A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada
|A. C. Bhaktivedanta|
|In Devanagari||अभय चरणारविन्द भक्तिवेदान्त स्वामी प्रभुपाद|
|Religion||Gaudiya Vaishnavism, Hinduism|
|Abhay Caranaravinda, Abhay Charan De|
|Born||Abhoy Charan De
1 September 1896
Calcutta, Bengal Presidency, British India
|Died||14 November 1977
|Bhaktivedanta Swami's Samadhi, Vrindavan|
|Based in||Vrindavan, India|
|Title||Founder-Acharya of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness|
Period in office
|1966 - 1977|
|Predecessor||Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura|
|Post||Guru, Sannyasi, Acharya|
|Website||Official Website of ISKCON|
Abhay Charanaravinda Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada (Bengali: অভয চরণারবিন্দ ভক্তিবেদান্ত স্বামীপ্রভুপাদ, Sanskrit: अभय चरणारविन्द भक्तिवेदान्त स्वामी प्रभुपादः, IAST: abhaya-caraṇāravinda bhakti-vedānta svāmī prabhupāda) (1 September 1896 – 14 November 1977) was a Gaudiya Vaishnava spiritual teacher (guru) and the Founder-Acharya of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON), commonly known as the "Hare Krishna Movement". His mission was to propagate Gaudiya Vaishnavism, a school of Vaishnavite Hinduism that had been taught to him by his guru, Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati, throughout the world. Born Abhay Charan De in Calcutta, he was educated at the prestigious local Scottish Church College. Before adopting the life of a pious renunciant (vanaprastha) in 1950, he was married with children and owned a small pharmaceutical business. In 1959 he took a vow of renunciation (sannyasa) and started writing commentaries on Vaishnava scriptures. In his later years, as a traveling Vaishnava monk, he became an influential communicator of Gaudiya Vaishnava theology to India and specifically to the West through his leadership of ISKCON, founded in 1966. As the founder of ISKCON, he "emerged as a major figure of the Western counterculture, initiating thousands of young Americans." Despite attacks from anti-cult groups, he received a favorable welcome from many religious scholars, such as J. Stillson Judah, Harvey Cox, Larry Shinn and Thomas Hopkins, who praised Bhaktivedanta Swami's translations and defended the group against distorted media images and misinterpretations. In respect to his achievements, religious leaders from other Gaudiya Vaishnava movements have also given him credit.
He has been described as a charismatic leader, in the sense used by sociologist Max Weber, as he was successful in acquiring followers in the United States, Europe, India and elsewhere. CNN cites him on their Top-10 list of "wildly successful people". After his death in 1977, ISKCON, the society he founded based on a type of Hindu Krishnaism using the Bhagavata Purana as a central scripture, continued to grow and is respected in India, though there have been disputes about leadership among his followers. In February 2014, ISKCON's news agency reported to have reached a milestone of distributing over half a billion books authored by Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, since 1965.
- 1 Biography
- 2 Books and publishing
- 3 Views on other religious traditions
- 4 Within India
- 5 Monuments
- 6 Bibliography
- 7 See also
- 8 External links
- 9 Footnotes
- 10 References
Born on 1 September 1896, the day after Janmastami, one of the most important Vaishnava holidays, in a humble house in the Tollygunge suburb of Calcutta, he was named Abhay Charan, "one who is fearless, having taken shelter at Lord Krishna's feet." Since he was born on the day of Nandotsava ("the celebration of Nanda," Krishna's father, a traditional festival in honor of Krishna's birth) he was also called Nandulal. His parents, Sriman Gour Mohan De and Srimati Rajani De, were devout Vaishnavas (devotees of Vishnu). In accordance with Bengali tradition, his mother had gone to the home of her parents for the delivery, and only a few days later Abhay returned with parents to his home at 151 Harrison Road in Calcutta, where he was brought up and educated.
He received a European led education in the Scottish Church College. This school was well reputed among Bengalis; many Vaishnava families sent their sons there. The professors, most of whom were Europeans, were known as sober, moral men, and it is believed that the students received a good education. The college was located in north Calcutta, not far from Harrison Road where Abhay's family lived. During his years in the college, Abhay Charan De was a member of the English Society as well as that of the Sanskrit Society, and it has been suggested that his education provided him a foundation for his future leadership. He graduated in 1920 with majors in English, philosophy and economics. However he rejected his diploma in response to Gandhi's independence movement. His refusal to accept the diploma he had earned was in protest of the British. He also wore the homespun cotton cloth the followers of Gandhi wore in support of home industry and protest of British rule in India.
At 22 years old Abhay married Radharani Devi, who was 11 years old, in a marriage arranged by their parents. At 14 years old Radharani gave birth to Abhay's first son.
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In 1922, when he first met his spiritual master, Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura, he was requested to spread the message of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu in the English language. In 1932 he became a formally initiated disciple of Bhaktisiddhanta. In 1944, (from his front room at Sita Kanta Banerjee, Calcutta), he started the publication called Back to Godhead, for which he acted as designer, publisher, editor, copy editor and distributor. He personally designed the logo, an effulgent figure of Caitanya Mahaprabhu in the upper left corner, with the motto: "Godhead is Light, Nescience is darkness" greeting the readers. In his first magazine he wrote:
|“||Under the circumstances since 1936 up to now, I was simply speculating whether I shall venture this difficult task and that without any means and capacity; but as none have discouraged me, I have now taken courage to take up the work.||”|
— A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami, Back to Godhead magazine (Vol.1, 1-4, 1944)
In 1947, the Gaudiya Vaishnava Society recognised his scholarship with the title Bhaktivedanta, (bhakti-vedānta) meaning "one who has realised that devotional service to the Supreme Lord is the end of all knowledge" (with the words Bhakti, indicating devotion and Vedanta indicating conclusive knowledge). 
His later well known name, Prabhupāda, is a Sanskrit title, literally meaning "he who has taken the shelter of the lotus feet of the Lord" where prabhu denotes "Lord", and pāda means "taking shelter." Also, "at whose feet masters sit". This name was used as a respectful form of address by his disciples from late 1967 early 1968 onwards. Previous to this, as with his early disciples, followers used to call him "Swamiji".
From 1950 onwards, he lived at the medieval Radha-Damodar mandir in the holy town of Vrindavan, where he began his commentary and translation work of the Sanskrit work Bhagavata Purana. Of all notable Vrindavana's temples, the Radha-Damodara mandir had at the time the largest collection of various copies of the original writings of the Six Gosvamis and their followers - more than two thousand separate manuscripts, many of them three hundred, some even four hundred years old. His guru, Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati, had always encouraged him that "If you ever get money, print books", referring to the need of literary presentation of the Vaishnava culture.
Keshavaji Gaudiya Matha was the place where Bhaktivedanta used to live, he had written and studied in the library of this building, here he edited the Gauḍīya Patrikā magazine and this is the place where he donated the murti of Lord Chaitanya who stands on the altar beside the Deities of Radha Krishna (named Śrī Śrī Rādhā Vinodavihārījī). During his visit in September 1959 he entered the doors of this matha dressed in white, as Abhoy Babu, but would be leaving dressed in saffron, a sannyasi. He received the sannyasa name Swami (स्वामी Svāmi), not to be confused with the title Swami. In this matha, in Mathura Vrndavana, Abhoy Charan Bhaktivedanta took Vaishnava renunciate vows,sannyasa, from his friend and godbrother Bhakti Prajnana Keshava, and following this he single-handedly published the first three volumes covering seventeen chapters of the first book of Bhagavata Purana, filling three volumes of four hundred pages each with a detailed commentary. Introduction to the first volume was a biographical sketch of Caitanya Mahāprabhu. He then left India, obtaining free passage on a freight ship called the Jaladuta, with the aim and a hope of fulfilling his spiritual master's instruction to spread the message of Caitanya Mahaprabhu around the world. In his possession were a suitcase, an umbrella, a supply of dry cereal, about eight dollars worth of Indian currency, and several boxes of books.
Mission to the West
A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami sailed to USA in 1965. His trip to the United States was not sponsored by any religious organization, nor was he met upon arrival by a group of loyal followers. As he neared his destination on the ship, the Indian freighter Jaladuta, the enormity of his intended task weighed on him. On 13 September he wrote in his diary, "Today I have disclosed my mind to my companion, Lord Sri Krishna." On this occasion and on a number of others, he called on Krishna for help in his native Bengali. Examining these compositions, academics regard them as "intimate records of his prayerful preparation for what lay ahead" and a view on "how Bhaktivedanta Swami understood his own identity and mission."
|“||I do not know why You have brought me here. Now You can do whatever You like with me. But I guess You have some business here, otherwise why would You bring me to this terrible place? How will I make them understand this message of Krishna consciousness? I am very unfortunate, unqualified and most fallen. Therefore I am seeking Your benediction so that I can convince them, for I am powerless to do so on my own.||”|
By journeying to USA, he was attempting to fulfill the wish of his guru, possible only by the grace of "his dear Lord Krishna". It is in July 1966 "global missionary Vaishnavism" was brought to the West by Bhaktivedanta Swami, "the soul agent", founding the International Society for Krishna Consciousness in New York City. Bhaktivedanta Swami spent much of the last decade of his life setting up the institution of ISKCON. Since he was the Society's leader, his personality and management were responsible for much of ISKCON's growth and the reach of his mission.
When it was suggested to him at the time of founding the ISKCON in 1966 that a broader term "God Consciousness" would be preferable to "Krishna Consciousness" in the title, he rejected this recommendation, suggesting that name Krishna includes all other forms and concepts of God.
After a group of devotees and a temple had been established in New York another center was started in San Francisco in 1967. From there he traveled throughout America with his disciples, popularizing the movement through street chanting (sankirtana), book distribution and public speeches.
Once ISKCON was more established in the USA a small number of devotees from the San Francisco temple were sent to London, England. After a short time in London they came into contact with The Beatles, of whom George Harrison took the greatest interest, spending a significant time speaking with Bhaktivedanta Swami and producing a record with members of the later London Radha Krsna Temple. Over the following years Bhaktivedanta Swami's continuing leadership role took him around the world some several times setting up temples and communities in all of the major continents. By the time of his death in Vrindavan in 1977, ISKCON had become an internationally known expression of Vaishnavism.
In the twelve years from his arrival in New York until his final days, he:
- circled the globe fourteen times on lecture tours that took him to six continents
- initiated many disciples, awarding sannyasa initiations.
- introduced Vedic gurukul education to a Western audience
- directed the founding of the Bhaktivedanta Book Trust, which claims to be the world's largest publisher of ancient and classical Vaishnava religious texts
- founded the religious colony New Vrindavan in West Virginia,
- authored more than eighty books (with many available online) on Vedantic philosophy, religion, literature and culture (including four published originally in Bengali)
- introduced international celebrations in the capitals of the world like that of Jagannatha processions
- watched ISKCON grow to a confederation of more than 108 temples, various institutes and farm communities
Through his mission, Bhaktivedanta Swami followed and communicated the teachings of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu and introduced bhakti yoga to an international audience. Within Gaudiya Vaishnavism this was viewed as the fulfillment of a long time mission to introduce Caitanya Mahaprabhu's teachings to the world.
In his discussion with a historian Arnold J. Toynbee in London, Bhaktivedanta Swami is quoted as saying: "I have started this Krishna Conscious Movement among the Indians and Americans and for the next ten thousand years it will increase."
- According to the most recent issue of Back to Godhead magazine, founded by Prabhupada, there are presently over 400 temples and farm communities listed to visit. The magazine lists only the major centers, there are many more homes turned temple that hold programs as well that aren't close by regular temples (Back to Godhead). Prabhupada's initiated disciples and grand disciples number in the tens or hundreds of thousands with millions of more believers who accept his teachings as genuine and bona-fide throughout the world.
Books and publishing
It is believed that Bhaktivedanta Swami's most significant contribution are his books. Within the final twenty years of his life Bhaktivedanta Swami translated over sixty volumes of classic Vedic scriptures (such as the Bhagavad Gita and the Srimad Bhagavatam) into the English language. For their authority, depth, and clarity, his books have won praise from professors at colleges and universities like Harvard, Oxford, Cornell, Columbia, Syracuse, Oberlin, and Edinburgh, and his Bhagavad-Gītā As It Is was published by Macmillan Publishers, in 1968 and unabridged edition in 1972, and is now available in over sixty languages around the world and some other books by Bhaktivedanta Swami are available in over eighty different languages. In February 2014, ISKCON's news agency reported to have reached a milestone of distributing over half a billion books authored by Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, since 1965.
The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust was established in 1972 to publish his works, and it has also published his multi-volume biography, Srila Prabhupada-lilamrta, that according to Larry Shinn will "certainly be one of the most complete records of the life and work of any modern religious figure". Prabhupada reminded his devotees before his death that he would live forever in his books, and through them would remain present as a spiritual master or guru. Bhaktivedanta Swami had instilled in his followers an understanding of the importance of writing and publishing not only with regard to his works, but also their own initiatives. His early disciples felt Prabhupada had given them Back To Godhead for their own writings from the very start.
A prominent Gaudiya Vaishnava figure, Shrivatsa Goswami, who as a young man had met Bhaktivedanta Swami in 1972, affirmed the significance of book publishing and distribution in spreading the message of Caitanya in an interview with Steven Gelberg:
|“||Making these Vaisnava texts available is one of Srila Prabhupada's greatest contributions. Apart from the masses, his books have also reached well into academic circles and have spurred academic interest in the Chaitanya tradition ... The significance of making these texts available is not merely academic or cultural; it is spiritual.||”|
Views on other religious traditions
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Bhaktivedanta Swami considered Moses, Jesus, and Mohamed to be empowered representatives of God, describing them within his writings as pioneers of the same essential message of dedication to God with love and devotion.
|“||"Actually, it doesn't matter – Krishna or Christ – the name is the same. The main point is to follow the injunctions of the Vedic scriptures that recommend chanting the name of God in this age." ||”|
Other typical expression presents a different perspective, where he would point out that "today I may be a Hindu, but tomorrow I may become a Christian or Muslim. In this way faiths can be changed, but dharma" is a natural sequence, a natural occupation or a connection and it can not be changed, because it is permanent, according to him. While the ISKCON theology of personal god is close to Christian theology, both personal and monotheistic, being a preacher of bhakti and a missionary he sometimes would add, that "already many Christians have tasted the nectar of divine love of the holy name and are dancing with karatalas (hand-cymbals) and mridangas (drums)." His approach to modern knowledge is also seen in sectarian Orthodox Judaism, where the skills and technical knowledge of modernity are encouraged, but the values rejected. Bhaktivedanta Swami stated "devotees should not be lazy, idle...we are not afraid to work. Whatever our engagement is, by offering the result to Krishna we become Krishna conscious". Some of his representations are believed to affect women adversely and are male-centred, others are tender and celebratory. Bhaktivedanta Swami himself taught a dualism of body and soul and that of the genders. Similar to many traditional religions he considered sexuality and spirituality as conflicting opposites. Among some liberal male followers there is a positive recognition of his example in applying the spirit of the law according to time, place, person and circumstance, rather than literal tracing of the tradition.
In line with traditional Vaishnava theology, he was critical of the monist philosophies of Hinduism representing the Gaudiya Vaishnava point of view and often insulting the orthodox Vedanta adherents of monism with 'cruel words'. In the view of some, the Gaudiya-Vaishnava philosophy he followed is neither fully dualistic nor monist (this is known as Achintya Bheda Abheda). As a school of thought, Gaudiya Vaishnavism has much more in common with the Dvaita, as opposed to the Advaita schools.
Following the establishment of temples and centres in the United States and Europe, he returned to India in 1971, holding many public programs which were well attended. From 1971 onwards, the movement became increasingly popular and spread throughout India. He was particularly eager to see the progress at "the impressive temple project in" Mumbai which he and his disciples had fought very hard to establish, with large temples in Mayapur and Vrindavan to follow in mid-1970s. To promote the vedic education system within the modern Indian education structure, he introduced a chain of Gurukul in various part of India. The Bhaktivedanta Gurukula and International School is one of the most successful schools in the list.
Speaking at the inauguration of ISKCON's cultural center in New Delhi on 5 April on the occasion of Ramnavmi in 1998, Atal Bihari Vajpayee, then India's prime minister, said:
|“||If the Bhagavad Gita, the holy text of the Hindu traditions, is printed in millions of copies and scores of languages and distributed in all nooks and corners of the world, the credit for this great sacred service goes chiefly to ISKCON. For this accomplishment alone, Indians should be eternally grateful to the devoted spiritual army of Swami Prabhupada, the founder of the Hare Krishna movement, and to his followers. . .
The arrival of Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada in the United States in 1965 and the particular popularity his movement gained in a very short span of twelve years must be regarded as one of the greatest spiritual events of the century.
A number of memorial samadhis or shrines to Bhaktivedanta Swami were constructed by the members of ISKCON in his remembrance, the largest of which are in Mayapur, Vrindavan and at the larger sized temples in America. Prabhupada's Palace of Gold was designed and constructed by devotees of the New Vrindavan community and dedicated on 2 September 1979. Back in 1972 it was intended to be simply a residence for Bhaktivedanta Swami, but over time the plans evolved into an ornate marble and gold palace which is now visited by thousands of Hindu pilgrims each year, visiting this centerpiece of the community strongly relying upon tourist trade.
Translations with commentary
- Bhagavad-Gītā As It Is (1968) ISBN 0-89213-134-9
- Śrī Īśopaniṣad (1969) ISBN 0-89213-280-9
- Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (1972–77) ISBN 84-86883-07-5 (Vols.)
- Caitanya-caritāmṛta (1974) ISBN 0-912776-50-1 (Vols.)
- The Nectar of Instruction (1975) ISBN 0-912776-85-4
- Teachings of Lord Caitanya (1969) ISBN 0-912776-07-2
- Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead (1970) ISBN 0-89213-354-6
- The Nectar of Devotion (1970) ISBN 0-912776-05-6
Other works published within Prabhupada's lifetime
- Easy Journey to Other Planets (1970)
- Kṛṣṇa Consciousness: The Topmost Yoga System (1970)
- Beyond Birth and Death (1972)
- The Perfection of Yoga (1972)
- Kṛṣṇa, the Reservoir of Pleasure (1972)
- On the Way to Kṛṣṇa (1973)
- Rāja-vidyā: The King of Knowledge (1973)
- Elevation to Kṛṣṇa Consciousness (1973)
- Kṛṣṇa Consciousness: The Matchless Gift (1974)
- Perfect Questions, Perfect Answers (1977)
- Teachings of Lord Kapila, the Son of Devahūtī
- Light of the Bhāgavata (1978)
- Teachings of Queen Kuntī (1978) ISBN 0-89213-102-0
- Life Comes From Life (1978) ISBN 0-89213-100-4
- Search for Liberation (1981)
- Chant and Be Happy (1982) ISBN 0-89213-118-7
- Coming Back (1983?) ISBN 0-89213-114-4
- Dialectic Spiritualism (1985)
- Path of Perfection (1989) ISBN 0-89213-103-9
- Nārada bhakti sūtra (1991) ISBN 0-89213-273-6
- Mukunda-mālā-stotra (1989) ISBN 0-89213-275-2
- The Hare Krsna Challenge (1990)
- A Second Chance (1991)
- Journey of Self Discovery (1991)
- Laws of Nature: An Infallible Justice (1991) ISBN 0-89213-272-8
- Renunciation Through Wisdom (1992)
- Quest for Enlightenment (1993)
- The Nectar of Book Distribution (1993)
- The Path of Yoga (1995)
- Message of Godhead (1996?)
- Civilization and Transcendence (1998) ISBN 0-89213-298-1
- Dharma: The Way of Transcendence (1998)
- Srila Prabhupada Slokas (1998)
- Beyond Illusion and Doubt (1999)
- Introduction to Bhagavad-gītā (2005)
- A Shower of Divine Compassion (2008)
- Collected Lectures on Bhagavad-gita As It Is (7 volumes)
- Collected Lectures on Srimad-Bhagavatam (11 volumes)
- Collected Teachings of A.C.Bhaktivedanta Swami (7 volumes)
- Conversations with Srila Prabhupada (37 volumes)
- Srila Prabhupada Siksamrta (3 volumes)
- Srila Prabhupada's Letters (5 volumes)
- The Pioneer Years: Back to Godhead, 1944-1960
- The Jaladuta Diary
- The Spiritual Master and the Disciple
- The Beginning-The 1966 New York Journal
- Sri Namamrta-The Nectar of the Holy Name
- Srila Prabhupada's original League of Devotees 'Srimad Bhagwatam' reprint
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Prabhupada.|
- Official online multilingual library of A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada
- A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada - Source material
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- Klostermaier 20 07, p. 217
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- Goswami 2002, Vol.1 Chapter 6
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- Vasan & Lewis 2005, p. 129
- Paramadvaiti, Swami B. A. "Branches of the Gaudiya Math". www.vrindavan.org. Archived from the original on 4 July 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-30.
- "Unrecognized charisma? A study and comparison of four charismatic leaders: Charles Taze Russell, Joseph Smith, L Ron Hubbard, Swami Prabhupada" by George D. Chryssides. Paper presented at the 2001 International Conference The Spiritual Supermarket: Religious Pluralism in the 21st Century, organised by INFORM and CESNUR (London, April 2001)
- "in an evaluation of the nature of the guru, Larry Shinn, a scholar of religions, utilised Max Weber's analysis of charisma in order to understand Prabhupada and the issue of leadership in ISKCON..."status as charismatic leader" Knot 1997, Chapter: Prabhupada and role of guru
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- Goswami 2002, Vol.1 Chapter Planting the Seed
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- Goswami 2002, Vol.1 Chapter This Momentous Hour of Need
- Goswami 2002, Vol.1 Chapter 4 "Āmār icchā chila kichu bai karānā: "Standing by Rādhā-kuṇḍa and beholding his spiritual master, Abhay felt the words deeply enter his own life - "If you ever get money, print books."
- Knot 1997, "Bhaktivedanta Swami, by journeying to America, was attempting to fulfill the wish of his guru, possible only by the grace of his dear Lord Krishna."
- Selengut "Charisma and Religious Innovation: Prabhupada and the Founding of ISKCON". ISKCON Communications Journal. Archived from the original on 16 May 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-31. (self published)
- Goswami 2002, Vol 1. Ch 1
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- "Babaji initiation, Chicago, July 11, 1975". prabhupadabooks.com. Retrieved 2008-10-19.
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- "About Bhaktivedanta Book Trust". www.Krishna.com. Archived from the original on 30 May 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-30. (self published source)
- "The matrix of principal published translated works. Bhaktivedanta Book Trust offers a 2006 summary PDF file showing which books translated in which languages" (PDF). www.krishna.com. Archived from the original on 28 May 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-30.
- Shinn & Bromley 1987, p. 124 now a tourist attraction. "New Vrindavan in West Virginia, on the other hand, is a close-knit community, has a strong sense of common purpose."
- "Bhaktivedanta VedaBase Online". vedabase.com.
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- Maharaja, Sridhar. "Branches of the Gaudiya Math". www.vrindavan.org. Archived from the original on 4 July 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-30. "What was announced by Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, conceived of by Srila Bhaktivinode Thakur, started by Srila Prabhupad Bhakti Siddhanta Sarasvati Goswami was fulfilled by Swami Maharaja (Srila A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami)."
- Gosvāmī, Satsvarūpa Dāsa (1983). Let There Be a Temple: India Around the World, 1971-1975. Bhaktivedanta Book Trust. ISBN 0-89213-119-5. OL 8622579W. Ch. 6, p. 161
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- "I think the best feature of the Hare Krishna movement is that it is providing scholars with excellent translations of the rarest books on Krishna-bhakti [love of Krishna]." - Dr.Larry Shinn, President of Berea College, Kentucky.
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- Bhaktivedanta Swami, A. C. (1968). The Bhagavad-gita As It Is, first edition. New York: Macmillan.
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- Schmidt, Peter (2002). Krishna meets Jesus : A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Srila Prabhupada's Interpretations and Conclusions about Christianity. Peter Schmidt. ISBN 3-8311-3570-3. OCLC 313729431. p.146 (self published)
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