

Main article: Seven Laws of Noah

The seven laws listed by the Mishnah in Sanhedrin 56a are: have social laws, to refrain from blasphemy, idolatry, adultery, bloodshed, robbery, and eating flesh cut from a living animal.[5]

Historical movements[edit]

There have been many Noahide movements in history. The Sebomenoi or God-fearers are a prime example, out of whom came the religions of Karaite-Karaism[citation needed] (not to be confused with Karaite Judaism), early Christianity, and perhaps even Islam.[6][need quotation to verify]

Modern Noahidism[edit]

Some Jewish religious groups have been particularly active in promoting the Seven Laws, notably the Chabad-Lubavitch movement (whose late leader, Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson, launched the global Noahide Campaign), groups affiliated with Dor Daim.

Small groups calling themselves the B'nei Noah (children of Noah) have recently organised themselves to form communities to abide by these laws.[citation needed]

High Council of B’nei Noah[edit]

A High Council of B’nei Noah, set up to represent B'nei Noah communities around the world, was endorsed by a group that claims to be the new Sanhedrin.[7][8]

Acknowledgment[edit]

The Chabad-Lubavitch movement has been the most politically active in Noahide matters, believing that there is spiritual value for non-Jews in simply acknowledging the seven laws. In 1991 they had a reference to these laws enshrined in a congressional proclamation: Presidential Proclamation 5956,[9] then-President George H. W. Bush, recalling Joint House Resolution 173, and recalling that the ethical and moral principles of all civilizations come in part from the Seven Noahide Laws, proclaimed March 26, 1991 as "Education Day, U.S.A." Subsequently, Public Law 102-14, formally designated the Lubavitcher Rebbe's birthday as "Education Day, U.S.A.", with Congress recalling that "without these ethical values and principles the edifice of civilization stands in serious peril of returning to chaos", and that "society is profoundly concerned with the recent weakening of these principles that has resulted in crises that beleaguer and threaten the fabric of civilized society".[10]

In April 2006, the spiritual leader of the Druze community in Israel, Sheikh Mowafak Tarif, met with a representative of Chabad-Lubavitch to sign a declaration calling on all non-Jews in Israel to observe the Noahide Laws as laid down in the Bible and expounded upon in Jewish tradition. The mayor of the Galilean city of Shefa-'Amr (Shfaram) — where Muslim, Christian and Druze communities live side-by-side — also signed the document.

In March 2007, Chabad-Lubavitch gathered ambassadors from six different countries to take part in a gathering to declare, in the name of the states they represent, their support of the universal teachings of Noahide Laws. They represented Poland, Latvia, Mexico, Panama, Ghana, and Japan. They were part of a special program organized by Harav Boaz Kali.[11]

In April, the Abu Gosh mayor Salim Jaber accepted the seven Noahide laws as part of a mass rally by Chabad at the Bloomfield Stadium in Tel Aviv.

In May, the newly elected president of France, Nicolas Sarkozy, met with a Chabad-Lubavitch rabbi, Dovid Zaoui, who presented him with literature on the universal teachings of the Noahide Laws.[12]

The Ten Commandments[edit]

There is disagreement among biblical commentators as to whether, in addition to the seven laws of Noah, gentiles are to keep the Ten Commandments. The disagreement arises from the English mistranslation of the Hebrew term for the Ten Commandments. In Biblical Hebrew, the ten laws of Moses inscribed on the tablets at Mount Sinai are called עשרת הדברות, meaning the ten sayings or laws, but not Mitzvot, which is the Hebrew term for commandment.[13]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Mishneh Torah, Hilkhot M'lakhim 8:14
  2. ^ Encyclopedia Talmudit (Hebrew edition, Israel, 5741/1981, entry Ben Noah, end of article); note the variant reading of Maimonides and the references in the footnote
  3. ^ "Maimonides’ Law of Noahides". WikiNoah. 
  4. ^ Midrash Rabbah
  5. ^ Sanhedrin 56
  6. ^ Jesus the Pharisee: A New Look at the Jewishness of Jesus Rabbi Harvey Falk.
  7. ^ Sanhedrin Moves to Establish Council For Noahides
  8. ^ Arutz Sheva
  9. ^ "Presidency". UCSB. 
  10. ^ "Thomas". LoC. 
  11. ^ Ambassadors Sign 7 Mitzvos Declaration
  12. ^ French President Sarkozy Discusses Sheva Mitzvos
  13. ^ www.jewfaq.org

External links[edit]

Noahide communities