Khanewal

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Khanewal
خانیوال
The city's old congregational Jamia Mosque
Khanewal is located in Punjab, Pakistan
Khanewal
Khanewal
Khanewal is located in Pakistan
Khanewal
Khanewal
Coordinates: 30°18′N 71°56′E / 30.300°N 71.933°E / 30.300; 71.933Coordinates: 30°18′N 71°56′E / 30.300°N 71.933°E / 30.300; 71.933
Country Pakistan
ProvincePunjab, Pakistan Punjab
DivisionMultan
DistrictKhanewal
Government
 • Deputy CommissionerAgha Zaheer Abbas Sherazi[1]
Elevation
128 m (420 ft)
Population
 • City227,059
 • Rank36th, Pakistan
Time zoneUTC+5 (PST)
Number of towns1
Number of Union councils6
[3]

Khanewal (Saraiki and Urdu: خانیوال) is a city and the capital of Khanewal District in the Punjab province of Pakistan.[4] It is the 36th largest city of Pakistan by population. Khanewal is named after the earliest settlers here who belonged to the caste ‘Daha’ (A Sub-Caste of Panwar Rajput) and used ‘Khan’ in their names. That is how the city came to be known as ‘khan-e-wal’.

The district contains four tehsils which are as following:

Khanewal area was populated by Zayadat Khan, the forefather of the Daha family.[5][6] It is said that he was originally from Dharwar but then migrated to Bahawalpur. After trying his luck in Bahawalpur, he moved to Pak Pattan. Then in the 1820s, he moved to this region after getting employment under Dewan Sawan Mall. As an employee, he was made responsible for collection and payments from Talamba, Kamalia and Laden. He got famous in the region as Khan and thus this area was named Khanewala. This theory is also supported by an old book named Raesa e Punjab Page.[7] As per that document, the first person to populate this region was Sangar Khan.

Sangar Khan was the 34th descendant of Tikkey Khan, the first Muslim in the Daha family. Sangar Khan is said to have moved to Khanewal (Khanewal Pakistan) from Pak Pattan. It is said that he built a castle in the area. The family lived here for a long time and Hasan Khan, 37th descendant of Tikkey Khan, became one of the most prominent businessmen in the region. Hasan Khan was awarded Sanad from Pathan Governments in 1768. According to this book, Khanewal was first populated in 1050 AD.[8]

Mughal Era[edit]

The earliest settlers of the khanewal were Daha and Khatters who use Khan in their names. Under the Mughal Era, the region of Khanewal was flourished and was notable for trade and commerce. After Mughal's decline, the Sikh Empire occupied the region, and Muslims faced many Sikh rule restrictions.[9][6]

British Era[edit]

British rulers ruled the area till Pakistan's independence due to the junction of Khanewal-Wazirabad railway junction[9] and considered British rulers’ well-planned town. khanewal contained a population of Hindus and Sikhs who migrated to India after partition. The people became Muslims dominantly due to missionary Sufi Saints.

It was declared a district in 1985 by taking two tehsils from District Multan, Kabirwala and Mian Channu. The city is the capital of District Khanewal.

Early Development in Khanewal[edit]

In 1843, the British government in India decided to build railway tracks all over the country. An experimental train track was built from Bombay to Calcutta in 1843 which ended up being a huge success. In 1858 they approved a rail track connecting Multan-Lahore-Amritsar. Workers from all the villages rushed to get hired. After seven years of continuous work, the rail track finally opened on April 24, 1865. There were train stop stations all along the track connecting several cities and villages.

Khanewal was called Khanewalah at that time. The train track from Lahore to Multan was slightly arched upwards from Khanewal to Multan. Since most of the track was in a straight line and those were the early days of the train system, the railway department decided to build up a flag station at Khanewal, Punjab. Flag stations are smaller stations along a railway line where the train only stops if someone waves a flag.

Railway tracks were fascinating for locals all over India. People used to gather around the train tracks to see the train moving. With a flag station in Khanewal, people from all the surrounding villages started visiting khanewal just to see the train stop there for some time. That is when someone realized the opportunity and built the first inn (Dhaba) in Khanewal called the Railway Inn. It was built in 1860 and gradually became a prominent gathering point for people from the surrounding villages.

The railway's department initially allowed the locals to work on flag stations but this lead to operational challenges. Therefore, they decided to hire trained staff from the United Kingdom and post them all over India to operate the railway network. Small quarters for British staff were built in Khanewalah in 1861. These British employees built the first graveyard in khanewal in 1865 which is still at its place and it is called Gora Qabarstan of Kohna Khanewal.[10][11]

Subsequent Development in Khanewal[edit]

Subsequently, the British government decided to link Karachi to these major cities of Punjab. Multan railway station represented the lowest end of the northern railway system while Lodhran station was the highest station on the map for the southern railway line. However, later on, it was realized that the distance from Khanewal flag station to Lodhran (90 km) is shorter than Multan to Lodhran station (135 km). Therefore, keeping cost constraints and timeline in mind, it was decided to install a chord line from Khanewal to Lodhran as well.

Therefore, in 1874, more staff from the railway department was sent to stay in Khanewal and oversee the construction of the Khanewal Lodhran Chord line. In order to support the staff stationed in Khanewal, the railway department pushed the government to improve the area. As a consequence, the government opened two schools in Khanewal. First, Government Primary School # 6 was opened in early 1876 in Kohna Khanewal and then MC Primary School # 7B was opened. Since Khanewal would become a junction where the railway line from Lahore splits in two ways, Multan and Lodhran, the railway department decided to build a small station here in 1876. In order to support the communications, a post and telegraph office was also built (current PTCL office) during the same year.

Work slowly continued and after 9 years in 1885, the Khanewal Lodhran Chord line became operational. Khanewal station became more important after getting the status of a junction. Moreover, the railway department needed more competent staff stationed here to make sure junction operations are properly managed. With the increase in economic activity, people from Kabirwala gradually started coming to Khanewal (still called Khanewalah among locals) for work. In 1886, a new separate post office was built in Khanewal Punjab.

After the success of the Khanewal Lodhran chord line in 1885, the railway department started working on the next phase to connect Layllpur (now called Faisalabad) with Khanewal. Work on another railway track from Khanewal to Layllpur was initiated in 1890 and on 4 April 1900, Khanewal-Toba Tek Singh was opened. This made Khanewal the biggest junction of India at that time. By this time the railway station of Khanewal was converted from a small flag station to a bigger developed station. It was one of the biggest stations in Northern India and was regarded highly with stations like Lahore, Multan and the Karachi Railway Station.

However, despite being a bigger railway station, the economic activity in the city was low. The city looked more like a desert with sand everywhere around it. The population of this region was only driven by the railway employees who lived on the Kohna Khanewal side of the railway track. Other than that, there was no agriculture or any economic activity in the area. There were no blocks, no civil lines, and no Gharibabad. All of it was sand dunes and it was still considered a small village that was a part of Kabirwala Tehsil. The people living in Kabirwala were still considered to have a higher social status than Khanewal.[10][11]

Historical Event Timeline of Khanewal from 1712 to 1947[edit]

Historical Event Timeline of Khanewal[12]
Year Event Occurred
1712 Khan (Daha) tribe moves to Khanewal
1820 Khan family settles in Khanewal; First mosque of Khanewal (Jamia Masjid Kohna Khanewal) Built
1858 Rail track from Multan to Lahore built
1860 Railway inn built in Khanewal
1865 Khanewal was just a Flag Station; Gora Qabarstan built in Khanewal
1876 First School of Khanewal (Govt. Primary School # 6) built; Second School of Khanewal (MC Primary School # 7) built; Railway Station Khanewal inaugurated; Post and telegraph office Khanewal built.
1886 First separate Post Office Khanewal built in Kohna Khanewal
1900 Khanewal Railway Station Building completed; Jamia Masjid Kohna Khanewal rebuilt with bricks; Railway branch line from Khanewal to Laylpur opened.
1901 Khanewal was still part of Kabirwala Tehsil; Its name was Khanewalah
1903 Sham Muhammad Khan Daha (a famous politician of that era) awarded Sanad by the British Government
1904 Railway Colony Khanewal built; Locoshed quarters built; Railway Rest House made bigger; Canal Rest House built; Railway Waterworks built
1906 Digging for Lower Bari Doab Canal started; William Roberts (owner of RCA) was principal of Bombay College at this time
1908 Lower Bari Doab Canal Office and quarter built;
1911 Khanewal given status of a City; Sham Muhammad Khan Daha again awarded Sanad; First extension of Canal Office started
1912 Khanewal started developing; Allotment of plots in Khanewal started; First hospital of Khanewal (Railway hospital) built; First officer of Canal Office assigned to Khanewal; William Roberts of RCA became principal of Agriculture College of Faisalabad
1913 Lower Bari Doab Canal completed and inaugurated
1916 Water Works for Khanewal Built; Waste disposal point built near Gao Shala
1917 Khanewal given the status of Tehsil; Primary School # 3 started; MC Primary School # 2B built in locoshed; the Second mosque of Khanewal built in locoshed; Northern Western Railway shed built; Ghalla Mandi Built; Qulli Bazar was just made of dhabas at this time; Work started on Tehsil Office building; T-Chowk Water Works started; Police Stated – City Thana built; Civil Lines structured in plots
1918 Arya Samaj Mandir built; Gurdwara Singh Saba built
1919 Kulli bazar completed – Auction of shops started; Banson-wala bazar built; Building of tehsil office Khanewal complete; Tehsil police chowki built; Graves from this year can still be seen in Old Qabarstan
1920 6 Lac acre land was allotted in Khanewal; Santan Dharam Mandir built in Chowk Sanglawala, Gurdwara Block # 4 built; Santan Dharam Mandir in Block 6 built; Jamia Masjid Gharibabad built; Gudrwara Bazar Built; Changar Muhalla populated; Muhalla Gharibabad populated; Civil Club Khanewal built; First Mela Moveshian in Khanewal
1921 NAC High School for Boys built; MC Primary School 1B built inside the NAC high School; NAC High School for Girls built; Nandi Anglo Vernacular High School opened; Population of Khanewal was 5,647 only; Reley Brother Cotton and Ginning Factory built; British Cotton and Ginning Association (BCGA) Factory was given 7,221 acre of land in Khanewal; William Roberts left Agricultural College of Faisalabad to build the BCGA Factory in Khanewal
1922 Chapel House (Girga Ghar) built in Khanewal; Land for Jamia Majid Block 11 bought
1923 British Cotton and Ginning Association Factory (BCGA) started operations
1924 Railway South Cabin opened in Khanewal; Extra Assistant Commissioner Court opened in Khanewal; SCO Canal Office Court opened;
1925 First admission in the NCA middle School; Jamia Masjid Block 11 built; Sikh Sabha library built in Block 3; Quarter Bhangian built; Gol Bagh built in Khanewal; New gate of Gurdwara Block 4 built from Machi Bazar; New design on Jamia Masjid Kohna Khanewal
1926 Municipal Library built in Khanewal; the First bank of Khanewal (Central Co-operative Bank) opened in Khanewal; Chaman Lal Cotton Factory built
1927 First admission in NAC high School for Boys
1928 First Electric House (Bijli ghar) built in Khanewal by Railway; 149 Pole lamps installed in Khanewal; Civil Veterinary Hospital built
1929 Khalsa High School built; Dharam Shala built in Lakar Mandi Khanewal; Hera Lal Petrol Agent started selling Petrol in Khanewal
1930 Kutiya Rehel-e-Hunood built; Cinema Radhu Palace built; NAC High School for Boys, NAC Middle School for Boys, Nandi Anglo Vernacular School moved to Government High School for Boys building; Post and Telegraph Office changed to Telephone Exchange Khanewal;
1931 Tuneja Cotton and Ginning Factory started operations in Khanewal; First map of Jamia Masjid Block 11 approved
1932 Kutiya Rehel-e-Hunood completed; Jamia Mosque Gharibabad built with solid brick
1933 Islamia High School building completed; Railway Police Station built; First printing press of Khanewal Jagdish Printing Press built
1934 William Roberts became member of Punjab Provincial Assembly
1935 Geerbat Ghat built in Khanewal; Jamia Masjid Ahlehadees built; Northern India Electric Supply came to Khanewal
1936 Work on Central Co-opeartive Bank building started; Hostel of Islamia High School built; William Roberts left Punjab Provincial Assembly
1937 Chistiya Bijli Ghar built; First petrol pump of Khanewal built (Prem Nath sub Agent Berma Shell Oil Company); Sarai Bhoja Ram built
1939 Foundation Stone of Central Co-operative bank laid
1940 First Amam Bargah of Khanewal built in Block 11; Markazi Jamia Masjid Ahlehadees foundation stone laid; Kacheri Bazar built; Sutesh Cotton Factory-built; 248 students in Government High School for Boys
1941 Second map of Jamia Masjid approved
1942 Markazi Jamia Masjid building work started; Anjuman Islamia Primary School built; Nani Anglo Vernacular Primary School given status of High School
1945 Doctor Bhutta opened Homeopathic Clinic in Khanewal; Police Choki moved from NAC High School for Girls to Block 4; Municipal Committee Office moved to Government Girls High School Hostel
1946 Land for Church in Khanewal purchased; Amam Bargah Block 11 expanded
1947 Khanewal became part of Pakistan; Municipal Library moved to Gerbatt Ghat; Sodagar Chand Hotel opened in Sarai Bhoja Ram; Post Office Khanewal moved to Block 4 House 60

Geography[edit]

Historically The land where Khanewal is currently situated was barren originally and was called Gunji Bar or Kabirwala Bar. Bar is a geographical term used to describe elevated land on the sides of rivers. Initially, this area used to be the Southern shore of the river Ravi. At that time Ravi used to flow from East to West of Multan city. With the passage of time, the river kept changing its flow, the river soil turned this piece of land into vegetated land.[13]

Climate[edit]

Climate data for Khanewal
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 28.3
(82.9)
32.0
(89.6)
39.0
(102.2)
45.0
(113.0)
46.9
(116.4)
49.0
(120.2)
49.2
(120.6)
45.0
(113.0)
42.5
(108.5)
40.6
(105.1)
36.0
(96.8)
29.0
(84.2)
49.2
(120.6)
Average high °C (°F) 21.0
(69.8)
23.2
(73.8)
28.5
(83.3)
35.5
(95.9)
40.4
(104.7)
42.3
(108.1)
39.2
(102.6)
38.0
(100.4)
37.2
(99.0)
34.6
(94.3)
28.5
(83.3)
22.7
(72.9)
32.6
(90.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) 12.7
(54.9)
15.4
(59.7)
21.0
(69.8)
27.5
(81.5)
32.4
(90.3)
35.5
(95.9)
33.9
(93.0)
33.0
(91.4)
31.0
(87.8)
26.4
(79.5)
19.7
(67.5)
14.1
(57.4)
25.2
(77.4)
Average low °C (°F) 4.5
(40.1)
7.6
(45.7)
13.5
(56.3)
19.5
(67.1)
24.4
(75.9)
28.6
(83.5)
28.7
(83.7)
28.0
(82.4)
24.9
(76.8)
18.2
(64.8)
10.9
(51.6)
5.5
(41.9)
17.9
(64.1)
Record low °C (°F) −2.2
(28.0)
−1
(30)
3.3
(37.9)
9.4
(48.9)
13.5
(56.3)
20.0
(68.0)
21.1
(70.0)
21.1
(70.0)
16.7
(62.1)
8.9
(48.0)
0.6
(33.1)
−1.1
(30.0)
−2.2
(28.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 7.2
(0.28)
9.5
(0.37)
19.5
(0.77)
12.9
(0.51)
9.8
(0.39)
12.3
(0.48)
61.3
(2.41)
32.6
(1.28)
10.8
(0.43)
1.7
(0.07)
2.3
(0.09)
6.9
(0.27)
186.8
(7.35)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 222.3 211.6 250.8 273.3 293.5 266.8 265.0 277.6 277.6 274.9 255.0 229.2 3,097.6
Source: NOAA (1961–1990)[14]

Demography[edit]

The population of Khanewal district was 2,068,000 in the 1998 Census. In the 2005 Economic Survey[15] the population was reported at 2,376,000 with a growth rate of 2.4%. In 2015 the population of Khanewal khanewal was estimated to be 2,941,000.

According to the census of 1998, Punjabi is the most widely spoken first language[16] of the khanewal, accounting for 81% of the population. Urdu was the native language of 7.8%, Saraiki – of 5.8% and Pashto – of 1.1%.[17]: 21–22 

Urdu is the language spoken and understood by all. However, the majority of the people, especially those living in the city speak Punjabi. The main tribes and clans include:[18] Niazi Afghans, Seoul, Daduana, Kamboh, Matyana, Gujjar, Doltana, Sahu, Rajputs (Rana), Rajpoot Dhudhi, Awan, Sheikh, Jatt, Bucha, Nikyana Sial, Siyal, Arain, Bhati, Baloch, Khokhars Mayo Solgi (jutt) and toru.

Education in Khanewal[edit]

The education system in Khanewal is formulated along specific modern, religious, cultural, social, psychological, commerce and scientific injunctions. The current literacy rate of khanewal is 39.9%.[19] The standard national system of education is mainly inspired from the British system. The system also aims to imbibe a secular outlook among the students with the awareness of the rich cultural heritage of Pakistan. Khanewal has a wide range of schools, colleges and universities that caters to diverse streams.

The system is divided into five levels: primary (grades one through five); middle (grades six through eight); high (grades nine and ten, leading to the Secondary School Certificate); intermediate (grades eleven and twelve, leading to a Higher Secondary School Certificate); and university programs leading to graduate and advanced degrees.

Khanewal, like majority of the cities in Pakistan has both public and private educational institutions from primary to university level. Most educational institutions are gender based from primary to university level.

All academic education institutions are the responsibility of the provincial governments. The federal government mostly assists in curriculum development, accreditation and some financing of research.

Universities in Khanewal[edit]

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "CM striving hard to alleviate poverty, says Minister". The Nation (newspaper). 29 December 2021. Retrieved 8 January 2022.
  2. ^ "PAKISTAN: Provinces and Major Cities". PAKISTAN: Provinces and Major Cities. citypopulation.de. Retrieved 4 May 2020.
  3. ^ Location of Khanewal – Falling Rain Genomics
  4. ^ Tehsils & Unions in the District of Khanewal – Government of Pakistan Archived 2011-08-07 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ Dbakhanewal.com. 2019. History of Khanewal | District Bar Association - DBA Khanewal. <https://www.dbakhanewal.com/?page_id=197>.
  6. ^ a b Our History | District Khanewal. Khanewal.punjab.gov.pk. Retrieved 4 January 2022, from https://khanewal.punjab.gov.pk/history.
  7. ^ 531, Raesa e Punjab, 2nd Edition, Sangmeel Publishers, Lahore
  8. ^ Khanewal Pakistan - Earliest Dwellers. Naukhaiz. Retrieved 4 January 2022, from http://naukhaiz.com/khanewal-pakistan.
  9. ^ a b Khanewal. Pakpedia. Retrieved 4 January 2022, from https://www.pakpedia.pk/khanewal/
  10. ^ a b History of Khanewal Railway Station. Khanewal.com.pk. Retrieved 4 January 2022, from https://www.khanewal.com.pk/GetUpdates.php?SrNo=2466.
  11. ^ a b Khanewal (Punjab) during 1850-1900. Naukhaiz. Retrieved 4 January 2022, from http://naukhaiz.com/khanewal-punjab-pakistan.
  12. ^ Khanewal History - Naukhaiz. Naukhaiz. Retrieved 4 January 2022, from http://naukhaiz.com/khanewal.
  13. ^ Municiple Committee Khanewal Website. Mckhanewal.lgpunjab.org.pk. (2022). Retrieved from http://www.mckhanewal.lgpunjab.org.pk/.
  14. ^ "Khanewal Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 4 January 2021.
  15. ^ http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/Pnadt211.pdf
  16. ^ "Mother tongue": defined as the language of communication between parents and children.
  17. ^ 1998 District Census report of Khanewal. Census publication. 87. Islamabad: Population Census Organization, Statistics Division, Government of Pakistan. 2000.
  18. ^ The People | District Khanewal. (2022). Retrieved from: https://khanewal.punjab.gov.pk/the-people
  19. ^ District at a glance Khanewal | Pakistan Bureau of Statistics. Pbs.gov.pk. (2022). Retrieved 15 January 2022, from https://www.pbs.gov.pk/content/district-glance-khanewal.
  20. ^ Home | UCMS. Ucms.edu.pk. Retrieved 15 January 2022, from https://ucms.edu.pk/.
  21. ^ Virtual Campuses. Virtual University of Pakistan. (2022). Retrieved 15 January 2022, from https://www.vu.edu.pk/pvcs/ProvinceDetails.aspx?Province=PUNJAB.
  22. ^ 2018 CWG bio results.gc2018.com. Retrieved 11 October 2021.