Twentieth Dynasty of Egypt
Dynasties of Ancient Egypt
The Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of ancient Egypt are often combined under the group title, New Kingdom. This dynasty is considered to be the last one of the New Kingdom of Egypt, and was followed by the Third Intermediate Period.
Pharaohs of the 20th Dynasty
The Pharaohs of the 20th dynasty ruled for approximately 120 years: from ca 1187 to 1064 BC. The dates and names in the table are mostly taken from Chronological Table for the Dynastic Period" in Erik Hornung, Rolf Krauss & David Warburton (editors), Ancient Egyptian Chronology (Handbook of Oriental Studies), Brill, 2006. Many of the pharaohs were buried in the Valley of the Kings in Thebes (designated KV). More information can be found on the Theban Mapping Project website. 
|name of King||Horus (Throne) Name||date||Burial||Queen(s)|
|Setnakhte||Userkhaure||1189 – 1186 BC||KV14||Tiy-merenese|
|Ramesses III||Usermaatre-Meryamun||1186 – 1155 BC||KV11||Iset Ta-Hemdjert
|Ramesses IV||User/Heqamaatre Setepenamun||1155 – 1149 BC||KV2||Duatentopet|
|Ramesses V Amenhirkhepeshef I||Usermaatre Sekheperenre||1149 – 1145 BC||KV9||Henutwati
|Ramesses VI Amenhirkhepeshef II||Nebmaatre Meryamun||1145 – 1137 BC||KV9||Nubkhesbed|
|Ramesses VII Itamun||Usermaatre Setepenre Meryamun||1137 – 1130 BC||KV1|
|Ramesses VIII Sethhirkhepeshef||Usermaatre Akhenamun||1130 – 1129 BC|
|Ramesses IX Khaemwaset I||Neferkare Setepenre||1129 – 1111 BC||KV6||Baketwernel|
|Ramesses X Amenhirkhepeshef III||Khepermaatre Setepenre||1111 – 1107 BC||KV18||Tyti|
|Ramesses XI Khaemwaset II||Menmaatre Setpenptah||1107 – 1077 BC||KV4||Tentamun|
Pharaoh Setnakhte was likely already middle aged when he took the throne after Queen Twosret. He ruled for only around 4 years when he was succeeded by his son Ramesses III. Egypt was threatened by the Sea Peoples during this time period, but Ramesses III was able to defeat this confederacy from the Near East. The king is also known for a harem conspiracy in which Queen Tiye attempted to assassinate the king and put her son Pentawere on the throne. The coup was not successful in the end. The king may have died from the attempt on his life, but it was his legitimate heir Ramesses IV who succeeded him to the throne. After this a succession of kings named Ramesses take the throne, but none would truly achieve greatness. 
The period of these rulers is notable for the beginning of the systematic robbing of the royal tombs. Many surviving administrative documents from this period are records of investigations and punishment for these crimes, especially in the reigns of Ramses IX and Ramses XI.
As happened under the earlier Nineteenth Dynasty, this group struggled under the effects of the bickering between the heirs of Ramesses III. For instance, three different sons of Ramesses III are known to have assumed power as Ramesses IV, Ramesses VI and Ramesses VIII respectively. However, at this time Egypt was also increasingly beset by a series of droughts, below-normal flooding levels of the Nile, famine, civil unrest and official corruption – all of which would limit the managerial abilities of any king. The power of the last king, Ramesses XI, grew so weak that in the south the High Priests of Amun at Thebes became the effective defacto rulers of Upper Egypt, while Smendes controlled Lower Egypt even before Ramesses XI's death. Smendes would eventually found the Twenty-First dynasty at Tanis.
According to a genetic study in December 2012, Ramesses III and his paternal line belonged to the genetically distant Y-DNA macro-haplogroup E1b1a, mainly found in Subsaharan Africa, North Africa and East Africa and may have a North East African Origin .
Twentieth Dynasty timeline
Gallery of images
Sethnakht, took over the throne of Egypt after the death of Twosret. He also usurped her tomb, KV14 for his own use, and erased all her images and cartouches and replaced them with his. He also named several of his children after people related to Ramesses II. Here in this stela, he offers a statue of Maat to Amun.
Ramesses III, was the son of Sethnakht. During his reign, he fought of the invasions of the Sea Peoples in Egypt and tolerated their settlement in Canaan. A conspiracy was hatched to kill him, but it failed. He was later murdered. His mummy, long an inspiration for the scary Hollywood films, showed his throat was slit.
Ramesses XI was the last pharaoh of the twentieth dynasty. He begun KV4 but later abandoned the tomb. As Egypt weakened, Ramesses XI was forced to share power in a triumvirate with Herihor, the High priest of Amun and Smendes, governor of Lower Egypt. Ramesses XI was buried in Lower Egypt by Smendes, who later took the throne himself.
- Sites in the Valley of the Kings
- Dodson and Hilton, pg 184
- Dodson and Hilton, pg 184-185
- Dodson and Hilton, pg 185-186
- Hawass at al. 2012, Revisiting the harem conspiracy and death of Ramesses III: anthropological, forensic, radiological, and genetic study. BMJ2012;345doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.e8268 Published 17 December 2012