Mutual aid (organization theory)

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In organization theory, mutual aid is a voluntary reciprocal exchange of resources and services for mutual benefit. Mutual aid projects are a form of political participation in which people take responsibility for caring for one another and changing political conditions.


Mutual aid is arguably as ancient as human culture. People in every society in every time period have worked together to ensure their communities can survive. Mutual aid has been practiced extensively in marginalized communities.[citation needed]

The term "mutual aid" was popularised by the anarchist philosopher Peter Kropotkin in his essay collection Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution, which argued that cooperation, not competition (as advocated by Charles Darwin) was the driving mechanism behind evolution. Kropotkin argued that mutual aid has pragmatic advantages for the survival of humans and animals and has been promoted through natural selection.[1] This recognition of the widespread character and individual benefit of mutual aid stood in contrast to the theories of social Darwinism that emphasised individual competition and survival of the fittest, and against the ideas of liberals such as Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who thought that cooperation was motivated by universal love.


Mutual aid participants work together to figure out strategies and resources to meet each others' needs, such as food, housing, medical care, and disaster relief, while organizing themselves against the system that created the shortage in the first place.

Typically, mutual-aid groups are member-led, member-organized, and open to all to participate in. They are often structured as non-hierarchical, non-bureaucratic with members controlling all resources. They are egalitarian in nature and designed to support participatory democracy, equality of member status and power shared leadership and cooperative decision-making.[2]

Mutual aid vs. charity[edit]

As defined by radical activist and writer Dean Spade and explored in his University of Chicago course "Queer and Trans Mutual Aid for Survival and Mobilization", mutual aid is distinct from charity.[3] Mutual aid projects are often critical of the charity model, and may use the motto "solidarity, not charity" to differentiate themselves from charities.

Spade makes the following distinctions between mutual aid and charity:[4][5]

  • Whereas charity differentiates those who have from those who need and puts those who have in a position of power to make decisions about how to meet others' needs, mutual aid emphasizes working cooperatively to meet each others needs. Charity is vertical; mutual aid is horizontal.
  • Whereas charity addresses symptoms of systemic issues, mutual aid analyzes the causes of those issues and builds new social relations to help society be more survivable in the long-term.
  • Whereas charity is often professionalized work performed through legislated nonprofit organizations, posing onerous bureaucratic accounting and compliance obligations, mutual aid projects avoid formalization to retain autonomy and flexibility.
  • Whereas the charity funding model relies on the donations of rich individuals and profitable corporations, requiring the charity to publicize those donations to boost the public image of donors and for donors to continue to make sufficient profit to have enough left over to donate, mutual aid utilizes the resources available in their communities, often creatively seeking free supplies.
  • Whereas charity implements criteria for who is deserving of assistance, mutual aid is offered to anyone.


In the 1800s and early 1900s, mutual aid organizations included unions, the Friendly Societies that were common throughout Europe in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries,[6] medieval craft guilds,[7] the American "fraternity societies" that existed during the Great Depression providing their members with health and life insurance and funeral benefits,[8] and the English "workers clubs" of the 1930s that also provided health insurance.[9]

Inspired by Kropotkin, Dorothy Day and Peter Maurin of the Catholic Worker Movement wrote about mutual aid and encouraged the practice as a way of performing the works of mercy.[citation needed]

Food, medical care, and supplies[edit]

In 1969, the Black Panthers created the free breakfast program to serve families in Oakland, California. By the end of 1969, the program fed 20,000 children across 19 cities. Other survival programs included clothing distribution, classes on politics and economics, free medical clinics, lessons on self-defense and first aid, transportation to upstate prisons for family members of inmates, an emergency-response ambulance program, drug and alcohol rehabilitation, and testing for sickle-cell disease.

In the 1970s, the Young Lords, an organization devoted to neighborhood empowerment and self-determination of Puerto Ricans, Latinos, and colonized people in the United States, operated multiple community programs, including free breakfast for children, the Emeterio Betances free health clinic, free dental clinic, community testing for tuberculosis and lead-poisoning, community day care center, free clothing drives, and "Garbage Offensive" to clean up garbage in Puerto Rican neighborhoods neglected by city sanitation.[citation needed]

Food Not Bombs was founded in the United States in 1980 by anti-nuclear activists to share free vegetarian food with hungry people and protest war, poverty, and destruction of the environment. Today Food Not Bombs continues to recover food that would otherwise be discarded and shares free food in over 1,000 cities in 65 countries.[10]

Disaster relief[edit]

Hurricane Katrina[edit]

In 2005 after Hurricane Katrina, mutual aid efforts in New Orleans began through the Common Ground Collective. Efforts included aid distribution centers, opening seven medical clinics, house-gutting, roof-tarping, building neighborhood computer centers, debris removal, a tree planting service, establishing 90+ community gardens, and legal counselling services. In 2012 after Hurricane Sandy, people formerly associated with Occupy Wall Street formed Occupy Sandy to provide mutual aid to those affected by the storm. Occupy Sandy distributed clothes, blankets and food through various neighborhood hubs.[11]

Mutual Aid Disaster Relief, a network of activists, has responded to flooding in Baton Rouge, flooding in West Virginia, Hurricane Matthew, Hurricane Harvey, Hurricane Irma, and Hurricane Maria by building health clinics, distributing medication and medical supplies, cleaning debris, gutting buildings, building infrastructure, and distributing supplies. Their aim is to support people’s survival, empowerment, and self-determination.

2017 Puebla earthquake[edit]

Due to mistrust of the federal government of Mexico and its corruption, a number of organizations and volunteers were prepared to meet the needs of the people of Mexico City immediately after the Tuesday, 19 September 2017 earthquake. This included removing debris from collapsed buildings, searching for survivors, providing medical attention, disseminating news and information, donating and distributing food, etc.[12]

COVID-19 pandemic[edit]

During the COVID-19 pandemic, local mutual aid groups and tools were established to help share resources and run errands.[13][14][15][16]

The first COVID-19 mutual aid group in the United Kingdom was founded in Lewisham on Thursday, 12 March 2020, and one in Hackney[disambiguation needed] was started off the back of that. The pandemic came shortly after the 2019 general election, and relationships formed by young activists as well as a growing political awareness during the Labour Party leadership of Jeremy Corbyn were important to the building of these groups.[17][18]

The UK mutual aid groups have a wide variety of politics. The first groups were organised in an anarchistic and non-hierarchical way, and later groups had more Trotskyist tendencies (for example, the Battersea group had a Central Committee before it had many members). Other groups were more charity-orientated with politics around saviorism rather than a horizontalist interpretation of mutual aid. Although the proliferation of mutual aid groups in the UK brought the term into the common parlance, not everyone involved in the groups are necessarily working from the same understanding of the origins and practice of mutual aid; for example some groups are more deferential to local authorities and politicians than others. Other conflicts in the early days of the groups included disputes over approaches to safeguarding and data protection (synonymous in the UK with the EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)), for example over whether volunteers should be required to have a background check for simply checking in on their neighbours.[17][19][20][21][22]

After the first few groups were set up, a website called "Covid-19 Mutual Aid" was created to help develop an organisational model for the mutual aid groups and facilitate the sharing of resources. It was frequently misreported as coordinating the groups.[23]

COVID-19 mutual aid groups in the UK undertake a broadly similar range of activities: offering support around shopping, collecting prescriptions, dog walking, and offering a chat to those who are lonely due to self-isolation. Groups tend to organise themselves by initially setting up a Facebook group corresponding to a local authority area, and then from there linking to a WhatsApp group corresponding to a council ward. From there the way that groups organise themselves vary greatly but they usually involve producing leaflets with the phone number of one or several volunteers and then trying to reach as many people in the neighbourhood as possible.[17] Other tools commonly used for organising include Slack, Google Docs, and Zoom.[24]

In the context of the rapid growth of mutual aid groups across the UK, the government attempted to create a centralised effort with the NHS Volunteer Responders scheme. Almost 750,000 people signed up to it, although most of these people were not called upon due to organisational issues.[25]

Academics from the Bennett Institute for Public Policy at the University of Cambridge found that the density of COVID-19 mutual aid groups in the United Kingdom was positively correlated with social capital (that is, areas which are already wealthy are more likely to benefit from the presence of mutual aid groups).[26] In deprived areas like like Wolverhampton, mutual aid groups were hampered by the legacy of the United Kingdom government austerity programme.[27]

A report by the New Local Government Network concluded that mutual aid groups are an 'indispensable' part of the United Kingdom's coronavirus response.[28]


Various groups, for example ACORN, have organized eviction defense squads, which would show up en masse to defend anyone from an attempted eviction.


Riseup is a volunteer-run collective providing free secure email, email lists, a VPN service, online chat, and other online services.

Contributing to Wikipedia is a form of mutual aid.

Direct redistribution of wealth[edit]

A group called "UK Mutual Aid" was set up in late 2018 by Black Lives Matter activists to facilitate the voluntary sharing of wealth within marginalised communities.[29]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Kropotkin, Petr (1902). "Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution". The Anarchist Library. Retrieved 6 May 2020.
  2. ^ Turner, Francis J. (2005). Canadian encyclopedia of social work. Waterloo, Ont.: Wilfrid Laurier University Press. pp. 337–8. ISBN 0889204365.
  3. ^ Spade, Dean (1 March 2020). "Solidarity Not Charity: Mutual Aid for Mobilization and Survival". Social Text. 38 (1): 131–151. Retrieved 10 May 2020.
  4. ^ "Mutual Aid Chart – Dean Spade". Retrieved 2020-05-06.
  5. ^ "What is Mutual Aid? – Big Door Brigade". Retrieved 2020-05-06.
  6. ^ Sonnenstuhl, Samuel B. Bacharach, Peter A. Bamberger, William J. (2001). Mutual aid and union renewal: cycles of logics of action. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University. p. 173. ISBN 080148734X.
  7. ^ Kropotkin, Peter (2008). Mutual aid: a factor of evolution. [Charleston, SC]: Forgotten Books. p. 117. ISBN 160680071X.
  8. ^ Beito, David T. (2000). From mutual aid to the welfare state: fraternal societies and social services, 1890 – 1967. Chapel Hill [u.a.]: Univ. of North Carolina Press. pp. 1–2. ISBN 0807848417.
  9. ^ Borsay, edited by Anne; Shapely, Peter (2007). Medicine, charity and mutual aid: the consumption of health and welfare in Britain, c. 1550–1950 ; [5th international conference of the European Association of Urban Historians, which was held in Berlin in summer 2000] ([Online-Ausg.] ed.). Aldershot [u.a.]: Ashgate. pp. 7–8. ISBN 0754651487.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  10. ^ "FOODNOTBOMBS.NET". Retrieved 2020-05-07.
  11. ^ Feuer, Alan (2012-11-09). "Occupy Sandy: A Movement Moves to Relief". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020-05-06.
  12. ^ Campoy, Ana. "Photos: Mexicans show the world how to work together when an earthquake hits". Quartz. Retrieved 2020-06-14.
  13. ^ "'The way we get through this is together': mutual aid under coronavirus | Rebecca Solnit". the Guardian. 2020-05-14. Retrieved 2020-06-14.
  14. ^ "Gig workers have created a tool to offer mutual aid during COVID-19 pandemic". TechCrunch. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
  15. ^ "COVID-19 Mutual Aid". It's Going Down. Retrieved 2020-05-06.
  16. ^ Tolentino, Jia (11 May 2020). "What Mutual Aid Can Do During a Pandemic". The New Yorker. United States: Condé Nast. Retrieved 28 July 2020.
  17. ^ a b c Butler, James (26 March 2020). "THE BURNER 204: After Corbyn + Mutual Aid" (Podcast). Novara Media. Retrieved 28 July 2020.
  18. ^ O'Dwyer, Emma (23 June 2020). "COVID-19 mutual aid groups have the potential to increase intergroup solidarity – but can they actually do so?". London School of Economics. Retrieved 28 July 2020.
  19. ^ Grayson, Deborah (28 April 2020). "Mutual aid and radical neighbourliness". Lawrence & Wishart. Retrieved 28 July 2020.
  20. ^ Spender, Carl (16 March 2020). "Local councils are already trying to sabotage the mutual aid networks". Freedom News. Freedom Press. Retrieved 28 July 2020.
  21. ^ H, Katie (27 April 2020). "From Mutual Aid To Dual Power: How Do We Build A New World In The Shell Of The Old?". Plan C. Retrieved 28 July 2020.
  22. ^ Dhillon, Amardeep Singh (4 May 2020). "The politics of Covid-19: the frictions and promises of mutual aid". Red Pepper. London, England. Retrieved 28 July 2020.
  23. ^ "COVID-19 Mutual Aid UK". Mutual Aid UK. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  24. ^ Kavada, Anastasia (12 June 2020). "Creating a hyperlocal infrastructure of care: COVID-19 Mutual Aid Groups". openDemocracy. Retrieved 28 July 2020.
  25. ^ Moritz, Judith (24 April 2020). "Coronavirus: Volunteers 'not being called upon' to help NHS". BBC News. United Kingdom. Retrieved 28 July 2020.
  26. ^ Felici, Marco. "Social capital and the response to Covid-19". University of Cambridge. Retrieved 28 July 2020.
  27. ^ Heppenstall-West, Luke (29 April 2020). "How Austerity Is Undermining Mutual Aid". Tribune. London, England: Bhaskar Sunkara. Retrieved 28 July 2020.
  28. ^ "Communities vs. Coronavirus: The Rise of Mutual Aid". New Local Government Network. Retrieved 28 July 2020.
  29. ^ Kiama Zuri, Eshe (5 June 2020). "'We've been organising like this since day' – why we must remember the Black roots of mutual aid groups". gal-dem. United Kingdom. Retrieved 28 July 2020.

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