Jump to content

China Railway CRH3

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from CRH3)

China Railways CRH3 EMU
In service
  • CRH3A: 4 October 2017 (2017-10-04)
  • CRH3C: 1 August 2008 (2008-08-01)
  • CRH380BG: 9 October 2012 (2012-10-09)
  • CRH380B: 16 January 2014 (2014-01-16)
  • CRH380BL: 13 January 2011 (2011-01-13)
  • CRH380CL: 3 April 2013 (2013-04-03)
ManufacturerChangchun Railway Vehicles
Siemens
Tangshan Railway Vehicle
Family nameMixed CJ-Pendolino-Velaro (CRH3A)
Siemens Velaro (CRH3C)
Formation
  • CRH3A (CNR), CRH3C (Siemens/CNR), CRH380B: 8 cars/trainset (4M4T)
  • CRH3A–A, CRH3F: 4 cars/trainset (2M2T)
  • CRH380BL, CRH380CL: 16 cars/trainset (8M8T)
CapacityCRH3A: 616
CRH3C (Siemens): 728[1]
CRH3C (CNR): 556-601
CRH380B: 551[1]
CRH380BL: 1043[1]
CRH380CL: 1053[1]
OperatorsChina Railway Corporation
Specifications
Train lengthCRH3C (Siemens/CNR), CRH380B: 200 m (656 ft 2 in)
CRH380BL: 399.27 m (1,309 ft 11+14 in)
Width3,265 mm (10 ft 8+12 in)
Height3,890 mm (12 ft 9+18 in)
Platform height1,250 mm (4 ft 1 in)[2]
Maximum speedCRH3C: 350 km/h (217 mph)
CRH380B, CRH380BL, CRH380CL: 380 km/h (236 mph)
WeightCRH3C: 447 t (440 long tons; 493 short tons)[3]
CRH380BL: 980 t (960 long tons; 1,080 short tons)[4]
Traction systemWater cooling IGBT-VVVF inverter control
CRH3C: Siemens E1550 D2800/880 M5 rfaq or Beijing CARS Zongheng TKD500-2000
CRH380B, CRH380BL: Siemens E1550 D2800/880 M5 rfaq or Beijing CARS Zongheng TKD501/501A/501B/501C-2000
Traction motors3-phase AC induction motor (Siemens 1TB2019-0GCO2 or CRRC Yongji Electric YJ-105A)
Power outputCRH3C (Siemens): 5.12 MW (6,866 hp)[1]
CRH3C (CNR): 8.8 MW (11,801 hp)[3]
CRH380B: 9.2 MW (12,337 hp)[1]
CRH380BL: 18.4 MW (24,675 hp)[5]
CRH380CL: 19.2 MW (25,748 hp)[1]
TransmissionAC-DC-AC
Electric system(s)25 kV 50 Hz AC[3]Overhead line[3]
Current collector(s)Pantograph
Braking system(s)Regenerative, electronically controlled pneumatic brakes
Track gauge1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in) standard gauge[3]

The CRH3 Hexie (simplified Chinese: 和谐号; traditional Chinese: 和諧號; pinyin: Héxié Hào; lit. 'Harmony') is a version of the Siemens Velaro high-speed train used in China on the Beijing–Tianjin intercity railway line, Wuhan-Guangzhou Passenger Dedicated Line, Zhengzhou-Xi'an Passenger Dedicated Line and the Shanghai–Nanjing intercity railway. It is capable of service speed of 380 km/h (236 mph) as the very similar Velaro E used in Spain, but, similarly to the Sapsan, it is 300 mm (11.8 in) wider to take advantage of a more generous structure gauge and thus be able to fit in more seats in a 2+3 layout.

Variants[edit]

In November 2005, the Ministry of Railways ordered 60 Velaro trains for use on the Beijing–Tianjin intercity railway line. On 27 July 2006, the joint project office was opened at Tangshan.[6]

CRH3C Prototypes[edit]

The first three trains were built in Germany by Siemens, and these imported trains were labelled CRH3A (CRH3-002A, CRH3-003A and CRH3-004A), different than the CRH3A-5218 developed independently and manufactured by CRRC Changchun Railway Vehicles in 2017, designed to operate at a cruise speed of 250 km/h (155 mph). These trains are based on the German Deutsche Bahn's ICE 3 high-speed trains and were given initial designations of CRH3A. Of these German trains, the first one was shipped from Bremerhaven on 19 December 2007.[7]

On 30 November 2012, the CNR announced new design of CRH3A, with three styles that can operate at top speed of 160 km/h (99 mph), 200 km/h (124 mph) and 250 km/h (155 mph). The first train was rolled out on 3 June 2013.[8]

CRH3C[edit]

After December 2008, the three imported CRH3A were repainted and renamed to CRH3C (CRH3-002C, CRH3-003C and CRH3-004C). The last letter C means that each rolling stock of this model consists of 8 cars and runs with a maximum speed of 350 km/h (217 mph). The rest of the trains are now being built by Tangshan Railway Vehicle with some components from Germany.[9]

The first Chinese-built CRH3 (CRH3-001C) was unveiled on 11 April 2008.[9]

The 8-car CRH3C trains are similar to the Velaro E design in Spain, but 300 mm (11.8 in) wider to fit more seats in a 2+3 layout; a 200 m (656 ft 2 in) CRH3 train will seat 572 passengers: 16 deluxe-class (8 sold publicly), 56 in first-class, 528 in second-class.[2]

Each train sets consists of four motor cars and four trailer cars, equipped with two driving units, and each of them is in charge of the driving of two motor cars and two trailer cars.

The bogies are improved versions of the SF500 bogie. Innovations include the body bolster, vibration damper, spring parameters, transmission ratio, widening the carbody and increasing the speed of the trainsets.[10]

The trains are designed for running at 350 km/h (217 mph). On 24 June 2008, CRH3-001C reached a top speed of 394.3 km/h (245.0 mph) during a test on the Beijing to Tianjin high speed line.[11]

On 9 December 2009, a pair of CRH3 EMUs (CRH3-013C + CRH3-017C) reached a top speed of 394.2 km/h (245 mph) during a test on the Zhengzhou to Xi'an high speed line,[12] setting a world record for double-link EMUs.[citation needed]

On 28 September 2009, an additional 20 CRH3C sets was ordered by the Chinese MOR.[13]

CRH380B/BL[edit]

CRH380BL at Shanghai Hongqiao railway station

In March 2009, a new contract was signed with China Northern Railways (CNR) to supply 100 16-car trainsets for 39.2B RMB with delivery from October 2010 onwards. This order for a total of 1600 railway cars is greater than the total production of all Velaro and ICE trains that have ever been manufactured in the past. It is planned that the trains will be produced by CNR subsidiaries, Tangshan Railway Vehicle and Changchun Railway Vehicles, using technology from the previous technology transfer agreement. In this contract, Siemens acts as a component supplier, with over 80% of the contract supplied by CNR.[14][15] An additional order for 40 16-car sets and 40 8-car sets was made on 28 September 2009 for 25.32B RMB.[16]

Top travel speed for this variant is 380 km/h (236 mph), though it is capable of attaining even higher speeds.[17] These trains have been designated as CRH380B (8-car set) and CRH380BL (16-car set) in September 2010.[18] The first CRH380BL set with series number CRH380B-6401L rolled off the production line and was unveiled to the public in September 2010. it was manufactured by Tangshan Railway Vehicle.[19] In October 2010, the 16-car train was sent to Beijing loop line for test. In November 2010, the train was sent to Beijing-Shanghai High-Speed Railway for trial run. The trainset reached the maximum speed of 457 km/h (284 mph) on 5 December 2010.[20] More recently, during a subsequent test on 10 January 2011, a CRH380BL set reached a new record speed of 487.3 km/h (302.8 mph), breaking the previous record held by the CRH380A.[21]

Since 13 January 2011, the CRH380BL enter regular service at the Shanghai–Hangzhou High-Speed Railway and Shanghai–Nanjing High-Speed Railway.[22]

All 54 CRH380BL trainsets were recalled in mid-August 2011 due to operational problems on the new Beijing–Shanghai High-Speed Railway. The new trains were reported as being "too sensitive" and the subject of frequent breakdowns in stormy weather. They were temporarily replaced by the CRH380A and CRH380AL. The recalled trainsets returned to service in December 2011, .

CRH380CL[edit]

A CRH380CL (left) beside a CRH380BL (right)

CRH380CL is a modified CRH380BL with a redesigned nose and electrical equipment from Hitachi. 25 16-car trainsets have been ordered by the MOR, replacing 25 previously ordered CRH380BL units.[23] The first trainset was delivered and underwent testing in 2011.[24] The trains entered regular service in the Spring of 2013.[25]

CRH3A[edit]

CRH3A

The CRH3A is based on CJ1 (which in itself is derived from the CRH380B/BL/CL) and CRH5. It was designed for operation on passenger dedicated lines and intercity railways at speeds between 160 km/h (99 mph) and 250 km/h (155 mph).[26][27] The first sets where unveiled for public service on 6 December 2017 on the Xi'an–Chengdu HSR which opened a few days later.[28]

CRH3X[edit]

A prototype highspeed train being developed at CRRC Tangshan capable of cars in a trainset to be swapped out according to demand. Two platforms are being developed for 250 km/h (155 mph) and 350 km/h (217 mph) operation. Trains can be adjusted to be between 2 and 16 cars long with capability to swap in double deck passenger cars, restaurant and freight cars according to demand.[29][30][31]

Formation[edit]

CRH3C[edit]

Coach No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Type ZET ZE ZEC ZY ZE ZET
Power Configuration MC TP M T M TP MC
Power Units Unit 1 Unit 2
Capacity 60+8 80 50 80 60+8
  • Train No. 3001-3080

CRH380B[edit]

Coach No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Type ZYS ZE ZEC ZE ZES
Power Configuration MC TP M T M TP MC
Power Units Unit 1 Unit 2
Capacity 28+5 85 75 63 85 40+5
  • Train No. 3571-3731, 3738-3754, 5637-5681, 5730-5761, 5787-5802, 5829-5888

CRH380BG[edit]

Coach No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Type ZYT ZE ZEC ZE ZET
Power Configuration MC TP M T M TP MC
Power Units Unit 1 Unit 2
Capacity 1 44+8 80 71 40 80 60+8
Capacity 2 28+5 85 75 63 85 40+5
  • ^1 Train No. 5546-5585
  • ^2 Train No. 5586-5600, 5626-5636, 5684-5729, 5762-5786, 5803-5822

CRH380BL[edit]

Coach No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
Type 1 ZYS ZY SW ZY ZE ZEC ZE ZYS
Type 2 ZYS ZY ZE CA ZE ZYS
Power Configuration MC TP M T M TP M TP M T M TP MC
Power Units Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4
Capacity1 2+37 56 24 56 71 80 / 80 2+37
Capacity2 3+13 56 80 71 80 / 80 3+13
  • ^1 Train No. 3501-3543, 5501-5545
  • ^2 Train No. 3544-3570, 3732-3737, 5823-5828

CRH380CL[edit]

Coach No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
Type 1 ZYG ZY SW ZY ZE CA ZE ZYG
Type 2 ZYS ZY ZE CA ZE ZYS
Power Configuration MC TP M T M TP M TP M T M TP MC
Power Units Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4
Capacity1 2+37 56 24 56 71 80 / 80 2+37
Capacity2 3+13 56 80 71 80 / 80 3+13
  • ^1 Train No. 5601
  • ^2 Train No. 5602-5625

Distribution[edit]

As of August 2017, there are 80 CRH3C series EMU, 661 CRH380B series EMU and 25 CRH380C series EMU in service.

Operator Quantity Serial number Depot Notes
CRH3A
Chengdu Railway Bureau 59 3081-3111,
5230-5257
Chengdu East
CRH3A-A
1 0510
CRH3A-A
Chengdu Railway Bureau 11 0512-0522 Guiyang North
CRH3C
Guangzhou Railway Group 21 3024, 3029, 3030, 3034, 3036, 3039, 3040, 3042, 3043, 3047, 3059-3061, 3063, 3065, 3066, 3068, 3069, 3072, 3076, 3080 Changsha
12 3023, 3025, 3027, 3028, 3045, 3052, 3064, 3067, 3070, 3071, 3073, 3074 Changsha West
Chengdu Railway Bureau 15 3005, 3006, 3022, 3026, 3031-3033, 3035, 3038, 3041, 3046, 3050, 3051, 3062, 3075 Chongqing North
32 3001-3004, 3007-3021, 3037, 3044, 3048, 3049, 3053-3058, 3077-3079 Chongqing West
CRH380BG
Shenyang Railway Bureau 36 5548-5555, 5558, 5559, 5562-5564, 5567-5569, 5572-5577, 5580, 5583-5587, 5595, 5596, 5684, 5685, 5689, 5713, 5774, 5815 Changchun
28 5686-5688, 5699, 5700, 5703, 5704, 5706-5709, 5724, 5725, 5728, 5729, 5763-5766, 5803, 5808-5812, 5817-5819 Dalian
24 5697, 5698, 5701, 5702, 5705, 5710, 5712, 5715, 5716, 5719, 5720, 5723, 5762, 5767-5771, 5775, 5777, 5806, 5813, 5814, 5816 Shenyang North
9 5690, 5772, 5773, 5776, 5783, 5784, 5804, 5805, 5807 Shenyang South
Harbin Railway Bureau 60 5546, 5547, 5556, 5557, 5560, 5561, 5565, 5566, 5570, 5571, 5578, 5579, 5581, 5582, 5588-5594, 5597-5600, 5626-5636, 5691-5696, 5711, 5714, 5717, 5718, 5721, 5722, 5726, 5727, 5778-5782, 5785, 5786, 5820-5822 Harbin West
CRH380B
Shanghai Railway Bureau 45 3573, 3581, 3585, 3589, 3593, 3594, 3600, 3603, 3604, 3606, 3609, 3611, 3618, 3619, 3623, 3626, 3629, 3634, 3640-3645, 3652, 3653, 3655, 3663, 3673, 3674, 3678, 3682, 3704, 3713-3719, 3721, 3728, 3739, 3741, 3743, 3752 Hefei South
31 3572, 3575, 3580, 3583, 3586, 3590, 3591, 3595, 3598, 3600-3602, 3605, 3607, 3612-3615, 3620, 3633, 3639, 3676, 3677, 3705, 3720, 3724, 3729, 3738, 3745, 3753 Xuzhou East
Guangzhou Railway Group 57 3577-3579, 3596, 3597, 3599, 3608, 3616, 3621, 3622, 3625, 3628, 3630, 3631, 3635, 3636, 3638, 3646-3648, 3650, 3651, 3654, 3656, 3658-3661, 3670, 3671, 3675, 3681, 3683-3690, 3698-3701, 3706-3708, 3710, 3722, 3725, 3727, 3744, 3746-3749, 3760 Changsha
Beijing Railway Bureau 19 5657-5669, 5671, 5738-5742 Beijing South
Jinan Railway Bureau 29 5643, 5644, 5646, 5650, 5672, 5673, 5679, 5681-5683, 5744, 5747, 5751, 5761, 5794, 5797, 5847, 5852, 5855, 5859, 5860, 5867-5870, 5881-5884 Qingdao North
28 5638, 5651, 5655, 5674, 5677, 5678, 5745, 5746, 5748, 5749, 5752, 5753, 5758-5760, 5789, 5796, 5799, 5800, 5830-5833, 5843, 5853, 5854, 5857, 5858 Jinan
Zhengzhou Railway Bureau 47 5649, 5653, 5654, 5670, 5676, 5680, 5733, 5735, 5736, 5756, 5757, 5787, 5788, 5790, 5791, 5795, 5801, 5802, 5835, 5837-5842, 5850, 5851, 5856, 5861-5866, 5872-5880, 5885-5888 Zhengzhou East
Xi'an Railway Bureau 55 3571, 3574, 3576, 3582, 3584, 3588, 3592, 3610, 3617, 3627, 3632, 3637, 3649, 3657, 3662, 3664, 3665, 3667-3669, 3672, 3680, 3691, 3692, 3694, 3697, 3709, 3712, 3723, 3726, 3730, 3731, 3740, 3742, 3750, 3751, 3754-3759, 3761-3771, 3773, 3774 Xi'an North
Lanzhou Railway Bureau 30 5637, 5639-5642, 5645, 5647, 5648, 5656, 5675, 5730-5732, 5734, 5737, 5743, 5750, 5652, 5754, 5792, 5793, 5798, 5834, 5836, 5844-5846, 5848, 5849, 5871 Lanzhou West
12 3624, 3666, 3679, 3693, 3695, 3696, 3702, 3703, 3711, 3772, 5755, 5829 Yinchuan
CRH380BL
Shanghai Railway Bureau 20 3504, 3505, 3510, 3516, 3517, 3519-3522, 3525, 3527, 3529, 3531, 3533, 3535, 3536, 3538-3540, 3542 Shanghai Hongqiao
9 3547, 3550, 3555, 3560, 3564, 3567, 3570, 3736, 3776 Shanghai Nanxiang
22 3501-3503, 3506-3509, 3511-3515, 3518, 3523, 3524, 3526, 3528, 3530, 3532, 3534, 3537, 3541 Hangzhou
18 3546, 3551, 3554, 3556, 3561, 3562, 3568, 3569, 3732-3734, 3775, 3777, 3778, 3781-3783, 3785 Hefei South
9 3545, 3553, 3565, 3735, 3737, 3779, 3780, 3784, 3786 Xuzhou East
Beijing Railway Bureau 11 5506, 5515, 5516, 5518, 5523, 5529, 5530, 5532, 5533, 5536, 5537 Caozhuang
Jinan Railway Bureau 14 5501, 5503, 5504, 5508, 5509, 5511, 5512, 5525-5528, 5534, 5539, 5540 Jinan
15 5502, 5505, 5507, 5510, 5513, 5514, 5517, 5519-5522, 5524, 5531, 5535, 5538 Qingdao North
Zhengzhou Railway Bureau 21 5541-5545, 5823-5828, 5889-5898 Zhengzhou East
Xi'an Railway Bureau 10 3543, 3544, 3548, 3549, 3552, 3557-3559, 3563, 3566 Xi'an North
CRH380BJ (formerly CIT400B)
China Railway 2 0301, A-0504 Comprehensive inspection trains in orange livery
CRH380CL
Beijing Railway Bureau 11 5601, 5603-5605, 5607-5609, 5617, 5618, 5620, 5621 Beijing South
Shanghai Railway Bureau 14 5602, 5606, 5610-5616, 5619, 5622-5625 Xuzhou East

Accidents and incidents[edit]

On 25 January 2018 the train number G284/281 from Qingdao railway station to Hangzhou East railway station, served by CRH380BL-5522 (staffed by Jinan Railway Bureau) was forced to make an emergency stop at Dingyuan railway station due to a fire on one of the main transformers installed in Coach 2 (ZY 552202).[32] Some 1400 passengers were evacuated, while the car affected by the fire has been completely burnt out. No injuries or casualties were reported.[33]

CRH3 on display in museums[edit]

CRH3 999C at the Steam Locomotive Gallery

There is a CRH3 on display at the Steam Locomotive Gallery of Shenyang. It is CRH3 999C according to the sign infront of the train

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g "Archived copy" (PDF). eng.ku.ac.th. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 July 2013. Retrieved 15 January 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  2. ^ a b "China's first 300 km/h trainsets are taking shape". Railway Gazette International. 1 August 2007. Archived from the original on 22 March 2010. Retrieved 29 May 2010.
  3. ^ a b c d e "Hochgeschwindigkeits-Triebzug Velaro CN, China" (in German). Siemens. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 29 May 2010.
  4. ^ "CRH380BL 380 km/H High Speed Train_Products_Rolling Stock_High-speed Trains_China CNR Corporation Limited". Archived from the original on 20 August 2016. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
  5. ^ "Erneuter Erfolg für die Hochgeschwindigkeitszüge von Siemens Siemens liefert mit chinesischen Partnern weitere 100 Züge für China" (in German). pressrelations.de. 20 March 2009. Archived from the original on 19 July 2011. Retrieved 29 May 2010.
  6. ^ "Siemens Transportation Systems Group opens its high-speed train project office in Tangshan". Siemens AG. 27 July 2006. Archived from the original on 16 June 2009. Retrieved 30 June 2008.
  7. ^ "China's first high speed train ready for shipment". Siemens AG. 29 December 2007. Archived from the original on 21 January 2008. Retrieved 30 June 2008.
  8. ^ "CNR Tangshan rolls out CRH3A".
  9. ^ a b "Tangshan rolls out its first 350 km/h train". Railway Gazette International. 11 April 2008. Retrieved 30 June 2008.
  10. ^ "Products:EMU". tangche.com (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 10 February 2011. Retrieved 6 November 2010.
  11. ^ "Velaro sets Chinese speed record". Railway Gazette International. 27 June 2008. Archived from the original on 22 March 2010. Retrieved 29 May 2010.
  12. ^ "铁道部部长在高速列车上的"记者招待会". china-mor.gov.cn. 9 December 2009. Archived from the original on 15 December 2009. Retrieved 9 December 2009.
  13. ^ 招商证券-中国北车-601299-动车组第三批高毛利率订单将陆续交付 (in Chinese). {{cite book}}: |work= ignored (help)
  14. ^ "Meet The Train Makers, Part 6: China". infrastructurist.com. 20 November 2009. Archived from the original on 28 February 2010.
  15. ^ "西门子将向中方提供百列高速列车 不卖核心技术_新闻中心_新浪网". news.sina.com.cn. Retrieved 8 June 2020.
  16. ^ 长客签下235亿订单. jlrbszb.chinajilin.com.cn (in Chinese). 28 September 2009. Archived from the original on 7 July 2011. Retrieved 16 October 2010.
  17. ^ "The World Railway Development and Research Society annual meeting 2009 was held in Beijing" (in Chinese). worldtrailway.cn. 9 December 2009. Archived from the original on 7 October 2011. Retrieved 29 May 2010.
  18. ^ "时速超400公里的是CRH2型的380级别的动车吗-城际高铁-地铁族". Ditiezu.com. Archived from the original on 28 February 2021. Retrieved 6 April 2013.
  19. ^ "下线仪式CRH380B-6401L rolled off production line". 24 September 2010. Archived from the original on 21 December 2021. Retrieved 6 April 2013 – via YouTube.
  20. ^ "千龙网-北京-时速500公里试验列车正在研制(图)". Beijing.qianlong.com. 7 December 2010. Archived from the original on 7 December 2010. Retrieved 6 April 2013.
  21. ^ "中国北车刷新高铁运营试验世界纪录速度(图)-搜狐证券". Stock.sohu.com. Archived from the original on 20 July 2011. Retrieved 6 April 2013.
  22. ^ "1月13日起"飞毛腿"动车将在宁杭间开跑_新闻中心_新浪网". News.sina.com.cn. Retrieved 6 April 2013.
  23. ^ http://attachment.ourail.com:9999/hgfd4g634v4v/day_101217/101217115492aeec2493fd5a15.jpg[permanent dead link]
  24. ^ "CRH380CL, China High Speed train中國高鐵". 24 May 2011. Archived from the original on 21 December 2021. Retrieved 6 April 2013 – via YouTube.
  25. ^ Archived at Ghostarchive and the Wayback Machine: "China Railways Highspeed HD EXCLUSIVE: Changchun CRH380CL In Service Spring 2013" – via YouTube.
  26. ^ "全国首列CRH3A型动车抵达成都 或投入西成客专运营". xw.qq.com. Retrieved 7 June 2020.
  27. ^ "首列CRH3A新型动车组成都亮相[2]- 中国日报网". pic.chinadaily.com.cn. Retrieved 7 June 2020.
  28. ^ "唐山造CRH3A动车组首发西成高铁(图)_综合新闻_唐山环渤海新闻网". tangshan.huanbohainews.com.cn. Retrieved 7 June 2020.
  29. ^ "CRRC Tangshan reveals flexible-formation high-speed EMU". International Railway Journal. 26 February 2019. Retrieved 7 June 2020.
  30. ^ "传说中的CRH3X!-看点快报". kuaibao.qq.com. Archived from the original on 7 June 2020. Retrieved 7 June 2020.
  31. ^ "可变编组动车组:中车CRH3X,西门子ICE4 谁更牛?!". sohu.com. Retrieved 7 June 2020.
  32. ^ "如何看待 G281 次高铁列车电器设备故障致车厢起火事故?". 25 January 2018. Retrieved 13 February 2018.
  33. ^ "【火燒高鐵】列車燒穿窿 親歷者:疏散後驚見火勢好勁". 25 January 2018. Retrieved 13 February 2018.

External links[edit]