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British Rail Class 373

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  • British Rail Class 373
  • Eurostar e300
A refurbished Class 373 at Gare d'Albertville in 2018
The standard-class interior of a refurbished Class 373
In service14 November 1994 – present
Built at
Family nameTGV
Number built
  • 38
  • (31 × Three Capitals, 7 × North of London)
Number in service11
Number scrapped16
  • Three Capitals as built: 750 seats
  • Three Capitals refurb.: 758 seats
  • North of London: 558 seats
DepotsCurrent: Former:
Car body constructionSteel
Train length387 m (1,269 ft 8 in)
Car length
  • Driving vehicles:
  • 22.15 m (72 ft 8 in)
  • Vehicles with one full bogie:[ex 1]
  • 21.84 m (71 ft 8 in)
  • Intermediate trailers:
  • 18.70 m (61 ft 4 in)
Width2.81 m (9 ft 3 in)
Maximum speed300 km/h (186 mph)
  • Three Capitals empty:
  • 752 t (740 long tons; 829 short tons)
  • Three Capitals loaded:
  • 815 t (802 long tons; 898 short tons)
  • North of London:
  • 665 t (654 long tons; 733 short tons)
Traction systemGEC Alsthom GTO-VVVF
Traction motors
Power output
  • On 25 kV: 12.24 MW (16,414 hp)
  • On 3,000 V: 5.70 MW (7,644 hp)[2]
  • On 700 V: 3.40 MW (4,559 hp)[2]
Tractive effort
  • Starting:
  • 410 kN (92,172 lbf) on 25 kV
  • 350 kN (78,683 lbf) on 1.5 kV or 750 V
  • Continuous:
  • 220 kN (49,458 lbf) @ 200 km/h (124 mph) on 25 kV[2]
Electric system(s)
Current collector(s)
UIC classification(See § Set formation)
Safety system(s)
Coupling systemScharfenberg
Track gauge1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in) standard gauge

The British Rail Class 373, known in France as the TGV TMST and branded by Eurostar as the Eurostar e300, is a French designed and Anglo-French built electric multiple unit train that was used for Eurostar international high-speed rail services from the United Kingdom to France and Belgium through the Channel Tunnel. Part of the TGV family, it was built with a smaller cross-section to fit the smaller loading gauge in Britain, was originally capable of operating on the UK third rail network, and has extensive fireproofing in case of fire in the tunnel. It is both the second longest—387 metres (1,269 ft 8 in)—and second fastest train in regular UK passenger service, operating at speeds of up to 300 kilometres per hour (186 mph).

Known as the TransManche Super Train (TMST) or Cross-channel Super Train before being introduced in 1993, the train is designated Class 373 under the British TOPS classification system and series 373000 TGV in France. It was built by the Anglo-French company GEC-Alsthom at its factories in La Rochelle (France), Belfort (France) and Washwood Heath (Britain) and by Brugeoise et Nivelles (BN, now part of Bombardier Transportation)[3] in Bruges (Belgium).

Since the introduction of the new Class 374 e320 units from Siemens in 2015, refurbished versions of the Class 373 or TGV-TMST sets have been officially referred to as e300 by Eurostar to distinguish them from the new Velaro fleet.[4]



Two types of Class 373 were constructed:

  • 31 Three Capitals sets consisting of two power cars and 18 passenger coaches, they are 387 metres (1,269 ft 8 in) long[5] and have 750 seats: 206 in first class, 544 in standard class.[6] The length of a complete set is dictated by the Channel Tunnel safety regulations; as the distance between consecutive cross passages is 375 metres (1,230 ft 4 in). This means that, if a Eurostar train has to stop inside the Tunnel in case of fire or other emergencies, it would always stop adjacent to a cross passage.
  • Seven North of London sets (known as "Regional" Eurostars) with 14 coaches and two power cars, they are 312.36 metres (1,024 ft 10 in) in length and have 558 seats: (114 in first class, 444 in standard class).

The North of London sets were intended to provide Regional Eurostar services from continental Europe to and from north of London, using the West Coast Main Line and the East Coast Main Line, but these services never came to fruition because of long proposed journey times and the proliferation of budget airlines offering cheaper fares; there were also issues with the relatively crude design of British Rail overhead electrified lines and problems with finding suitable routes within Greater London.



The sets were ordered by the railway companies involved: 16 by SNCF, four by NMBS/SNCB, and 18 by British Rail, of which seven were the North of London sets. Upon the privatisation of British Rail, the BR sets were bought by London and Continental Railways, which named its subsidiary Eurostar (UK) Limited,[7] now managed by SNCF (55%), LCR (40%) and SNCB (5%).[8]

The first Eurostar Class 373 set, 373001/373002, was built at Belfort in 1992.[9] Identified as "PS1" (Pre-Series 1), it was formed of two power cars and seven coaches, and was delivered for test running in January 1993. Its first powered runs were between Strasbourg and Mulhouse, and it was transferred to the UK for third-rail DC tests in June 1993. Full-length pre-series train PS2 was completed in May 1993.

To test the 750 V DC third rail shoes needed on the Southern Region lines in Great Britain, an eight-vehicle locomotive-hauled train was used in early 1994, consisting of a Class 73 locomotive (73205), a converted Class 33 locomotive acting as a Driving Brake Van (33115, reclassified as NZ under TOPS), and six carriages from Class 438 (4TC) multiple units 8007, 8023 and 8028.

An extra power car, numbered 3999, was built as a spare. This was required for a couple of years, when 3999 was renumbered and replaced another power car whilst it underwent rebuilding at Le Landy. It was overhauled and renumbered 3204 in 2016.[10]

Mid-life update


The 22 sets still operating for Eurostar were refurbished in 2004/05 with a new interior, designed by Philippe Starck.[11][12] The grey-yellow look in standard class and the grey-red look in first class were replaced with a more grey-brown scheme in standard and a grey-burnt orange in first class.

In 2008, Eurostar announced that it was beginning the process to institute a mid-life update, which would not include the Class 373 sets being used by SNCF in France.[13] As a part of the update process, the Italian company Pininfarina was contracted to redesign the interiors;[14] the first refurbished Eurostar was not originally due in service until 2012.[15] The refurbishment programme would also include an engine maintenance and a new external livery. Eurostar later planned for the process to be complete by 2014, allowing the fleet to remain in service beyond 2020,[16] but following additional delays the first refurbished train was not completed until July 2015.[17][18]



When Eurostar services ran from London Waterloo International, maintenance was carried out at North Pole Depot in West London, next to the Great Western Main Line. Since November 2007, Eurostar maintains its Class 373 fleets at Temple Mills Depot in East London; in France the trains are maintained at Le Landy depot in Paris, and Brussels Forest/Vorst depot.

Current operators



Class 373s in the original Eurostar livery lined up at the former Waterloo International

Eurostar originally ran services to and from Waterloo International along existing mainline tracks, until it moved to St Pancras International in November 2007.

In October 2010, Eurostar ordered ten Class 374 "Eurostar e320" trains from Siemens to run on its existing routes from London to Paris and Brussels as well the newest route to Amsterdam alongside its Class 373 fleet. In 2016, Eurostar announced that it would retain eight Class 373 once the full Class 374 (e320) fleet were in service; the rest of the Class 373 were either stored or scrapped.[19]

As of 2020, eight trains had been refurbished with an additional three un-refurbished units in service.

Following the COVID-19 pandemic e300 trains now run from London to Paris and Brussels with the e320s, as well as exclusively operating the winter ski service to Bourg-Saint-Maurice. [20]

Former operators


Great North Eastern Railway

Regional Eurostar set at London King's Cross in 2004

In May 2000, two Regional Eurostar sets were leased to GNER to operate The White Rose services from London King's Cross to York.[21] From May 2002, the White Rose was altered to operate to Leeds with a third set leased.[22][23] Sets 3301–3306 all had GNER livery applied, whereas the rest carried the original Eurostar livery without logos.

The lease expired in December 2005 and they were handed back to Eurostar; they were later used to operate high speed TGV services with SNCF in northern France.[24]

When being used for GNER services, the doors of the first and last carriages were locked out of use at some stations due to the units being too long to stop in the platforms.[25]

Due to restrictions in the power supply on the Hertford Loop Line, only one set was permitted to operate on that route at any one time.[26] They were only allowed to run from King's Cross to York and Leeds because of gauging on the bridges approaching Newcastle. They were not allowed to travel to Bradford Forster Square because the electrical infrastructure beyond Leeds was insufficient. Manually locked selective door opening was used at shorter platforms.


Class 373/2 working for SNCF passing Étaples - Le Touquet

SNCF leased three of Eurostar's "Three Capitals" sets for use on French domestic TGV services (mainly between Paris and Lille). The sets remained in the original Eurostar livery with SNCF branding, and some sets had greyish white or silver front ends. In 2007, SNCF added more Class 373 sets to its fleet by leasing the redundant "North of London" sets from Eurostar. SNCF's lease of the sets was scheduled to last until 2011 with the option to keep the sets running for another two years.[27]

In October 2014, the three "Three Capitals" sets were withdrawn from traffic and stored, having been replaced by TGV Duplex sets. Some have since been scrapped having provided spare parts to other Class 373 sets with remaining sets still stored in Ambérieu, France.



In November 2018, a Class 373 set consisting of 373213 and 373224 was introduced into service by IZY, the low-cost service that used to run between Paris and Brussels by Thalys, replacing a TGV Réseau train.[28]

Fleet information

A Thalys PBKA TGV set with Class 373 at Paris (Gare du Nord)
Eurostar 373 sets at London St Pancras International.
Class 373 passes Wandsworth Road in London.

Each power car has a four-digit number starting with "3" (3xxx). This designates the train as a Mark 3 TGV (Mark 1 being SNCF TGV Sud-Est; and Mark 2 being SNCF TGV Atlantique). The last digit denotes the country of ownership:

  • 3730xx: UK
  • 3731xx: Belgium
  • 3732xx: France
  • 3733xx: "Regional" and "North of London" Eurostar sets
  • 373999: Spare Powercar

Each half-set is numbered separately.

Class No. built Unit number range Cars per half-set[e 1] Description Operators Unit numbers Services operated
Class 373/0 22 373001–373022 10 BR sets Eurostar 373001/373002
London to Paris (Gare du Nord)
London to Brussels
London to Marne-la-Vallée (for Disneyland Paris)
London to Marseille Saint-Charles[e 2]
London to Bourg St Maurice[e 2]
Class 373/1 8 373101-373108 NMBS sets 373101-373108
Class 373/2 32 373201-373232 SNCF sets 373201/373202
IZY 373213/373224 Paris to Brussels
SNCF 373203/373204
It was withdrawn in October 2014.
Class 373/3 14 373301–373314 8 BR's NoL sets Eurostar 373301-373314 Former SNCF hired to operate.[citation needed]
Spare powercars 1 373999 Eurostar 373999 Used as a refurbished and spare vehicle.[10]
  1. ^ including power car.
  2. ^ a b Avignon and Alps ski-train services are worked by SNCF quad-voltage sets.

Travel classes


Eurostar operates three classes of travel on its Class 373 trains:

  • Standard class, with 2 seats each side of the aisle, predominantly airline-style with a small number of seats around tables.
  • Standard Premier class, with wider seats, 2 on one side and 1 on the other, predominantly with tables but with some single and duo seats. A light meal and drinks are included in the fare.
  • Business Premier class, with the same seats as Standard Premier. A full hot meal and drinks are included in the fare, along with lounge access, fast track access to security checkpoints, the ability to arrive 10 minutes before travel, and other amenities.

As Standard Premier and Business Premier use the same seating, the number of carriages allocated to each class may be varied in line with demand.

For the purpose of travel with Interrail, Eurail, and similar passes, Standard class is considered 2nd class and Standard Premier class is considered 1st class. Business Premier is considered to be above 1st class and pass users cannot travel in Business Premier without purchasing a full public rate ticket.

Train layout


Each Three Capitals set is formed of two power cars and 18 coaches. North of London and Regional Eurostar sets are formed of two power cars and 14 coaches:

Fleet list

Key: In service Refurbished and in service In storage Scrapped Preserved
Power car number Operator Status Notes
373001/373002 Eurostar Scrapped Scrapped 18 March 2018 at European Metal Recycling, Kingsbury
373003/373004 Scrapped 15 December 2016 at European Metal Recycling, Kingsbury
373005/373006 Scrapped 27 October 2016 at European Metal Recycling, Kingsbury
373007/373008 Eurostar In service Refurbished and in service
373009/373010 Eurostar Scrapped Scrapped 19 January 2018 at European Metal Recycling, Kingsbury
373011/373012 Scrapped 17 February 2018 at European Metal Recycling, Kingsbury
373013/373014 Scrapped 17 March 2017 at European Metal Recycling, Kingsbury
373015/373016 Eurostar In service Refurbished and in service
373017/373018 Eurostar Scrapped Scrapped March 2018 at the SNCF yard in Valenciennes
373019/373020 Scrapped 2 December 2016 at European Metal Recycling, Kingsbury
373101[note 1] Eurostar Preserved Withdrawn 8 August 2017, preserved at National College for Advanced Transport and Infrastructure, Doncaster[29]
373102[note 1] Withdrawn 17 August 2017, preserved at National College for Advanced Transport and Infrastructure, Birmingham[29]
373103/373104 Eurostar Scrapped Scrapped 24 November 2017 at European Metal Recycling, Kingsbury
373105 Eurostar In storage
373106[note 1] Eurostar Preserved Preserved at Train World, Schaerbeek, near Brussels[30]
373107/373108 Eurostar Scrapped Scrapped 1 February 2017 at European Metal Recycling, Kingsbury
373201/373202 Scrapped 25 May 2018 at European Metal Recycling, Kingsbury
373203/373204 SNCF Scrapped 23 September 2014 at the SNCF yard in Vaires-sur-Marne
373205/373206 Eurostar In service Refurbished and in service
373207/373208 Eurostar In storage
373209/373210 Eurostar In service Refurbished and in service
373211/373212 Refurbished and in service
373213/373224 IZY In storage On hire to Thalys.[28] Stored at Sotteville since 10 January 2021[citation needed]
373215/373216 Eurostar In service
373219/373220 Eurostar In service Refurbished and in service
373221/373222 Refurbished and in service
373223/373214 Eurostar In service
373225/373226 SNCF Scrapped Scrapped at the SNCF Yard, Culoz
373227/373228 Scrapped 17 May 2017 at the SNCF Technicentre, Romilly-sur-Seine
373229/373230 Eurostar In service Refurbished and in service
373231/373232 Eurostar Scrapped Scrapped 22 September 2017 at European Metal Recycling, Kingsbury
373301/373302 Eurostar In storage
373304 Eurostar Preserved preserved at One:One Collection, Margate[31] Power car + a single coach[32]
373305/373306 Eurostar In storage
373308[note 1] Eurostar Preserved Withdrawn 7 August 2015, preserved at National Railway Museum, York
373309/373310 Eurostar In storage
373313/373314 3314 to be plinthed at Temple Mills[33]
373999 Eurostar In service Spare power car, refurbished

Named units (All since removed)[34]

Set Name
373001/373002 Tread Lightly / Voyage Vert
373003/373004 Tri-City-Athlon 2010
373007/373008 Waterloo Sunset
373009/373010 Remembering Fromelles
373013/373014 London 2012
373207/373208 Michel Hollard
373209/373210 The Da Vinci Code
373313/373314 Entente Cordiale
  1. ^ a b c d Power car only

Technical details

Eurostar Class 373 on LGV Interconnexion Est, near Chennevières-lès-Louvres, Val d'Oise, France


A Class 373 passes Herne Hill in 2000

All Class 373 sets were built as tri-voltage, able to operate on 25 kV 50 Hz AC (LGVs, Eurotunnel, High Speed 1, UK overhead electrified lines) and 3 kV DC (Belgian classic lines) using pantographs, and 750 V DC (UK third rail network) using third-rail pickup shoes. The shoes were retracted when switching to overhead power.[35] After the opening of High Speed 1 in 2007, overhead electrification is used throughout; consequently, the third rail shoes were removed. Five of the SNCF-owned sets are quadri-voltage, able to operate from 1,500 V DC (French lignes classiques) in the south of France, used on London–Avignon and ski services.

The trains are powered by asynchronous traction motors. There are four powered axles in each power car and two powered axles in the outer bogie of the front passenger coach (a layout used on the original SNCF TGV Sud-Est (PSE) sets) giving 12 powered axles. Each set draws up to 16 MW with 12 MW (16,092 hp) of traction power, but this provides the lowest power-to-weight ratio in the TGV family.

The class uses five different standards of overhead: domestic catenary in each of Belgium, France and the United Kingdom; fixed-height catenary on LGV lines and HS1; and taller catenary in the Channel Tunnel, designed to accommodate double-deck car-carrying trains and roll-on roll-off heavy goods vehicle trains. The driver must manually lower and then raise the pantograph during the transition between catenary systems.

Signalling systems


The Class 373s are fitted with a wide range of signalling systems, these include:

  • AWS (Automatic Warning System), the British signalling system, only used when services call at Ashford International[36]
  • TPWS (Train Protection & Warning System), the safety system that works with the AWS, only used when services call at Ashford International[36]
  • TVM (Transmission Voie-Machine), used on LGV ("lignes à grande vitesse"),[37] Eurotunnel, HS1 and HSL 1[38]
  • KVB (Contrôle de vitesse par balises), used between Paris Gare du Nord and LGV Nord, on French Classic Lines and on the HS1 connected throat around London St Pancras. It is electro-mechanical with fixed radio beacons.[36]
  • TBL, (the Belgian signalling system,) electro-mechanical, used between Brussels-South/Midi and HSL 1, Belgium.[36]

When travelling at high speeds, it is not possible for the driver to accurately see colour-light signals at the side of the track. With the TVM signalling used on the high-speed lines, the target speed for the end of the current block is displayed with a flashing indication on the in-cab display for the next block if it is at a different speed. Auxiliary signalling information, including the location of neutral sections in the overhead supply and pantograph adjustment zones, is displayed in cab and by the lineside. The operation of circuit breakers over neutral sections is handled automatically on TVM-signalled lines only, and pantograph adjustments must always be manually performed by the driver.[39]

Bogies and couplings


The Class 373 was designed to comply with the Channel Tunnel safety regulations, and consists of two independent half-sets, each with its own power car. Most of the trailer cars are supported on Jacobs bogies shared between adjacent coaches, supporting both of them, with the cars next to the power cars and the two middle coaches (carriages 9 and 10 in a full-length set) not articulated. Non-shared bogies are coupled with Scharfenberg couplers, providing three points for separation in the event of an emergency in the tunnel. The electrical supply cables between a power car and the first carriage are designed to break apart during an emergency separation. In the event of a serious fire in the tunnel the passengers would be transferred into the undamaged half of the train, which would then be uncoupled from the damaged half and driven out of the tunnel.[40] If the undamaged part is the rear half of the train, this would be driven by the guard who is a fully authorised driver and occupies the rear driving cab in the tunnel for this purpose.[41] Due to limitations on driving hours, the driver and guard exchange roles for the return journey.

The articulated design is advantageous during a derailment as the carriages will tend to stay aligned. On non-articulated trains couplings may break and the carriages may jackknife. A disadvantage of articulation is that it is difficult to remove and separate the individual carriages for maintenance. Although the power cars can be uncoupled, specialised depot equipment is needed to split carriages by lifting the entire train at once. Once uncoupled, one of the carriage ends is left without a bogie at the point of separation, so a bogie frame is required to support it.

Braking systems


The Class 373s use three braking systems:

A train travelling at 300 km/h (186 mph) can slow down to stop in 65 seconds, during which time the braking distance is about 2.7 km (1.7 miles).



To combat the hypnotic effect of driving through the tunnel at speed for 20 minutes, the power cars have a very small windscreen when compared to other high-speed trains and TGVs.[42][43][44]

Significant events


Accidents and incidents


There have been several minor incidents. In October 1994, there were teething problems relating to the start of operations. The first preview train, carrying 400 members of the press and media, was delayed for two hours by technical issues.[45][46][47][48] On 29 May 2002, a train was accidentally routed towards Victoria instead of London Waterloo, causing it to arrive 25 minutes late. The signalling error that caused the incorrect routeing was stated to have caused "no risk" as a result.[49]

On 5 June 2000, 373101/102, while working a Paris to London service, derailed on LGV Nord near Arras, France at 180 mph (290 km/h). 14 people were treated for light injuries or shock, with no serious injuries or deaths. The articulated design was credited with maintaining stability during the incident and the train stayed upright.[50][46] After investigation, the incident was blamed on a component of the transmission between the motors and axles coming loose. To reduce the unsprung mass, TGV trains have the motors mounted on the car body rather than the bogies. In order for the train to be able to manoeuvre around curves, a sliding tripod assembly is used, which became dislodged.

During the night of 18–19 December 2009, there was heavy snow causing widespread disruption to roads, railways and airports across northern Europe. Five trains, one of which was 373217 + 373218, broke down inside the Channel Tunnel because snow in the engine compartment was quickly melted by the warmer temperatures in the tunnel, the resulting water causing electrical and control system faults. Eurostar commissioned an independent report to evaluate what went wrong and how future events could be prevented or better managed.[51] The report's recommendations included:

  • Increased number of diesel rescue locomotives with exhaust filtration to be on standby at each end of the tunnel.
  • Major changes to the power cars to prevent snow ingress into electrical compartments.
  • Better staff training.
  • Improved communication internally and with other stakeholders (Eurotunnel and emergency services).
  • Better information provision to passengers.

The majority of the recommendations were implemented by 23 October 2012.[citation needed]

Record runs


On 30 July 2003, on the opening press run of the Channel Tunnel Rail Link Section 1, 373313/314 established a new British rail speed record of 334.7 km/h (208.0 mph), breaking the previous record of 261.0 km/h (162.2 mph) set by an Advanced Passenger Train on 20 December 1979.[52][53][11]

On 16 May 2006, 373209/210 created a record for the longest non-stop high-speed journey when it made the 1,421 km (883 mi) journey from London to Cannes in 7 hours 25 minutes.[54] This was a publicity event for the Da Vinci Code film; the train carried actors Tom Hanks and Audrey Tautou, with director Ron Howard, who had jointly named the train The Da Vinci Code prior to departing for the film premiere at the Cannes Film Festival.

On 4 September 2007, the first revenue train to use High Speed 1 to St Pancras set a new speed record:[55] it left Paris at 09:44 BST and arrived at St Pancras 2 hours 3 minutes and 39 seconds later. Officials aboard recorded speeds of up to 325 km/h (202 mph) in France and 314 km/h (195 mph) in Britain.[56][57]


Class 373 alongside Mat '54 and NS Class 1500 at Rotterdam Centraal open day in 1996

On several occasions sets appeared at special events and displays, such as at Lille Flandres in 1995,[ex 2] Rotterdam Centraal Station on 6 April 1996,[ex 3] Berlin-Grunewald station for Eurailspeed 1998,[ex 4] Madrid Chamartín railway station for Eurailspeed 2002[ex 5] and at the York National Railway Museum for the Railfest 200 celebrations in 2004.[ex 6]

To celebrate ten years of Eurostar service, a barge was floated down the River Thames in London on 16 November 2004,[ex 7] with a power car on board, specially painted by Ben Langlands and Nikki Bell. Named "Language of Places on Eurostar" by Langlands and Bell, it consisted of the three-letter "destination codes for all the places where Eurostar goes or connects".[citation needed] The barge went under Tower Bridge,[64] past the Houses of Parliament and moored beside the museum-warship HMS Belfast.[65]

At the beginning of August 2015, ex North of London powercar 373308 was added to the national collection and put on display at the National Railway Museum in York.[66]

Model railways


In 1995, Hornby Railways launched its first version of the Eurostar in HO gauge which can be extended from four to six cars,[67] Hornby Railways then produced a OO gauge train pack model which was released in October 1996, which again can be extended from four cars to six cars.[68] Hornby Railways released its first OO Gauge train set of the Class 373 in 1997.[69]

Livery illustrations

Illustration of a Three Capitals set in original Eurostar livery
Three Capitals set in the original Eurostar livery
Illustration of a North of London set in GNER livery
North of London set in GNER livery
Illustration of a Three Capitals set in original Eurostar livery with SNCF branding
Three Capitals set in the original Eurostar livery with SNCF branding
Illustration of a Three Capitals set in new Eurostar e300 livery
Three Capitals set in the new Eurostar e300 livery

See also



  1. ^ MS and TBF vehicles in the § Set formation table.
  2. ^ Eurailspeed '95: half-set 3201[58]: 55 
  3. ^ Rotterdam CS open day: full-set 3309/3310[59]
  4. ^ Berlin Eurailspeed '98: full-set 3303/3304[citation needed]
  5. ^ Madrid Eurailspeed 2002: power car 3212 + coaches, transported using Iberian gauge transporter trailers via Portbou–Barcelona–Valencia–Alcazar[citation needed] on 12 October 2002[60]
  6. ^ York Railfest 200: power car 3313 only[61]
  7. ^ London floating installation: power car 3307 only[62][63]


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  10. ^ a b "GBRF to haul Eurostars for scrap". Railways Illustrated. November 2016. p. 6.
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Further reading

  • Perren, Brian (25 January – 7 February 1990). "BR's New European Trains". RAIL. No. 114. EMAP National Publications. pp. 6–7. ISSN 0953-4563. OCLC 49953699.