High-speed rail in Indonesia

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Proposed high-speed railway in Java, Indonesia

Plans and studies have been in the works for high-speed rail (HSR) in Indonesia since before 2010. A new plan to build a HSR was announced by Indonesian Government in July 2015.[1] Indonesia's first – and possibly also Southeast Asia's first – high-speed rail project was expected to connect the national capital Jakarta with Bandung in neighboring West Java province, covering a distance of around 140 kilometres. Plans were also mentioned for a possible later extension of the HSR to Indonesia's second largest city, Surabaya in East Java.[2]

Both Japan and China had expressed their interest in the project. Previously, both countries had carried out comprehensive studies for a project for the Jakarta–Bandung section (150 km). Only the Japanese agency, JICA, had issued a study for a project extending to Surabaya (730 km).[1] The Indonesian HSR bid marked rivalry between Japan and China in their competition for Asian infrastructure projects.[3]

On late September 2015, Indonesia awarded the rail project to China,[4][5] much to Japan's disappointment.[6] It was said that China’s offer to build the Jakarta–Bandung line without requiring an official loan guarantee nor funding from Indonesia was the tipping point of Jakarta's decision.[7][8]

In January 2016, Transportation Minister released a route permit[9] for a high speed railway between Jakarta and Bandung (142.3 kilometers) with stations located at Halim (Jakarta end), Karawang, Walini, and Tegalluar (Bandung end) and also Tegalluar depot.[10] The construction will be At Grade 71,630 km., Elevated 53,540 km., and Tunnel 15,630 km. length.[11] The better departure point at the Jakarta end would be the inner city railway station of Gambir but because construction of the Gambir-Halim leg was seen as adding complications, the link will only be from Halim (Jakarta) to Tegalluar (Bandung) with a cost of $5.135 million. Concession period is 50 years from May 31, 2019 and cannot be prolonged, except in force majeur situation.[12] Groundbreaking has been done on January 21, 2016. The HSR is project of 60 percent of Indonesian consortium and 40 percent of China Railway International.[13] The Jakarta–Bandung high-speed rail is planned to begin its operations to public in 2019. The Japanese proposal can start operation only by 2023.[14] The section Bandung-Surabaya, though a priority section due to heavy congestion, has been officially shelved for budget reasons since early 2015.

In October 2016, Indonesian government has announced to build 600 km medium-high speed railway between Jakarta and Surabaya, and invited Japan to invest at this project.[15]

History and development[edit]

JICA's proposal[edit]

Shinkansen E5 series proposed by Japan

Since 2008, Japan has been long-nurtured the plan to export their Shinkansen high-speed railway technology to Indonesia. During Indonesia-Japan Friendship Festival in November 2008, Japan has showcased their Shinkansen technology to impress Indonesian audiences.[16] In 2009, a Japanese government-sponsored feasibility study was conducted for the planning of project – a high speed (300 km/hr) rail line extending 730 kilometers across the island of Java from Jakarta to Surabaya.[3] The idea of high-speed rail backed by funding (soft loans) has been proposed by Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) for the Indonesian island of Java, linking up the densely populated corridor from the capital Jakarta to Surabaya (730 km).[6][17] The island, similar in many respects to pre-HSR Honshu, suffers greatly from both freight and passenger congestion.[18]

The idea has been around for some years, however, a new proposal to divide the project into stages has emerged, with the first stage from Jakarta to Bandung, 150 km to 35 minutes, from current conventional train time of 3 hours at a price of 50 trillion rupiah. The JICA detailed feasibility study was finished in 2014, following up on an initial study in 2012. By 2013 Indonesia has been undergoing a revival in railway expansion and upgrades in recent years. High-speed corridors have been proposed but not implemented.

Japan – with its reputation as a world-class train-maker – seemed destined to win the contract. However, in 2014 Indonesian government changes, as Joko Widodo swore as a new president in October 2014. In January 2015 the Joko administration essentially stopped preparations for the high-speed rail project, citing that the high-speed rail project is too costly and there are more pressing infrastructure needs in outlying underdeveloped islands outside of Java.

Japanese domination in high-speed rail project seemed to be unchallenged. However, that was until April 2015 when China had entered the race with a counter-offer.[19]

In March, Joko Widodo traveled to Tokyo and Beijing. In Tokyo March 22–25 Joko Widodo met Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, Joko got a commitment for Japanese loan support for improving Jakarta's municipal rail network, but no progress was made on resolving issues with the Jakarta–Bandung high-speed rail project.[3]

China's bid[edit]

CRH380A proposed by China.

In April 2015, China submitted a bid for the Indonesian high-speed rail project – much to Japan’s dismay.[7]

On March 26, 2015, Joko Widodo visited Beijing and met Chinese president Xi Jinping. Xi publicly announced support for the Indonesian high-speed project and the two governments signed a memorandum specifying China's interest in the Jakarta–Bandung line.[3]

In July 2015, Indonesian government exposed their plan to build the high-speed rail connecting Jakarta and Bandung, and arranged a contest between Japan and China train-makers as potential bidders.[1] China responded by launching a Chinese High-speed Rail Technology exhibition in Senayan City shopping mall in Jakarta in August 2015.[20]

Both China and Japan have engaged in a fierce competition through intense lobbying. It was said that the fundamental reason for the high level of assertiveness demonstrated by both Japan and China goes well beyond just economics – this contest is part of a much larger chess game the two Asian powerhouses are playing in pursuit of greater strategic influence within the Asia Pacific.[21][22]

Short cancellation[edit]

President Joko Widodo was expected to announce the winning bid of Indonesia's first high-speed rail project in early September 2015. However, to everyone's surprise, on 3 September 2015 the Indonesian government announced that they had cancelled the high-speed rail project, citing that they are now looking to the slower and cheaper rail alternative.[2] It was said that the government turns to semi-high-speed rail.[23]

President Joko Widodo is wishing for a "business-to-business" approach, as opposed to "government-to-government" approach.[3] Which signify government unwillingness to partially fund nor financially guarantee this costly project. After the cancellation, it seems that China secretly reapproaches Indonesia with a new offer, while Japan failed to do so.

Bid winner[edit]

In mid-September 2015, China said they would fully meet the Indonesian government's demands and offering new proposal that does not require Indonesia to assume any fiscal burden or debt guarantee in proceeding with the project.[24] After months of bids, revisions and talks among presidents and prime ministers – even a short-lived cancellation of the project – in late September 2015 Indonesia picked China for the $5 billion project.[14] It seems that Beijing has outmanoeuvred Tokyo on this bid as a result of a competitive financing package for Indonesia.[8]

Japan's Chief Cabinet Secretary Yoshihide Suga termed the Indonesian move "difficult to understand" and "extremely regrettable".[19] The situation "can only be described as extremely deplorable," Suga also said.[24] According to Indonesia's State-Owned Enterprises Minister Rini Soemarno, Chinese bid was picked due to its financial structure – because the Chinese had not required any Indonesian government financing or a government guarantee, unlike the Japanese plan.[25]

China's victory over Japan in this bid seems to owe mainly to Chinese willingness to accept the financial risk of the project. Which is to forego an Indonesian government guarantee and also, thereby, possibly to finesse international ODA norms, in contrast of Japan's inability or unwillingness to do so.[3]

China has also sweetened its deal in other ways, including committing to establish a joint venture with Indonesian firms to produce rolling stock for high-speed rail, electric rail, light rail systems, not only for Indonesia, but also for export to other Asian countries – to transfer related technology – and to renovate and rebuild train stations. It seems that Indonesia has benefitted from Japan-China competition.[3]

Jakarta–Bandung[edit]

Stations[edit]

initial 4 stations due 2019:

  • Jakarta Halim Perdanakusuma Station incl. transfer to Airport Railway due 2019
  • Karawang
  • Tegalluar
  • Bandung Walini Station
  • Bandung Gedebage Station

Funding and joint venture[edit]

The China Railway Group Limited (CREC) will form a joint venture with a consortium of Indonesia's state-owned enterprises (SOEs) led by PT Wijaya Karya Tbk (IDX: WIKA) in developing the first High Speed Train (HST) in the country.[26]

On Friday, 16 October 2015, Chinese and Indonesian state-owned companies officially signed the deal to build the first high-speed railway in Indonesia.[27] The project cost was estimated to be US$5.5 billion (80 trillion rupiah). The deal was signed by China Railway International Co. Ltd. Chairman Yang Zhongmin and Dwi Windarto, the president director of a consortium of Indonesian state companies, PT Pilar Sinergi BUMN Indonesia.[28] China Development Bank has given a commitment to fund 75 percent of the project costs with loan terms of 40 years for the loan—with an initial grace period of 10 years—with fixed loan rate. CRCC will hold majority shares in the planned JV company, while WIKA holds 30 percent and small portions for local toll operator PT Jasa Marga Tbk (IDX: JSMR), train operator PT Kereta Api Indonesia and plantation company PT Perkebunan Nusantara VIII.[26]

In late August 2016, it was reported that the China Development Bank had not yet disbursed funds for the loan and that PT Kereta Cepat Indonesia-China, the consortium executing the project, was not sure when funds would become available.[29]

Progress[edit]

2016[edit]

  • January Indonesian president Joko Widodo attended a ground breaking ceremony near Jakarta and announced that the project had commenced.
  • May Continual delays in acquiring land were being reported. The president of the Indonesian joint venture firm managing the project, PT KCIC (Kereta Cepat Indonesia China), Hanggoro Budi Wiryawan, expressed frustration at the Dept of Transport requirement that all of the land needed for the project (estimated to be 600 ha) be acquired before final construction permits could be issued. Hanggoro argued that it was more usual for construction permits to be issued when just 10% of the required land for a project had been acquired. He said that the delays in the Dept of Transport were unreasonable. Issues surrounding acquisition of land were complicated by the fact that the main station at the Jakarta end was planned to be on land occupied by the Indonesian Air Force at Halim Perdanakusuma. It was not clear whether the Air Force was prepared to release the land.
  • August The Minister for State-Owned Enterprises, Rini Soemarno, said that the process of issuing permits for the project was running smoothly after earlier delays. She said that she believed that construction on the railway could start within a week.
  • November 82 percent of land needed has been acquired, but bank funding will only be attainable after 100 percent land is acquired.[30]

2017[edit]

  • March The project is stalled due to land, finance and security issues. Among others is the Indonesian Air Force reluctance to release 49 hectares of the lands surrounding Halim Perdanakusuma Airbase on the southeastern outskirts of Jakarta for the construction of the station.[31]
  • April PT Kereta Cepat Indonesia Cina (KCIC) and High-Speed Railway Contractor Consortium (KSRCC) signed an engineering, procurement, and construction (EPC) contract on the Jakarta – Bandung bullet train on April 4, 2017. Contractors will proceed with construction following the contract signing.[32]

Jakarta–Surabaya[edit]

In March 2017, Indonesian Government selected Japan as the partner for the revitalization of the railway connecting Jakarta and Surabaya. The project aims to upgrade the speed of trains between two major Indonesian cities to higher-speed rail, from around 90 kilometers per hour to 160 kilometers per hour. Construction will eradicate level grade crossings and/or constructing elevated railways. Currently, there are around 988 level grade crossings between Jakarta and Surabaya, which hinder the security, intensity and the speed of trains. The project will run along existing Javan railways.[33]

External links[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "INDONESIA PRESS-Govt to hold "beauty contest" for high-speed train project - Jakarta Globe". Daily Mail. 14 July 2015. Retrieved 1 October 2015. 
  2. ^ a b "Indonesia dumps plans for high-speed rail line: ambassador". The Jakarta Post. 4 September 2015. Retrieved 4 October 2015. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Harner, Stephen (1 October 2015). "Japan's Rail Project Loss To China: Why It Matters For Abe's Economic Diplomacy And For China's". Retrieved 4 October 2015. 
  4. ^ "Indonesia to award fast train contract to China - Japanese embassy official". Reuters. 29 September 2015. Retrieved 1 October 2015. 
  5. ^ "Indonesia awards multi-billion-dollar railway project to China over Japan". ABC. 30 September 2015. Retrieved 1 October 2015. 
  6. ^ a b Robin Harding in Tokyo, Avantika Chilkoti in Jakarta and Tom Mitchell in Beijing (1 October 2015). "Japan cries foul after Indonesia awards rail contract to China". Financial Times. Retrieved 1 October 2015. 
  7. ^ a b Shannon Tiezzi (1 October 2015). "It's Official: China, Not Japan, Is Building Indonesia's First High-Speed Railway". The Diplomat. Retrieved 1 October 2015. 
  8. ^ a b Peter Cai (2 October 2015). "China's high-speed rail bet pays off". Business Spectator. Retrieved 2 October 2015. 
  9. ^ Keputusan Menteri Perhubungan Nomor KP. 25 Tahun 2016 tentang Penetapan Trase Jalur Kereta Api Cepat antara Jakarta dan Bandung Lintas Halim-Tegalluar.
  10. ^ Siti Nuraisyah Dewi, Rizki Aulia Rachman (January 13, 2016). "Jonan Keluarkan Izin Trase Kereta Cepat Jakarta-Bandung". 
  11. ^ 10 hal yang perlu diketahui tentang Kereta Api Cepat Jakarta-Bandung. "10 hal yang perlu diketahui tentang Kereta Api Cepat Jakarta-Bandung". Retrieved April 5, 2017. 
  12. ^ "Biaya Pembangunan Kereta Cepat Jakarta Bandung Turun". March 17, 2016. 
  13. ^ "Groundbreaking of High Speed Rail Project Jakarta – Bandung". January 21, 2016. 
  14. ^ a b Ben Otto and Anita Rachman (30 September 2015). "Indonesia’s Handling of High-Speed Train Project Adds to Business Confusion, Mixed messages to Japan, China come as Indonesia courts foreign investors". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 1 October 2015. 
  15. ^ "Pemerintah Minta Jepang Garap Proyek Kereta Jakarta-Surabaya" [Government Asked Japan To Handle Jakarta–Surabaya Railway Project]. VOA Indonesia. 10 October 2016. Retrieved 13 October 2016. 
  16. ^ "JICA in Indonesia-Japan Expo 2008". 
  17. ^ "Java High Speed Railway Development Project (Phase I)". Japan International Cooperation Agency. 2010. Retrieved 1 October 2015. 
  18. ^ Zakir Hussain, The Straits Times/ANN (28 October 2013). "Jakarta mulls high-speed rail system". The Jakarta Post. Jakarta. 
  19. ^ a b "Japan loses Indonesian high-speed railway contract to China". The Japan Times. 30 September 2015. Retrieved 1 October 2015. 
  20. ^ Yu Yang, ed. (14 August 2015). "Chinese High-speed Rail Expo Held in Indonesia". CRIENGLISH.com. Retrieved 4 October 2015. 
  21. ^ Craig P. Oehlers (22 August 2015). "Race for Indonesia’s high-speed railway part of a big game". The Jakarta Post. Jakarta. Retrieved 1 October 2015. 
  22. ^ Try Reza Essra (13 August 2015). "Kereta api cepat Tiongkok disebut canggih dan murah". Retrieved 1 October 2015. 
  23. ^ "Government turns to semi-high-speed rail". The Jakarta Post. 4 September 2015. Retrieved 4 October 2015. 
  24. ^ a b "China chosen over Japan for Indonesian rail project". Jiji Press. 29 September 2015. 
  25. ^ "Indonesia defends bidding process for high-speed rail project after Japan angered at being rejected". The Strait Times. Singapore. 2 October 2015. Retrieved 2 October 2015. 
  26. ^ a b Vincencia NLS (2 October 2015). "China Railway Construction Corp to form JV with Indonesia’s Wijaya Karya for $5.5b HST". Deal Street Asia. Retrieved 6 October 2015. 
  27. ^ "China, Indonesia sign $5.5 bn high-speed rail deal". Yahoo News and AFP. 16 October 2015. Retrieved 16 October 2015. 
  28. ^ Niniek Karmini (16 October 2015). "China, domestic companies to build Indonesia high-speed rail". Yahoo News and AFP. Retrieved 16 October 2015. 
  29. ^ "High-Speed Train Held Up by Chinese Credit",Tempo, 4 September 2016.
  30. ^ "Economy in brief: KCIC negotiates land clearance with CDB". November 11, 2016. 
  31. ^ John McBeth (28 March 2017). "Indonesia high-speed train, backed by China, comes untracked, President Joko Widodo's signature infrastructure project has stalled for a host of familiar reasons, including resistance from the powerful military". Asia Times. 
  32. ^ "Contractors Sign Jakarta - Bandung Bullet Train Agreement". 
  33. ^ "Japan selected as partner for Jakarta–Surabaya railway project". The Jakarta Post. Jakarta. 27 March 2017. 

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