Sobekhotep III

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Sobekhotep III
Sobekhotep III worshipping Satet. The central hole was made when the relief was used as a grinding stone, long after the original carving. Now on display at the Brooklyn Museum.
Sobekhotep III worshipping Satet. The central hole was made when the relief was used as a grinding stone, long after the original carving. Now on display at the Brooklyn Museum.
Pharaoh of Egypt
Reign 3 to 4 years, ca. 1740 BC or 1700 BC, 13th Dynasty
Predecessor Seth Meribre
Successor Neferhotep I
Consort(s) Senebhenas, Nenni
Children Iuhetibu, Dedetanuq
Father Mentuhotep

Sobekhotep III (throne name: Sekhemresewdjtawy) was an Egyptian king of the 13th dynasty who reigned 3 to 4 years, ca. 1740 BCE or 1700 BCE.

Family[edit]

Scarab of Sobekhotep III giving the name of his father Mentuhotep.[1]

The family of the king is known from several sources. A monument from Sehel Island shows Sobekhotep with his father Mentuhotep, his mother was Iuhetibu (Yauheyebu), his brothers Seneb and Khakau, and a half-sister called Reniseneb. Reniseneb was a daughter of Iuhetibu and her second husband Dedusobek.[2]

Sobekhotep III had two wives, Senebhenas and Nenni. A stela from Koptos (Qift),[3] now in the Louvre (C 8), mentions the daughters of Nenni: Iuhetibu (Fendy) and Dedetanuq. Iuhetibu Fendy wrote her name in a cartouche.[2] This is a second time in Egyptian history that a king's daughter received this honor.

Senebhenas is shown with Sobekhotep on an altar in Sehel Island and a stela in Wadi el-Hol.[3] The stela depicts Sobekhotep III before the god Monthu. He receives an ankh and a was-scepter from the god. Sobekhotep is followed by his father Montuhotep, his mother Iuhetibu, and his wife Senebhenas.[2]

Reign[edit]

Sobekhotep III is known from a high number of objects[4][5] despite the fact that the Turin King List gives him a reign of only four years[6] and two to four months in length. He added inscriptions to the temple of Menthu at Madamud[7] and built a chapel at El Kab.[8] On Sehel[9] was found an altar with his name.

A number of scarab seals have been found that were from an officier of the ruler's table Sobekhotep begotten of the officier of the ruler's table Mentuhotep.[10] It is possible that these seals belonged to Sobekhotep III before he became king.

Sobekhotep III was the first of a group of Thirteenth Dynasty kings about whom there exists historical records. This group of Thirteenth Dynasty kings are all known from a large number of objects. These kings produced many seals and there are many private monuments that can be dated to these reigns. This would seem to indicate that Egypt was relatively stable during this period.

In the Revised Chronology of Rohl[edit]

According to the Egyptian Chronology as revised by David Rohl (see New Chronology (Rohl)), Sebekhotep III was the "new king who knew not Joseph" in Exodus 1:8.[citation needed] The Egyptian Chronology by David Rohl is almost universally rejected by egyptologists.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Flinders Petrie: A history of Egypt from the earliest times to the 16th dynasty (1897), available copyright free here
  2. ^ a b c M. F. Laming Macadam, A Royal Family of the Thirteenth Dynasty, The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Vol. 37 (Dec., 1951), pp. 20-28
  3. ^ a b Dodson, Aidan and Hilton, Dyan. The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson. 2004. ISBN 0-500-05128-3
  4. ^ A scarab of Sobekhotep III, at the Metropolitan Museum of Art
  5. ^ Another scarab of Sobekhotep III, at the Metropolitan Museum of Art
  6. ^ Following Ryholt: ''The Political Situation, p. 71. However, the four is partly destroyed; year 3 is also possible
  7. ^ F. Bisson de la Roque, J. J. Clère, Fouilles de Médamoud (1927), Cairo 1928, p. 44; Porter & Moss V (1937), p. 146-49
  8. ^ Ryholt, The Political Situation, p. 344
  9. ^ M.F.L. Macadams: Gleanings from the Bankes MSSIn: Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 32 (1946), 60, pl. VIII; H.A. Wild: A Bas-Relief of SekhemRe-Sewadjtowe Sebkhotpe In: Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 37 (1951), p. 12-16
  10. ^ G.T. Martin, Egyptian Administrative and Private Name Seals Oxford 1971, n. 575-588

Bibliography[edit]

  • K.S.B. Ryholt, The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, c.1800-1550 BC, (Carsten Niebuhr Institute Publications, vol. 20. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press, 1997), 343-44, File 13/26.

External links[edit]

Preceded by
Seth Meribre
Pharaoh of Egypt
Thirteenth Dynasty
Succeeded by
Neferhotep I