Trinity (nuclear test)

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Trinity
Trinity Test Fireball 16ms.jpg
The Trinity explosion, 16 ms after detonation.
Information
Country United States
Test site Trinity Site, New Mexico
Date July 16, 1945
Test type Atmospheric
Device type Plutonium implosion fission
Yield 20 kilotons of TNT (84 TJ)
Navigation
Previous test none
Next test Operation Crossroads
Trinity Site
Trinity Site Obelisk National Historic Landmark.jpg
Trinity Site Obelisk
Trinity (nuclear test) is located in New Mexico
Trinity (nuclear test)
Location White Sands Missile Range
Nearest city San Antonio, New Mexico
Coordinates 33°40′38.28″N 106°28′31.44″W / 33.6773000°N 106.4754000°W / 33.6773000; -106.4754000Coordinates: 33°40′38.28″N 106°28′31.44″W / 33.6773000°N 106.4754000°W / 33.6773000; -106.4754000
Area 36,480 acres (147.6 km2)[1]
Built 1945
NRHP Reference # 66000493
NMSRCP # 30
Significant dates
Added to NRHP October 15, 1966[3]
Designated NHLD December 21, 1965[4]
Designated NMSRCP December 20, 1968[2]

Trinity was the code name of the first detonation of a nuclear weapon, conducted by the United States Army on July 16, 1945, as a result of the Manhattan Project. The new test site, named the White Sands Proving Ground, was built in the Jornada del Muerto desert about 35 miles (56 km) southeast of Socorro, New Mexico, at the Alamogordo Bombing and Gunnery Range (now part of the White Sands Missile Range)

Trinity used an implosion-design plutonium device, informally nicknamed "The Gadget", of the same conceptual design as the Fat Man device detonated over Nagasaki, Japan, on August 9, 1945. The Trinity detonation produced the explosive power of about 20 kilotons of TNT (84 TJ).

Although nuclear chain reactions had been hypothesized in 1933 and the first artificial self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction (Chicago Pile-1 or CP-1) had taken place in December 1942, the date of the Trinity test is usually considered to be the beginning of the Atomic Age.

Background[edit]

Main article: Manhattan Project

The creation of atomic weapons arose out of political and scientific developments of the late 1930s. The rise of fascist governments in Europe, new discoveries about the nature of atoms and the fear of a German nuclear weapon project converged, especially among scientists who were refugees from Nazi Germany and other fascist countries. Most scientists believed that nuclear weapons were not possible, but two refugee scientists at the University of Birmingham, Otto Frisch and Rudolf Peierls, who ironically were conducting nuclear research because their enemy alien status precluded them from working on secret projects, changed this. In what became known as the Frisch–Peierls memorandum, they calculated that just a few kilograms of fissile material would be required - an amount small enough to fit inside a aerial bomb. This spurred the British and United States governments to support an all-out effort.[5]

Practical development began in earnest in June 1942 when these efforts were transferred to the authority of the U.S. Army and became the Manhattan Project.[6] Brigadier General Leslie R. Groves, Jr., became the director of the Project in September 1942.[7] The weapons development portion of this project was located at the Los Alamos Laboratory in northern New Mexico, under the directorship of physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer. Other development work was carried out at the University of Chicago, Columbia University and the Radiation Laboratory at the University of California, Berkeley.[8] Theoretically, enriching uranium was feasible through pre-existing techniques, though it proved difficult to scale to industrial levels and was extremely costly. Production of uranium-235 and plutonium were enormous undertakings given the technology of the 1940s, and accounted for 80% of the total costs of the project. Uranium enrichment was carried out at the Clinton Engineer Works near Oak Ridge, Tennessee, while plutonium production was performed in reactors at the Hanford Engineer Works near Hanford, Washington.[9]

Plutonium is a synthetic element not found in nature in appreciable quantities. The only prior plutonium isolated for the project had been produced in cyclotrons in minute amounts. It turned out that it has relatively complicated physics, chemistry, and metallurgy compared to most other elements.[10] In April 1944, physicist Emilio Segrè at Los Alamos received the first sample of reactor-bred plutonium from the X-10 Graphite Reactor at Oak Ridge, and discovered that it was not as pure as cyclotron-produced plutonium by a significant degree. Specifically, the longer the plutonium remained irradiated inside the reactor—which is necessary for high yields of the metal—the greater the content of the plutonium-240 isotope. This undergoes spontaneous fission at an appreciable rate, and that releases excess neutrons. These extra neutrons implied a high probability that a gun-type bomb with plutonium would detonate too early, before a critical mass was formed, scattering the plutonium and producing a small "fizzle" of a nuclear explosion many times smaller than a full explosion. The practical result was that a simple gun-type Thin Man bomb that the laboratory had been working on would not work.[11]

The impossibility of solving this problem of a gun-type bomb with plutonium was decided upon in a meeting in Los Alamos on July 17, 1944.[12] This forced the Laboratory to turn to a alternative, more practical but more difficult design for a plutonium bomb, an implosion-type atomic-bomb design suggested by mathematician John von Neumann in September 1943. A fissile core would be surrounded by two different high explosives that produced shock waves of different speeds. By alternating the faster and slower burning explosives in a carefully calculated configuration, they would produce a compressive wave upon their simultaneous detonation. This "explosive lens" effect focused the explosive force inward with enough force to compress the plutonium core to several times its original density. This would rapidly reduce the necessary size of the critical mass of the material, making it supercritical. It would also activate a small neutron source at the center of the core, which would assure that the chain reaction began in earnest. This required a great deal of research work and experimentation in engineering and hydrodynamics before a practical design could be worked out.[13] The entire Los Alamos Laboratory was reorganized in August 1944 to focus on designing a workable implosion bomb.[14]

The Gadget[edit]

Norris Bradbury, group leader for bomb assembly, stands next to the partially assembled gadget atop the test tower. Later, he became the director of Los Alamos, after the departure of Oppenheimer.

The term "gadget" was the code name given by the Manhattan Project to the bomb. It gave its name to the Los Alamos Laboratory's weapon physics division, G (for Gadget) Division in August 1944. At the time it did not refer specifically to the one used in the Trinity Test.[15] The Trinity gadget was a Y-1561 device very similar to the Fat Man used a few weeks later in the bombing of Nagasaki, with only minor differences. The bombs were still under development, and small changes continued to be made to the Fat Man design.[16]

To keep the design as simple as possible, a solid spherical core was chosen rather than a hollow one, although calculations showed that a hollow core would be more efficient. The core's sub-critical mass was compressed to criticality by the implosion. This design became known as a "Christy Core" after physicist Robert F. Christy, who first suggested it in September 1944, and it was provisionally adopted by Oppenheimer and Groves on 28 February 1945.[17]

There are several allotropes of plutonium, but the metallurgists preferred the malleable δ phase. This was stabilised at room temperature by alloying it with gallium. A sphere of plutonium-gallium alloy was formed of two equal hemispheres of plutonium metal plated with silver,[16] designated by serial numbers HS-1 and HS-2.[18] The 6.19 kilograms (13.6 lb) radioactive core generated 15 W of heat, which warmed it up to about 100 to 110 °F (38 to 43 °C),[16] and the silver plating developed blisters that had to be filed down and covered with gold foil later cores were plated with nickel instead. The Trinity core consisted of just these two hemispheres. Later cores also included a ring with a triangular cross-section to prevent jets forming in the gap between them.[19]

Preparation[edit]

Decision[edit]

The idea of testing the implosion device was brought up in discussions at Los Alamos in January 1944, and attracted enough support for Oppenheimer to approach Groves. Groves gave approval, but, in view of the immense cost of plutonium and the effort that the Manhattan Project had gone through to make it, on condition that the plutonium could be recovered. The Laboratory's Governing Board then directed Norman Ramsey to investigate how this could be done. Ramsey reported back in February 1944. He proposed that the explosion be limited in size by reducing the number of generations of chain reactions, and that it take place inside a sealed containment vessel, from which the plutonium could be recovered. However, the means of generating such a controlled reaction were uncertain, and the data obtained would not be as useful as that from a full-scale explosion.[20] Oppenheimer therefore argued that the "implosion gadget must be tested in a range where the energy release is comparable with that contemplated for final use."[21] He obtained Groves's tentative approval in March 1944 for a full-scale explosion inside a containment vessel, although Groves worried about how he would explain the loss of a billion dollars worth of plutonium to a Senate Committee.[20]

Organization[edit]

In March 1944, planning for the test was assigned to Kenneth Bainbridge, a professor of physics at Harvard University, working under explosives expert George Kistiakowsky. A site had to be located that would guarantee secrecy of the project's goals even as a nuclear weapon of unknown strength was detonated. Proper scientific equipment had to be assembled for retrieving data from the test itself, and safety guidelines had to be developed to protect personnel from the unknown results of a highly dangerous experiment. Official test photographer Berlyn Brixner set up dozens of cameras to capture the event on film.

Test site[edit]

The heads of the project considered eight candidate sites, including San Nicolas Island (California), Padre Island (Texas), San Luis Valley, El Malpais National Monument, and other parts of New Mexico. A Mojave Desert Army base near Rice, California was considered the best location, but was opted against because General Leslie Groves, military head of the project, did not wish to have any dealings with the commander of the base, whom he disliked.[22] The site finally chosen was at the northern end of the White Sands Proving Ground, in Socorro County between the towns of Carrizozo and San Antonio, in the Jornada del Muerto in the southwestern United States (33°40′38″N 106°28′31″W / 33.6773°N 106.4754°W / 33.6773; -106.4754).[23]

In late 1944, soldiers started arriving at Trinity Site to prepare for the test. Sgt. Marvin Davis and his military police unit arrived at the site from Los Alamos on December 30, 1944. This unit set up initial security checkpoints around the area, with plans to use horses for patrols. The distances around the site proved too great, so they resorted to using jeeps and trucks for transportation.

Throughout 1945, other personnel arrived at Trinity Site to help prepare for the bomb test. As the soldiers at Trinity Site settled in, they became familiar with Socorro County. They tried to use water out of the ranch wells, but found the water so alkaline they could not drink it. They were forced to use U.S. Navy saltwater soap and hauled drinking water in from the firehouse in Socorro.

Three bunkers were set up to observe the test.[24] Oppenheimer and Brig. Gen. Thomas Farrell watched from the South bunker 5.7 miles (9.2 km) from the detonation, while Gen. Leslie Groves watched from the base camp 10 miles (16 km) away.[25]

Name[edit]

The exact origin of the name Trinity for the test is unknown, but it is often attributed to laboratory leader J. Robert Oppenheimer as a reference to the poetry of John Donne. In 1962, General Groves wrote to Oppenheimer about the origin of the name, asking if he had chosen it because it was a name common to rivers and peaks in the West and would not attract attention, and elicited this reply:[26]

I did suggest it, but not on that ground... Why I chose the name is not clear, but I know what thoughts were in my mind. There is a poem of John Donne, written just before his death, which I know and love. From it a quotation: "As West and East / In all flatt Maps—and I am one—are one, / So death doth touch the Resurrection."[27][28] That still does not make a Trinity, but in another, better known devotional poem Donne opens, "Batter my heart, three person'd God;—."[29][30]

Test predictions[edit]

The observers set up a betting pool on the results of the test,[31][32] with predictions ranging from zero (a complete dud) to 45 kilotons of TNT (190 TJ). Physicist I. I. Rabi won the pool with a prediction of 18 kilotons of TNT (75 TJ).[33]

In addition Fermi personally offered to take wagers among the top physicists and military present on whether the atmosphere would ignite, and if so whether it would destroy just the state, or incinerate the entire planet.[34] This last result had been previously calculated to be almost impossible,[35][36] although for a while it had caused some of the scientists some anxiety. Rhodes speculates that Fermi may have been making a point about a "new force being loosed on the Earth", and how little really was known about it. Bainbridge was furious with Fermi for scaring the guards who, unlike the physicists, did not have the advantage of their knowledge about the scientific possibilities.

Test preparation[edit]

A pre-test calibration explosion of 100 tons of TNT (420 GJ), spiked with 1,000 curies (37 TBq) of fission products from the Hanford B Reactor, was detonated on a wooden platform 800 yards (730 m) to the south-east of Trinity ground zero (33°40′16″N 106°28′20″W / 33.67123°N 106.47229°W / 33.67123; -106.47229) on May 7. The fireball of the conventional explosion was visible 60 miles (97 km) away.[37] The smaller explosion proved an invaluable experiment that helped scientists prepare instruments in time to study the atomic bomb explosion two months later.

For the actual test, the plutonium-core nuclear device, referred to as "the gadget," was hoisted to the top of a 100-foot (30 m) steel tower for detonation—the height would give a better indication of how the weapon would behave when dropped from an airplane, as detonation in the air would maximize the amount of energy applied directly to the target (as it expanded in a spherical shape) and would generate less nuclear fallout.

General Groves had ordered the construction of a 214-short-ton (194 t) steel canister code-named "Jumbo" to recover valuable plutonium if the 5 short tons (4.5 t) of conventional explosives failed to compress it into a chain reaction. The container was constructed at great expense in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and brought to the test site by rail, but by the time it arrived, the confidence of the scientists was high enough that they decided not to use it. Instead, it was hoisted up in a steel tower 800 yards (730 m) from the gadget to give observers a rough measure of the impact the gadget would have at that distance. In the end, Jumbo survived; its tower did not.[38]

For the test, the gadget was lifted to the top of a 100-foot (30 m) bomb tower. It was feared by some that the Trinity test might "ignite" the earth's atmosphere, eliminating all life on the planet, although calculations had determined this was unlikely even for devices "which greatly exceed the bombs now under consideration".[39][35] Less wild estimates thought that New Mexico would be incinerated. Calculations showed that the yield of the device would be between 0 (if it did not work) and 20 kilotons of TNT (84 TJ). In the aftermath of the test, it appeared to have been a blast equivalent to 18 kilotons of TNT (75 TJ).

The detonation was initially planned for 4:00 am but was postponed because of rain and lightning from early that morning. It was feared that the danger from radiation and fallout would be greatly increased by rain, and lightning had the scientists concerned about accidental detonation.[40]

Explosion[edit]

Jack Aeby's still photo of the Trinity explosion, July 1945, the only known well-exposed color photograph of the detonation.

At 04:45, a crucial weather report came in favorably, and, at 05:10, the twenty-minute countdown began. Most top-level scientists and military officers were observing from a base camp 10 miles (16 km) southwest of the test tower.[citation needed] Many other observers were around 20 miles (32 km) away, and some others were scattered at different distances, some in more informal situations (physicist Richard Feynman claimed to be the only person to see the explosion without the dark glasses provided, relying on a truck windshield to screen out harmful ultraviolet wavelengths).[41] The final countdown was read by physicist Samuel K. Allison.

At 05:29:21 (plus or minus 2 seconds)[42] local time (Mountain War Time), the device exploded with an energy equivalent to around 20 kilotons of TNT (84 TJ). It left a crater of radioactive glass in the desert 10 feet (3.0 m) deep and 1,100 feet (340 m) wide. At the time of detonation, the surrounding mountains were illuminated "brighter than daytime" for one to two seconds, and the heat was reported as "being as hot as an oven" at the base camp. The observed colors of the illumination ranged from purple to green and eventually to white. The roar of the shock wave took 40 seconds to reach the observers.[32] The shock wave was felt over 100 miles (160 km) away, and the mushroom cloud reached 7.5 miles (12.1 km) in height. After the initial euphoria of witnessing the explosion had passed,[n 1] test director Kenneth Bainbridge commented to Los Alamos director J. Robert Oppenheimer, "Now we are all sons of bitches."[44] Oppenheimer later stated that, while watching the test, he was reminded of a line from the Bhagavad Gita, a Hindu scripture: "Now I am become Death, the destroyer of worlds."[n 2]

Physicist Isidor Rabi noticed Oppenheimer's disconcerting triumphalism: "I'll never forget his walk; I'll never forget the way he stepped out of the car...his walk was like High Noon...this kind of strut. He had done it."[46]

In the official report on the test, General Farrell wrote, "The lighting effects beggared description. The whole country was lighted by a searing light with the intensity many times that of the midday sun. It was golden, purple, violet, gray, and blue. It lighted every peak, crevasse and ridge of the nearby mountain range with a clarity and beauty that cannot be described but must be seen to be imagined..."[47]

News reports quoted a forest ranger 150 miles (240 km) west of the site as saying he saw "a flash of fire followed by an explosion and black smoke." A New Mexican 150 miles (240 km) north said, "The explosion lighted up the sky like the sun." Other reports remarked that windows were rattled and the sound of the explosion could be heard up to 200 miles (320 km) away.

John R. Lugo was flying a U.S. Navy transport at 10,000 feet (3,000 m), 30 miles (48 km) east of Albuquerque, en route to the west coast. "My first impression was, like, the sun was coming up in the south. What a ball of fire! It was so bright it lit up the cockpit of the plane." Lugo radioed Albuquerque. He got no explanation for the blast but was told, "Don't fly south."[48]

In the crater, the desert sand, which is largely made of silica, melted and became a mildly radioactive light green glass, which was named trinitite.[49] The crater was filled in soon after the test.

The Alamogordo Air Base issued a 50-word press release in response to what it described as "several inquiries" that had been received concerning an explosion. The release explained that "a remotely located ammunitions magazine containing a considerable amount of high explosives and pyrotechnics exploded," but that "there was no loss of life or limb to anyone." A newspaper article published the same day stated that "the blast was seen and felt throughout an area extending from El Paso to Silver City, Gallup, Socorro, and Albuquerque."[50] An Associated Press article quoted a blind woman 150 miles (240 km) away who asked "What's that brilliant light?" Such articles appeared in New Mexico, but East coast newspapers ignored them.[51]

The air base press release was written by William L. Laurence of The New York Times, who was aware of the Manhattan Project. He had prepared four releases for a variety of outcomes,[51] ranging from an account of a successful test (the one which was used) to more catastrophic scenarios involving serious damage to surrounding communities, evacuation of nearby residents, and a placeholder for the names of those killed in the explosion.[52][53] As Laurence was a witness to the test he knew that the last release, if used, would be his obituary.[51]

Around 260 personnel were present, none closer than 5.6 miles (9.0 km). At the next test series, Operation Crossroads in 1946, over 40,000 people were present.[54]

The official technical report (LA-6300-H) on the history of the Trinity test was released in May 1976.[55]

Test results[edit]

The results of the test were conveyed to President Harry S. Truman, who was eagerly awaiting them at the Potsdam Conference; the coded message ("Operated this morning. Diagnosis not complete but results seem satisfactory and already exceed expectations ... Dr. Groves pleased.") arrived at 7:30 p.m. on July 16 and was at once taken to the president and Secretary of State James F. Byrnes at the "Little White House" in the Berlin suburb of Babelsberg by Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson.[56] Information about the Trinity test was made public shortly after the bombing of Hiroshima. The Smyth Report, released on August 12, 1945, gave some information on the blast, and the hardbound edition released by Princeton University Press a few weeks later contained the famous pictures of a "bulbous" Trinity fireball.

Oppenheimer and Groves posed for reporters near the remains of the mangled test tower shortly after the war. In the years after the test, the pictures have become a potent symbol of the beginning of the so-called Atomic Age, and the test has often been featured in popular culture.

First deployment[edit]

Following the success of the Trinity test, two bombs were prepared for use against Japan during World War II. The first, dropped on Hiroshima, Japan, on August 6, was code-named "Little Boy", and used the "gun" design and uranium-235 as its fission source. It was an untested design but was considered very likely to work and was considerably simpler than the implosion model. It could not be tested, because there was only enough uranium-235 for one bomb. The second bomb, dropped on Nagasaki, Japan, on August 9, was code-named "Fat Man" and was an implosion-type plutonium bomb. The atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki killed at least 148,000 people and many more over time. By 1950, the death toll was over 340,000.[57][better source needed] They were followed days later by the surrender of Japan. Debate over the justification of the use of nuclear weapons against Japan persists to this day, both in scholarly and popular circles.

Civilian detection[edit]

Shortly after the Little Boy was dropped on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945, the Kodak Company observed some spotting/fogging on their film which was, at the time, usually packaged in cardboard containers. Dr. J. H. Webb, a Kodak employee, studied the matter and concluded that the contamination must have come from a nuclear explosion somewhere in the United States. He discounted the possibility that Little Boy was responsible due to the timing of the events. A hot spot of fallout from the Trinity explosion had contaminated the river water that the paper mill in Indiana used to manufacture the cardboard pulp from corn husks,[58] aware of the gravity of his discovery, Dr. Webb kept this secret until 1949.[59] The physicist's knowledge of the secret project was not altogether surprising considering that the Kodak Company ran the Tennessee Eastman uranium processing plant at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.[60]

This incident, along with the next continental US tests in 1951 set a precedent, and in all subsequent atmospheric nuclear tests at the Nevada test site(1951-1962), AEC officials gave the photographic industry maps and forecasts of potential contamination, as well as expected fallout distributions which enabled them to purchase uncontaminated materials and take other protective measures.[61]

Fallout effects[edit]

The heaviest fallout contamination outside the restricted test area was 30 miles from the detonation point, on Chupadera mesa where cattle grazed, the radioactivity here is reported to have settled in a white mist onto a number of the livestock in the area, resulting in local beta burns and a temporary loss of dorsal/back hair. Patches of hair grew back discolored as white fur. The army bought 75 cattle in all from ranchers; the 17 most significantly marked were kept at Los Alamos, while the rest were shipped to Oak Ridge for long term observation.[62][63][64][65]

Maps of the ground dose rate pattern from the device's fallout at +1 hour,[66] and +12 hours,[67] after detonation are available. Unlike the 100 or so atmospheric nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site, conducted later, fallout doses to the local inhabitants have not been reconstructed for the Trinity event, due primarily to scarcity of data.[68]

Site today[edit]

In 1952, the site of the explosion was bulldozed, and the remaining trinitite was disposed of. On December 21, 1965, the 51,500-acre (20,800 ha) area Trinity Site was declared a National Historic Landmark district[1][4] and, on October 15, 1966, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places.[3]

The landmark includes the base camp, where the scientists and support group lived; ground zero, where the bomb was placed for the explosion; and the Schmidt/McDonald ranch house, where the plutonium core to the bomb was assembled. Visitors to a Trinity Site open house are allowed to see the ground zero and ranch house areas. In addition, one of the old instrumentation bunkers is visible beside the road just west of ground zero.

In September 1953, about 650 people attended the first Trinity Site open house. In 1967, the inner oblong fence was added. In 1972, the corridor barbed wire fence that connects the outer fence to the inner one was completed. Jumbo was moved to the parking lot in 1979; it is missing its ends from an attempt to destroy it in 1946 using eight 500-pound (230 kg) bombs.[69]

More than sixty years after the test, residual radiation at the site measured about ten times higher than normal.[70] The amount of radioactive exposure received during a one-hour visit to the site is about half of the total radiation exposure which a U.S. adult receives on an average day from natural and medical sources.[71] The Trinity monument, a rough-sided, lava-rock obelisk around 12 feet (3.7 m) high, marks the explosion's hypocenter, and Jumbo is still kept nearby.

On July 16, 1995, a special tour of the site was conducted to mark the 50th anniversary of the Trinity test, and about 5,000 visitors arrived to commemorate the occasion, the largest crowd for any open house. Since that large crowd, the open houses usually average two to three thousand visitors. The site is still a popular destination for those interested in atomic tourism, though it is only open to the public once a year during the Trinity Site Open House on the first Saturday in April.[72]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ The New York Times journalist William L. Laurence recalls "A loud cry filled the air. The little groups that hitherto had stood rooted to the earth like desert plants broke into dance." Physicist Isidor Rabi said "[Oppenheimer's] walk was like High Noon...this kind of strut. He had done it."[43]
  2. ^ Variants on this quotation exist, both by Oppenheimer and by others. A more common translation of the passage, from Arthur W. Ryder (from whom Oppenheimer studied Sanskrit at Berkeley in the 1930s), is:
    Death am I, and my present task
    Destruction. (11:32)
    Since the Gita's first translation into English in 1785, most experts have translated not "Death" but instead "Time". A further elaboration of the supposed Oppenheimer quote often cited is taken from Robert Jungk's 1958 Brighter than a Thousand Suns:
    If the radiance of a thousand suns
    were to burst into the sky,
    that would be like
    the splendor of the Mighty One—
    I am become Death, the shatterer of Worlds.
    For an extensive discussion of the quote, its various translations, and its various reported forms, see James A. Hijiya, "The Gita of Robert Oppenheimer" Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 144:2 (June 2000).[45]
  3. ^ The small crater in the southeast corner was from the earlier test explosion of 108 tons of TNT (450 GJ).

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Richard Greenwood (January 14, 1975). National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination: Trinity Site (PDF). National Park Service. Retrieved 2009-06-21.  and Accompanying 10 photos, from 1974. PDF (3.37 MB)
  2. ^ "New Mexico State and National Registers". New Mexico Historic Preservation Commission. Retrieved 2013-03-13. 
  3. ^ a b "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2007-01-23. 
  4. ^ a b "Trinity Site". National Historic Landmarks. National Park Service. Retrieved 2008-01-28. 
  5. ^ Szasz 1992, pp. 3–8.
  6. ^ Jones 1985, pp. 30–31.
  7. ^ Jones 1985, p. 76.
  8. ^ Jones 1985, p. 63.
  9. ^ Brookings Institution. "The Costs of the Manhattan Project". Retrieved 10 August 2010. 
  10. ^ Baker, Hecker & Harbur 1983, pp. 142–151.
  11. ^ Hoddeson et al. 1993, pp. 228–232.
  12. ^ Hoddeson et al. 1993, pp. 240–242.
  13. ^ Hoddeson et al. 1993, pp. 130–138.
  14. ^ Hoddeson et al. 1993, pp. 245–247.
  15. ^ Hawkins, Truslow & Smith 1961, p. 228.
  16. ^ a b c Coster-Mullen 2012, pp. 47-53.
  17. ^ Hoddeson et al. 1993, pp. 270–271, 293–294.
  18. ^ Wellerstein, Alex. "The third core's revenge". Restricted data blog. Retrieved 2014-04-04. 
  19. ^ Wellerstein, Alex. "You don't know Fat Man". Restricted data blog. Retrieved April 4, 2014. 
  20. ^ a b Hoddeson et al. 1993, pp. 174–175.
  21. ^ Norris 2002, p. 395.
  22. ^ "Trinity Atomic Web Site". Walker, Gregory. Retrieved 2010-08-20. 
  23. ^ "Trinity Site". White Sands Missile Range. Archived from the original on 2008-06-01. Retrieved 2007-07-16. "GPS Coordinates for obelisk (exact GZ) = N33.40.636 W106.28.525" 
  24. ^ Rhodes, p. 653.
  25. ^ Rhodes, p. 675.
  26. ^ Richard Rhodes, The Making of the Atomic Bomb (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1986), pp. 571–572.
  27. ^ John Donne, "Hymne to God My God, in My Sicknesse". The excerpt is about half of the third five-line stanza out of six.
  28. ^ Hymn to god, my god, in my sickness Source: Donne, John. Poems of John Donne. vol I. E. K. Chambers, ed. London: Lawrence & Bullen, 1896. 211–212.
  29. ^ John Donne, Holy Sonnets, XIV. The clause is the truncated first line of a four-line sentence from the (14-line) sonnet.
  30. ^ Holy sonnets. XIV Source: Donne, John. Poems of John Donne. vol I. E. K. Chambers, ed. London: Lawrence & Bullen, 1896. 165.
  31. ^ Rhodes, pages 656.
  32. ^ a b James Hershberg (1993), James B. Conant: Harvard to Hiroshima and the Making of the Nuclear Age. 948 pp. ISBN 0-394-57966-6 p. 233
  33. ^ Rhodes, p. 677.
  34. ^ Rhodes, p. 664.
  35. ^ a b "Report LA-602, "Ignition of the Atmosphere With Nuclear Bombs"" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-12-29. 
  36. ^ Richard Hamming. "Mathematics on a Distant Planet". 
  37. ^ http://www.radiochemistry.org/history/manhattan/04_pdf/05.pdf
  38. ^ "Moving "Jumbo" at the Trinity Test Site". Brookings Institution Press. Retrieved 2013-02-07. 
  39. ^ Richard Hamming (1998). "Mathematics on a Distant Planet". The American Mathematical Monthly 105 (7): 640–650. doi:10.2307/2589247. 
  40. ^ "Countdown" (PDF). Los Alamos: Beginning of an Era, 1943–1945. Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. ca. 1967–1971. Retrieved 2008-01-24.  [dead link]
  41. ^ Richard Feynman (2000), The Pleasure of Finding Things Out p. 53–96 ISBN 0-7382-0349-1
  42. ^ Guttenberg, B. (1946). "Interpretation of Records Obtained from the New Mexico Atomic Test, July 16, 1945". Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 36: 327–330. 
  43. ^ Ray Monk (2012). Inside the Centre: The Life of J. Robert Oppenheimer. Jonathan Cape. pp. 440–. ISBN 978-0-224-06262-6. Retrieved 12 September 2013. 
  44. ^ "The Trinity Test". Los Alamos National Laboratory. Retrieved 2012-11-18. 
  45. ^ Richard Rhodes, The Making of the Atomic Bomb (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1986). Quotes after the test from p. 675–676.
  46. ^ Monk, Ray (2012). Robert Oppenheimer: A Life Inside the Center. New York; Toronto: Doubleday. ISBN 978-0-385-50407-2. pp.456-457.
  47. ^ "Chronology on Decision to Bomb Hiroshima and Nagasaki". 
  48. ^ Larry Calloway (May 10, 2005). "The Trinity Test: Eyewitnesses". Archived from the original on 2005-10-18. 
  49. ^ P.P. Parekh; T.M. Semkow, M.A. Torres, D.K. Haines, J.M. Cooper, P.M. Rosenberg and M.E. Kitto (2006). "Radioactivity in Trinitite six decades later". Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 85 (1): 103–120. doi:10.1016/j.jenvrad.2005.01.017. PMID 16102878. 
  50. ^ "Army Ammunition Explosion Rocks Southwest Area," El Paso Herald-Post, 1945-7-16, p.1 (quoting the full press release)(retrieved from Newspaperarchive.com 2007-8-15).
  51. ^ a b c Sweeney, Michael S. (2001). Secrets of Victory: The Office of Censorship and the American Press and Radio in World War II. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. pp. 205–206. ISBN 0-8078-2598-0. 
  52. ^ William L. Laurence, "Now We Are All Sons-of-Bitches," Science News vol. 98, no. 2 (11 July 1970): pp. 39–41.
  53. ^ "Weekly Document #1: Trinity test press releases (May 1945)".  Also the text of the press releases.
  54. ^ "Operation Crossroads: Fact Sheet". Department of the navy—naval historical center. 2002-08-11. Retrieved 2008-01-24. 
  55. ^ Bainbridge, K.T., Trinity (Report LA-6300-H), Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory.
  56. ^ Gar Alperovitz, The Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb and the Architecture of an American Myth (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1995), p. 240.
  57. ^ From: Hughes, Jeff. The Manhattan Project: Big Science and The Atom Bomb. New York: Columbia University Press, 2002. (p.95)
  58. ^ "Let Them Drink Milk By: Pat Ortmeyer and Arjun Makhijani Article published as "Worse Than We Knew," for November/December 1997 issue of The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists". 
  59. ^ "Oak Ridge's Merril Eisenbud - Hiroshima, the Trinity Test, Nuclear Weapons. - discussing Webb, J.H., The Fogging of Photographic Film by Radioactive Contaminants in Cardboard Packaging Materials, Physical Review Vol. 76 (3):375-380, 1949.". 
  60. ^ "Let Them Drink Milk By: Pat Ortmeyer and Arjun Makhijani Article published as "Worse Than We Knew," for November/December 1997 issue of The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists". 
  61. ^ "Let Them Drink Milk By: Pat Ortmeyer and Arjun Makhijani Article published as "Worse Than We Knew," for November/December 1997 issue of The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists". 
  62. ^ "INTERIM REPORT OF CDC’S LAHDRA PROJECT – Appendix N. pg 17, 23, 37". 
  63. ^ National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Fire Research, United States. Office of Civil Defense (1969). Mass burns: proceedings of a workshop, 13–14 March 1968. National Academies. p. 248. 
  64. ^ Barton C. Hacker (1987). The dragon's tail: radiation safety in the Manhattan Project, 1942-1946. University of California Press. p. 105. ISBN 0-520-05852-6. 
  65. ^ Ferenc Morton Szasz (1984). The day the sun rose twice: the story of the Trinity Site nuclear explosion, July 16, 1945. UNM Press. p. 134. ISBN 0-8263-0768-X. 
  66. ^ "INTERIM REPORT OF CDC’S LAHDRA PROJECT – Appendix N. Figure 19". 
  67. ^ "INTERIM REPORT OF CDC’S LAHDRA PROJECT – Appendix N. Figure 20". 
  68. ^ "INTERIM REPORT OF CDC’S LAHDRA PROJECT – Appendix N. pg 36 - 37". 
  69. ^ "Trinity Atomic Website: Jumbo". Virginia Tech Center for Digital Discourse and Culture. Retrieved 2013-02-07. 
  70. ^ Brian Greene (2003), Nova: The Elegant Universe: Einstein's Dream. PBS Nova transcript Regarding residual radiation.
  71. ^ WSMR article on Trinity nuclear test site
  72. ^ "Trinity Site". White Sands Missile Range, Public Affairs Office. Retrieved July 7, 2013. 

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