Paris Saint-Germain F.C.
|Full name||Paris Saint-Germain Football Club|
|Nickname(s)||Les Parisiens (The Parisians) Les Rouge-et-Bleu (The Red-and-Blues)|
|Short name||PSG, Paris SG|
|Ground||Parc des Princes|
|Owner||Oryx Qatar Sports Investments (QSi)|
|2016–17||Ligue 1, 2nd|
|Active departments of
|Football (Men's)||Football (Youth Men's)||Football (Women's)|
Paris Saint-Germain Football Club, commonly known as Paris Saint-Germain (French pronunciation: [paʁi sɛ̃ ʒɛʁmɛ̃]) and familiarly as PSG or Paris SG, is a French sports club founded in 1970, and based in the city of Paris in France. The club is most notable for its professional football team, which plays in the highest tier of French football, the Ligue 1.
The Parc des Princes, with a seating capacity of 47,929 spectators, has been the home ground of Paris Saint-Germain since 1974. PSG is the most successful French club in history in terms of trophies won, with 33. Domestically, the Parisians have won six Ligue 1 titles, a record eleven French Cups, a record seven French League Cups, and a record seven French Super Cups. In international club football, they have won one UEFA Cup Winners' Cup and one UEFA Intertoto Cup.
Paris SG is also the only club to have never been relegated from Ligue 1, one of only two French clubs to have won a major European title, and the most popular football club in France. Moreover, the Red-and-Blues have a long-standing rivalry with Olympique de Marseille. The duo contest French football's most notorious match, known as Le Classique.
Oryx Qatar Sports Investments (QSi) has been the club's owner since 2011. The takeover made Paris Saint-Germain not only the richest club in France but one of the wealthiest in the world. The club has other departments for youth football, women's football, handball, and eSports.
- 1 History
- 2 Club identity
- 3 Grounds
- 4 Support
- 5 Tournoi de Paris
- 6 Ownership and finances
- 7 Honours
- 8 Players
- 9 Club officials
- 10 Other departments
- 11 Affiliated clubs
- 12 References
- 13 External links
Paris Saint-Germain was born on 12 August 1970 after the fusion of Paris FC – created a year earlier to fill the void of having no top-flight club in the capital – and Stade Saint-Germain, founded in 1904 in Saint-Germain-en-Laye, the birth town of Louis XIV.
However, PSG really took flight in 1973, when fashion designer Daniel Hechter took over the club. Coached by French football legend Just Fontaine, PSG won promotion to the first division a year later and slowly began attracting the first stars of the Red-and-Blues such as Mustapha Dahleb and Carlos Bianchi.
In 1978, Daniel Hechter handed control of the club to Francis Borelli, under whose guidance the Red-and-Blues won their first silverware: the Coupe de France in 1982 and 1983 and the league in 1986, during a decade marked by players such as Safet Sušić, Luis Fernández and Dominique Rocheteau.
Canal+ took over the club in 1991, and propelled PSG to the forefront of the European game. Between 1993 and 1997, the club from the French capital made five European semi-finals in a row. Led by football icons David Ginola, George Weah and Valdo, amongst others, PSG won a second league title in 1994, two years before lifting the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup.
The European trophy was the crowning moment of this generation, and the emblematic Raí, Bernard Lama, Alain Roche, Paul Le Guen, Daniel Bravo, Vincent Guérin, Youri Djorkaeff and Bruno N'Gotty, the goal scorer in the final against Rapid Vienna, in Brussels.
At the start of the 21st century, there were new stars. But despite the ability of Ronaldinho and the goals of Pauleta (109 goals), PSG struggled to rescale the heights. This changed in 2011 with the arrival of new owners, Oryx Qatar Sports Investments (QSi) and president Nasser Al-Khelaifi. They established an extremely ambitious project, incarnated by Zlatan Ibrahimović, the club's all-time leading goal scorer (156 goals between 2012 and 2016), Edinson Cavani and Marco Verratti. The project that has one aim: to take Paris SG to the summits of the European game, having already transformed the Red-and-Blues into the most successful French club in history, with 33 trophies, including 16 since the arrival of QSi.
Red, blue and white are the traditional colours of Paris Saint-Germain. The red and blue represent the city of Paris, while the white stands for the nearby commune of Saint-Germain-en-Laye. PSG has always stood for both Paris and nearby Saint-Germain-en-Laye.
In the club's crest, the French capital is represented by the Eiffel Tower in red and the blue background. For its part, the white cradle with the white fleur de lys on top is a hint to the coat of arms of Saint-Germain-en-Laye and to French royalty. In France, white is the colour of royalty and the fleur de lys is a royal symbol. The cradle and the fleur de lys also recall that French King Louis XIV was born in Saint Germain-en-Laye in 1638.
Likewise, PSG's home shirt has always featured the three colours of the club. The three main home jerseys worn by Paris SG throughout its history have been predominantly red, blue or white. The club's first shirt was red, while the other two were predominantly blue (« Hechter shirt ») and white. However, all three have included the remaining two colours, as well as with further variations of the home jersey.
"Paris est magique!" ("Paris is magic!") and "Ici, c'est Paris!" ("Here is Paris!") have historically been the club's most popular mottos. More recently, PSG introduced its official anthem and mascot. In commemoration of its 40th anniversary in 2010, the capital club revived its Tournoi de Paris pre-season competition. Ahead of the tournament, PSG unveiled « Allez Paris Saint-Germain », to the tune of "Go West" by Village People, and Germain the Lynx as the club's anthem and mascot, respectively. « Ville Lumière », to the tune of "Flower of Scotland", is considered a club anthem as well.
The first crest of the club, also known as Paris FC logo, surfaced in 1970 and was used during the following two seasons. It featured a ball and a vessel, two powerful symbols of Paris. After the split from Paris FC in 1972, Paris Saint-Germain created their historic crest, known as the Eiffel Tower logo.
The Eiffel Tower logo finally represented both Paris and Saint-Germain-en-Laye. It mainly consisted of a blue background with the Eiffel Tower in red. But between the tower's legs sat two Saint-Germain-en-Laye symbols in white: Louis XIV's cradle and a fleur de lys.
According to former PSG manager Robert Vicot, club president Daniel Hechter introduced the Eiffel Tower in the crest. However, it was a draftsman called Mr. Vallot who had the idea of placing the birthplace of Louis XIV between the legs of the tower.
Former Paris SG shareholder Canal+ was the first to replace the iconic crest in 1994. The new model had the acronym "PSG" and underneath it "Paris Saint-Germain." Under pressure from supporters, the traditional crest returned in 1995.
The Eiffel Tower crest received a makeover in 2013. PSG shareholder Oryx Qatar Sports Investments (QSi) wanted to take full advantage of the city's global appeal and the new crest clearly brought to the fore the name "PARIS," which is written in large bold letters. On top of that, the cradle which marked the birth of Louis XIV was discarded and in place the fleur de lys sits solely under the Eiffel Tower. Additionally, the founding year 1970 made way with "Saint-Germain" taking its place at the bottom.
|Period||Kit manufacturer||Shirt partner|
|1970–1972||Le Coq Sportif||—|
|1976–1977||Le Coq Sportif|
|1978–1986||Le Coq Sportif|
Led by coach Pierre Phelipon and star Jean Djorkaeff, the newly formed Paris Saint-Germain disembarked in Ligue 2 in 1970, wearing a red shirt. The jersey also featured a blue and white collar to bring together the three colours of the club: the red and blue of Paris, and the white of Saint-Germain-en-Laye. The shirt was further complemented by white shorts and blue socks.
After Paris Saint-Germain and Paris FC split into two at the end of the 1971–72 season, PSG assumed amateur status and had to restart in Division 3, sporting an identical red shirt. Not for long, though. Paris SG's iconic jersey was conceived by Daniel Hechter, a great Parisian couturier who became club president in 1973.
The fashion designer later admitted his creation was indirectly influenced by Ajax's shirt. Nicknamed « Hechter shirt », it is blue with a red central and vertical band framed by white edgings. The famous jersey was first used in 1973–74, becoming PSG's home identity until the 1980s.
For PSG fans, the blue-white-red-white-blue shirt is that of the five European Cup semi-finals in a row from 1993 to 1997, the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup victory in 1995–96, the memorable European nights against Barcelona, Liverpool, Steaua Bucharest, and later Rosenborg, Porto or Twente.
The « Hechter shirt » also represents Raí's tears after his last match with the club in 1998, Ronaldinho's dribbling, the (first) eight consecutive wins against Olympique de Marseille between 2002 and 2004, Pauleta's goal celebrations, the cup titles in the 2000s, as well as the struggles to avoid relegation to Ligue 2 in 2006–07 and 2007–08.
Promoted by club president Francis Borelli, the away white shirt became PSG's new home jersey from the 1982 to 1994. Conversely, the « Hechter shirt » became the away outfit. More than with the Hechter's shirt, Safet Sušić, Luis Fernández, Dominique Bathenay and other players who left their mark on the capital side in the 1980s are associated with the white jersey decorated with a red and blue stripe on the left side.
It was with the white shirt that fans saw the first big Paris SG, which won its first French Cup in 1981–82, experienced its first European campaign the following year (eliminated by Belgian club Waterschei in the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup quarter-finals), clinched a second French Cup in 1982–83, and then won its first Ligue 1 title in 1985–86.
The « Hechter shirt » returned in 1994–95 and remained as home shirt until the summer of 2009, albeit with several modifications to the original Hechter design by kit supplier Nike along the way. In 2001–02 and 2009–10, fans protested against Nike's innovations. PSG's iconic jersey made a short comeback in 2011–12, before reappearing in 2015–16.
Parc des Princes
The Parc des Princes (French pronunciation: [paʁk de pʁɛ̃s], literally "Princes’ Park" in English) is an all-seater football stadium in Paris, France. The venue is located in the south-west of the French capital, inside the 16th arrondissement of Paris, in the immediate vicinity of the Stade Jean-Bouin (rugby venue) and within walking distance from the Stade Roland Garros (tennis venue).
The stadium, with a seating capacity of 47,929 spectators, has been the home pitch of Paris Saint-Germain since 1974. Before the opening of the Stade de France in 1998, it was also the home arena of the French national football and rugby union teams. The Parc des Princes pitch is surrounded by four covered all-seater stands, officially known as the Présidentielle Francis Borelli, Auteuil, Paris and Boulogne Stands.
Conceived by architect Roger Taillibert, the current version of the Parc des Princes officially opened on 4 June 1972, at a cost of 80–150 million francs. The stadium is the third to have been built on the site, the first opening its doors in 1897 and the second following in 1932.
PSG registered its record home attendance in 1983, when 49,575 spectators witnessed the club's 2–0 win over Waterschei in the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup quarter-finals. However, the French national rugby team holds the stadium's absolute attendance record. They defeated Wales 31–12 in the 1989 Five Nations Championship in front of 50,370 spectators.
Camp des Loges
The Camp des Loges, also known as the Ooredoo Training Centre for sponsorship reasons, is a sports complex located in Saint-Germain-en-Laye. The current version of the Camp des Loges officially opened on 4 November 2008. It is the second to have been built on the site, the first opening its doors in 1904.
The sports complex has been the training centre of Paris Saint-Germain since the club's foundation in 1970, as well as playing host to the Paris Saint-Germain Academy since its opening on 4 November 1975. In July 2016, PSG chose Poissy as the site of its future performance centre, baptised Campus Paris Saint-Germain, which is scheduled to open at the start of the 2019–20 season.
Stade Municipal Georges Lefèvre
The Stade Municipal Georges Lefèvre is a sports complex located on Président-Kennedy avenue in the forest of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, just across the street from Paris Saint-Germain's training centre, the Camp des Loges.
The complex's main football stadium, with a seating capacity of 2,164 spectators, was the home pitch of PSG until 1974, when the club moved into the Parc des Princes. Currently, the stadium — as well as the other artificial turf and grass football pitches of the complex — hosts training sessions and home matches for the Paris Saint-Germain Academy.
Paris Saint-Germain is the most popular football club in France ahead of arch-rivals Olympique de Marseille. Former French President Nicolas Sarkozy is one of the club's most prominent supporters. Since the emergence of the Boulogne Boys in the 1980s, PSG fan groups or ultras have been linked to football hooliganism.
PSG's Boulogne Boys, considered one of the oldest hooligan groups in France, took their British neighbours as dubious role models. In contrast to the post-Heysel clampdown in Britain, the violence escalated in the early 1990s. PSG owner Canal+, France's premium pay channel, even tried to break up the Boulogne Boys without success.
The feared French riot police were expelled by the Boulogne Boys and other minor fan groups in the Boulogne stand during a game against Caen in 1993. Incidents occurred wherever PSG travelled, and only multiplied with the emergence of the Supras Auteuil in the Autueil stand as a rival to Boulogne's hegemony.
Things came to a head in February 2010 shortly after Marseille beat PSG 3–0 at Parc des Princes. PSG supporter Yann Lorence was involved in a violent exchange outside the Parc des Princes between the Boulogne Boys and their counterparts in the Auteuil stand at the other end of the stadium.
The 37-year-old was left in a critical condition and hospitalised but was pronounced clinically dead the following month because of the injuries he sustained that night. Lorence's death forced then PSG president Robin Leproux to take action. Therefore, all season tickets at Parc des Princes were revoked and all ultra groups were exiled in what was known as "Plan Leproux." The incident led to the dissolution of the Supras Auteuil.
The death of Yann Lorence was not even the first in recent memory. Julien Quemener, a Boulogne Boys member, was shot dead by an off-duty policeman during violence following PSG's UEFA Cup tie with Hapoel Tel Aviv in November 2006. During the 2008 Coupe de la Ligue Final, the Boulogne Boys also unfurled a banner which referred to Lens fans as incestuous, jobless paedophiles. The episode led to the dissolution of the Boulogne Boys.
Before "Plan Leproux" came into effect, Parc des Princes was one of the most intimidating stadiums to visit in Europe. The plan made PSG pay the price both in its pocket and in terms of atmosphere, with one of Ligue 1's most feared venues now subdued. For their part, many of the remaining supporter groups formed the Collectif Ultras Paris (Paris Ultras Collective or CUP) with the aim of returning to the Parc des Princes.
In early October 2016, after a six-year absence, the club and the CUP first agreed a Parc des Princes return for PSG's 2–0 home win over Bordeaux. The ultras have since been regrouped in the Auteuil end of the stadium. In April 2017, PSG's ultras came back into focus after Lyon's Parc OL home was damaged in areas where the capital club's supporters were housed for the 4–1 thrashing of Monaco in the 2017 Coupe de la Ligue Final, despite the CUP distancing itself from the behaviour.
In May 2017, PSG supporter groups Lista Nera Paris and Microbes Paris left the CUP. While Microbes Paris refused to elaborate on the reasons for their decision, Lista Nera Paris made clear their issues with the collective's leadership. Additionally, the CUP dismissed the Karsud group from its ranks because of internal differences over the travel and general running of the collective. The groups left in the CUP at this time are said to be the K-Soce Team, Liberte pour les Abonnes, Le Combat Continue, Le Parias and Nautecia.
In August 2017, PSG and the CUP reached an agreement to allow the club's Ultras to hold season tickets together in the Auteuil end of the Parc des Princes for the first time since 2010.
Paris Saint-Germain shares an intense rivalry with Olympique de Marseille; matches between the two teams are referred to as Le Classique (French pronunciation: [lə klasik], The Classic). PSG vs. OM is considered France's biggest rivalry, and one of the greatest in club football. At the very least, it is France's most violent. Important security measures are taken to prevent confrontations between the fans, but violent episodes still often occur when the duo meet.
PSG and l'OM remain, along with Saint-Étienne, the only French clubs with a big history pre-millennium. The duo are the only two French clubs to have won major European trophies and were the dominant forces in the land prior to the emergence of Olympique Lyonnais at the start of the millennium. They are also the two most popular clubs in France, and the most followed French clubs outside the country. Both teams are at or near the top of the attendance lists every year as well.
Like all the game's major rivalries, PSG vs. OM extends beyond the pitch. The fixture has a historical, cultural and social importance that makes it more than just a football match. It involves the two largest cities in France: Paris against Marseille, capital against province and north against south.
Tournoi de Paris
Paris Saint-Germain has hosted the Tournoi de Paris, also known as Trophée de Paris, at the Parc des Princes since 1975. The competition was founded in 1957 by former hosts Racing Paris to celebrate their 25th anniversary. Since the tournament's inception, the winners have received different trophies.
Regarded as French football's most prestigious friendly tournament, the Tournoi de Paris was held annually each summer between 1957 and 1966 by Racing Paris. It briefly returned in 1973 with new hosts Paris FC. In 1975, current hosts Paris Saint-Germain successfully relaunched the competition. After an almost uninterrupted 18-year spell (the 1990 edition was not held), PSG abandoned the tournament in 1993 for financial reasons.
However, PSG revived the Tournoi de Paris in 2010 to commemorate its 40th anniversary. From 1957 to 1993, four teams (including the hosts) played in a knockout format. The tournament featured two semi-finals, a third-place play-off, and a final. Modeled off Arsenal's Emirates Cup, the competition switched to a group-stage format in 2010. Not held in 2011, it was renamed Trophée de Paris in 2012, and featured a single prestigious match. This was the tournament's last edition to date.
Brazilian team Vasco da Gama won the inaugural Tournoi de Paris in 1957, while Barcelona won the last edition in 2012. Paris Saint-Germain is the most successful club in the competition's history, having lifted the trophy on seven occasions. Belgian outfit Anderlecht is next on the title count with three, while fellow French club Racing Paris and Brazilian sides Santos and Fluminense are the only other teams to have won the competition more than once. PSG arch-rivals Olympique de Marseille is among a group of clubs to have won the tournament once.
Ownership and finances
Presided over by a group of wealthy businessmen, the club grew at an astounding pace early on and the Red-and-Blues were Ligue 2 winners in their first year of existence. Thanks to the support of the capital's media and 20,000 subscribers, Paris finally had a football team that took flight in 1973, when fashion designer Daniel Hechter took over the club. They gained a place in the top tier of French football in 1974.
PSG are today the city's largest club by far, but they have rarely been profitable. Chaired by Hechter in the 1970s, Paris did not win any silverware in their initial years. In January 1978, Hechter was banned for life from football by the French Football Federation following the scandal of double ticketing at the Parc des Princes. Francis Borelli replaced him as club president.
Their first trophies arrived after Borelli became club president: two consecutive French Cups (1982, 1983) and a league championship (1986). Competition for recognition as the capital's No1 sporting entity came from Matra Racing between 1984 and 1989, and PSG went into decline. But a takeover by broadcaster Canal+ revitalised the club. Players such as Valdo, David Ginola, George Weah, Raí and Youri Djorkaeff graced the side and secured trophies, including the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup in 1996.
In 1998, Paris SG went into decline following years of mismanagement and eventually, a split from owners Canal+ became inevitable. The divorce arrived in 2006 after years of underachievement. Canal+ sold PSG to investment firms Colony NorthStar, Butler Capital Partners and Morgan Stanley for €41m. Colony then purchased the majority of Butler's shares in 2008, and later bought out Morgan's shares in 2009 to become 95% owners. Butler retained a 5% stake in the club. But it wasn't until 2011 that PSG finally restored a sense of balance.
After two years of solid progress and stability under the stewardship of president Robin Leproux, the club was purchased by Oryx Qatar Sports Investments (QSi) in 2011. QSi chairman Nasser Al-Khelaifi became PSG's new president. Stars such as Thiago Silva, Zlatan Ibrahimović, Edinson Cavani and David Luiz have filled the Paris dressing room, while some of the game's foremost coaches have issued instructions from the dugout (Carlo Ancelotti, Laurent Blanc) with the ultimate objective of winning the UEFA Champions League.
QSi bought a controlling 70% of the shares and became the majority shareholder of PSG. Colony NorthStar (29%) and Butler Capital Partners (1%) remained minority shareholders. The deal was worth €50m, which covered an estimated €15–20m in debt and €19m in losses from the 2010–11 season. In 2012, QSI purchased the remaining 30% stake for €30m to become the club's sole shareholder.
The takeover made Paris Saint-Germain not only the richest club in France but one of the wealthiest in the world. Prior to the Qatar buyout PSG had recorded losses for over a decade. The year before, the club recorded a loss of $37m. Currently, PSG has the sixth-highest revenue in the footballing world with an annual revenue of €520.9m, and are the world's thirteenth most valuable football club, worth $814m.
- As of the 2017–18 season.
- Coupe de France
- Coupe de la Ligue
- As of the 2017–18 season.
Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.
Out on loan
Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.
|General Manager||Jean-Claude Blanc|
|Sporting director||Antero Henrique|
|Association president||Benoît Rousseau|
|Academy director||Luis Fernández|
|Assistant managers||Juan Carlos Carcedo
|Goalkeeping coach||Nicolas Dehon|
|Head doctor||Éric Rolland|
Since the academy's inception in 1974, many graduates have gone on to sign professional contracts with Paris SG or other clubs. Recognized by the French Football Federation as one of the best in the country, the PSG Academy holds a Category 1, Class A rating. The academy consists of three teams: the Amateur team, the Under 19 team, and the Under 17 team. They train at the Camp des Loges, while the Stade Municipal Georges Lefèvre is their home ground.
Domestically, the youth teams have won four U19 league titles, four Challenge du Meilleur Club de Jeunes, three U17 league titles, one Gambardella Cup, one Championnat National 2 (Group A) and one Championnat National des Cadets. In international club football, the U19 side reached the final of the UEFA Youth League in the 2015–16 edition.
Founded in 1991, the women's football team play in the highest tier of French football, the Division 1 Féminine. They train at the Centre Sports et Loisirs de la Banque de France de Bougival (CSLBF de Bougival), while the Stade Sébastien Charléty and the Stade Municipal Georges Lefèvre are their home grounds. Domestically, PSG's first team has won one Division 2 title and one French Cup. In international club football, the Parisian side reached the 2015 UEFA Women's Champions League Final.
Founded in 1941, the handball team play in the highest tier of French handball, the LNH Division 1. The Stade Pierre de Coubertin is their home ground. The stadium, with a seating capacity of 3,402 spectators, is located in the south-west of the French capital, inside the 16th arrondissement of Paris, only a few hundred meters from the Parc des Princes.
Initially called Patriotes d'Asnières (1941–1942), the club has gone through several name changes: Asnières Sports (1942–1987), Paris-Racing-Asnières (1987–1988), Paris-Asnières (1988–1992), PSG-Asnières (1992–2002), and Paris Handball (2002–2012). After being bought by Paris Saint-Germain owners Oryx Qatar Sports Investments (QSi) in 2012, the club became Paris Saint-Germain Handball.
Since its inception, the club has won 13 titles. Domestically, Paris SG has clinched four LNH Division 1 titles, three French Cups, one French League Cup, a record three French Super Cups and two LNH Division 2 titles. In international club handball, the capital side finished runners-up in the 2016–17 edition of the EHF Champions League.
The following clubs are currently affiliated with Paris Saint-Germain:
- Bali United (2017–present). Inauguration of the Paris Saint-Germain Academy in Bali, Indonesia at the beginning of 2017 in partnership with local club Bali United.
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