Education in Thailand

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Education in Thailand
Lanchakon - 037.jpg
Ministry of Education
Minister of Education Gen Dapong Ratanasuwan [1]
National education budget (2013)
Budget 460,075.2 million baht (19.169% national budget)[2]:73(4% GDP)[3]
General details
Primary languages Thai, English
System type National
Total 13,157,103 (2010)
Primary 3,651,613 (2010)
Secondary 1,695,223 (2010)
Post secondary 663,150 (2010)
Secondary diploma N/A

Education in Thailand is provided mainly by the Thai government through the Ministry of Education from pre-school to senior high school. A free basic education of twelve years is guaranteed by the constitution, and a minimum of nine years' school attendance is mandatory. In 2009 the Ministry of Education announced the extension of a free, mandatory education to fifteen years.[4]

Formal education consists of at least twelve years of basic education, and higher education. Basic education is divided into six years of elementary education and six years of secondary education, the latter being further divided into three years of lower- and upper-secondary levels. Kindergarten levels of pre-elementary education, also part of the basic education level, span 2–3 years depending on the locale, and are variably provided. Non-formal education is also supported by the state. Independent schools contribute significantly to the general education infrastructure.

Administration and control of public and private universities are carried out by the Office of Higher Education Commission, a department of the Ministry of Education.

School system overview[edit]

Elementary school students in Thailand
Ban Mai Khao Elementary School in Mai Khao, Phuket

The school structure is divided into four key stages:

  • The first three years in elementary school, Prathom (ประถม) 1–3, is for age groups 7–9;
  • The second level, Prathom 4 through 6 is for age groups 10–12;
  • The third level, Matthayom (มัธยม) 1–3, is for age groups 13–15.
  • The upper secondary level of schooling consists of Matthayom 4–6 for age groups 16–18 and is divided into academic and vocational streams. There are academic upper secondary schools, vocational upper secondary schools and comprehensive schools offering academic and vocational tracks. Students who choose the academic stream usually intend to enter a university. Vocational schools offer programs that prepare students for employment or further studies.

Admission to an upper secondary school is through an entrance exam. On the completion of each level, students need to pass the NET (National Educational Test) to graduate. Children are required to attend six years of elementary school and at least the first three years of high school. Those who graduate from the sixth year of high school are candidates for two decisive tests: O-NET (Ordinary National Educational Test) and A-NET (Advanced National Educational Test).

Public schools are administered by the government. The private sector comprises schools run for profit and fee-paying non-profit schools which are often run by charitable organisations — especially by Catholic diocesan and religious orders that operate over 300 large elementary/secondary schools throughout the country.[5][citation needed] Village and sub-district schools usually provide pre-school kindergarten (anuban อนุบาล) and elementary classes, while in the district towns, schools will serve their areas with comprehensive schools with all the classes from kindergarten to age 15 and separate secondary schools for ages 13 through 18.

Due to budgetary limitations, rural schools are generally less well equipped than the schools in the cities. The standard of instruction, particularly for the English language, is much lower, and many high school students will commute 60–80 kilometres to schools in the nearest city.

The school year is divided into two semesters. The first begins in the beginning of May and ends in October; the second begins in November and ends in March.

Stages in the Thai formal education system[6]
Typical age Stage Level/Grade Notes
4 Basic education Early childhood
(Typically Anuban 1–3)
7 Elementary Prathom 1 Compulsory education
8 Prathom 2
9 Prathom 3
10 Prathom 4
11 Prathom 5
12 Prathom 6
13 Lower-secondary Matthayom 1
14 Matthayom 2
15 Matthayom 3
Upper-secondary General Vocational
16 Matthayom 4 Vocational Certificate
(3 years)
17 Matthayom 5
18 Matthayom 6
Higher education Variable


Formal education has its early origins in the temple schools, when it was available to boys only. From the mid-sixteenth century Thailand opened up to significant French Catholic influence until the mid-seventeenth century when it was heavily curtailed, and the country returned to a strengthening of its own cultural ideology. Unlike other parts of South and Southeast Asia, particularly the Indian subcontinent, Myanmar (Burma), Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia, the Malay Peninsula, Indonesia and the Philippines which had all benefited from the influence of countries with centuries of educational tradition, Thailand has never been colonised by a Western power. As a result, structured education on the lines of that in developed countries was slow to evolve until it gained new impetus with the reemergence of diplomacy in the late nineteenth century.

Early education[edit]

It is possible that one of the earliest forms of education began when King Ram Khamhaeng the Great invented the Thai alphabet in 1283 basing it on Mon, Khmer, and Southern Indian scripts. Stone inscriptions from 1292 in the new script depict moral, intellectual and cultural aspects.[7] During the Sukhothai period (1238–1378), education was dispensed by the Royal Institution of Instruction (Rajabundit) to members of the royal family and the nobility, while commoners were taught by Buddhist monks.

In the period of the Ayutthaya kingdom from 1350 to 1767 during the reign of King Narai the Great (1656–1688), the Chindamani, generally accepted as the first textbook of the Thai language, collating the grammar. The prosody of Thai language and official forms of correspondence was written by a monk, Pra Horatibodi, in order to stem the foreign educational influence of the French Jesuit schools It remained in use up to King Chulalongkorn's reign (1868–1910). Narai himself was a poet, and his court became the center where poets congregated to compose verses and poems. Although through his influence interest in Thai literature was significantly increased, Catholic missions had been present with education in Ayutthaya as early as 1567 under Portuguese Dominicans and French Jesuits were given permission to settle in Ayutthaya in 1662. His reign therefore saw major developments in diplomatic missions to and from Western powers.

On Narai's death, fearing further foreign interference in Thai education and culture, and conversion to Catholicism, xenophobic sentiments at court increased and diplomatic activities were severely reduced and ties with the West and any forms of Western education were practically severed. They did not recover their former levels until the reign of King Mongkut in the mid-nineteenth century.


Through his reforms of the Buddhist Sangha, King Rama I (1782–1809), accelerated the development of public education and during the reign of King Rama IV (1851–1865) the printing press arrived in Thailand making books available in the Thai language for the first time; English had become the lingua franca of the Far East, and the education provided by the monks was proving inadequate for government officials. Rama IV decreed that measures be taken to modernise education and insisted that English would be included in the curriculum.

King Rama V (1868–1910) continued to influence the development of education and in 1871 the first relatively modern concept of a school with purpose constructed building, lay teachers and a time-table was opened in the palace to teach male members of the royal family and the sons of the nobility. The Command Declaration on Schooling was proclaimed, English was being taught in the palace for royalty and nobles, and schools were set up outside the palace for the education of commoners’ children. With the aid of foreign - mainly English - advisers a Department of Education was established by the king in 1887 by which time 34 schools, with over 80 teachers and almost 2,000 students, were in operation and as part of the king’s programme to establish ministries, in 1892 the department became the Ministry of Education. Recognizing that the private sector had come to share the tasks of providing education, the government introduced controls for private schools.

In 1897 on the initiative of Queen Sribajarindra, girls were admitted into the educational system. In 1898, a two-part education plan for Bangkok and for the provinces was launched with programmes for pre-school, elementary, secondary, technical, and higher education. In 1901, the first government school for girls, the Bamrung Wijasatri, was set up in Bangkok, and in 1913, the first teacher training school for women was set up at the Benchama Rajalai School for girls. Further developments took place when in 1902 the plan was remodeled by National System of Education in Siam into the two categories of general education, and professional/ technical education, imposing at the same time age limits for admission to encourage graduation within predetermined time scales.

The first university is named after King Chulalongkorn (Rama V), and was established by his son and successor King Vajiravudh (Rama VI) in 1917 by combining the Royal Pages School and the College of Medicine.[8] In 1921, the Compulsory Elementary Education Act was proclaimed.


The bloodless revolution in 1932 that transferred absolute power from the king to democratic government encouraged further development and expansion of schools and tertiary institutions. The first National Education Scheme was introduced formally granting access to education regardless of ability, gender, and social background.

In 1960, compulsory education was extended to seven years, and for the first time special provisions were made for disabled children, who were originally exempted from compulsory education. In 1961, the government began a series of five-year plans, and many of the extant purpose-built school buildings, particularly the wooden village elementary schools, and the early concrete secondary schools date from around this time.

In 1977, the key stages of elementary and secondary education were changed from a 4-3-3-2 year structure to the 6-3-3 year system that is in use today.

Recent developments[edit]

From early 2001, under Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra, the Ministry of Education began developing new national curriculum in an endeavour to center the system of education on the child, or student-centred learning methods.[citation needed]

The years from 2001 to 2006 showed some improvements in education, such as computers in the schools and an increase in the number of qualified native-speaker teachers for foreign languages. Experiments with restructuring the administrative regions for education or partly decentralizing the responsibility of education to the provinces were conducted. By 2008, however, little real change had been made, and many attempts to establish a clear form of university entrance qualification had also failed due to combinations of political interference, attempts to confer independence (or to remove it) on the universities, administrative errors, and inappropriate or mismatched syllabuses in the schools.

Twelve values[edit]

Prayut Chan-o-cha, Thailand's prime minister and junta leader, says school reform is urgently needed.[9] Following the military takeover of May 2014, Prayut, in a televised broadcast in July, ordered schools to display a list of 12 "Thai" values he composed.[10] They are:

  1. Loyalty to the Nation, the Religion, and the Monarchy
  2. Honesty, sacrifice, endurance, and noble ideology for the greater good
  3. Gratitude for parents, guardians, and teachers
  4. Diligence in acquiring knowledge, via school studies and other methods
  5. Preserving the Thai customs and tradition
  6. Morality and good will for others
  7. Correct understanding of democracy with the King as Head of State
  8. Discipline, respect for law, and obedience to the older citizens
  9. Constant consciousness to practice good deeds all the time, as taught by His Majesty the King
  10. Practice of Self-Sufficient Economy in accordance with the teaching of His Majesty the King
  11. Physical and mental strength. Refusal to surrender to religious sins.
  12. Uphold the interest of the nation over oneself.

Authorities instructed public schools and state agencies to hang a banner listing Gen Prayut's teachings on their premises. State agencies have also produced a poem, song, and 12-part film based on the teachings. In late-December 2014, the Ministry of Information, Communication, and Telecommunications (MICT) released a set of "stickers" depicting each of the Twelve Values for users of the chat application LINE.

Military training for kindergartners[edit]

The military government under Prayut Chan-o-cha instituted a "land defender battalion" program to teach uniformed children aged four and five to do push-ups, crawl under netting, salute, and eat from metal trays on the floor. "Soldiers showed children military operations and taught them patriotic values to love the nation, religions, and the Thai monarchy through the...12 Thai Values," according to the Thai-language news outlet Matichon Online. The news site reported that this is the second time that the Royal Thai Army has run the program, and said that many more schools and kindergartens will join the program in the future.[11]

Recent research[edit]

On 27 May 2015, the Ministry of Public Health released Thai student IQ survey results. They indicate that the IQ of Grade 1 students has dropped from 94 in 2011 to 93. The international standard is 100.[12]

It is highly possible that Thailand's education system is harming student IQs. While the IQ of pre-school students is acceptable, IQ drops as primary schooling commences, suggesting a need for changes at schools. The IQ of students in rural areas is considerably lower, at just 89. This difference persists at university. While studies have found the IQ of Bangkok university students averages 115, the IQ of provincial university students is 5-8 points lower.[12]

Alarmingly, the low IQ levels in the recent survey confirm continuing high levels of intellectual disability: IQ levels lower than 70, also termed "mildly impaired or delayed". The average global percentage of such students is 2 percent. However, a previous 2011 survey found that 6.5 percent of Thai students scored in this range. The recent results suggest intellectual disability in some rural areas could now be up to 10 percent.[12]

One cause of lower IQs might be traced to nutrition. WHO research suggests iodine deficiency accounts for losses of between 10–15 IQ points. However, according to Thailand’s 2012 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, only 71 percent of Thai households consume enough iodised salt, falling to 54 percent in the poorest households. There is again a huge regional disparity, with 82 percent of households in Bangkok and only 54 percent of households in Thailand's northeast consuming adequately iodised salt. The regions with the lowest IQs are those same areas with the highest iodine deficiency.[12]

In July 2015, the Thai Department of Health initiated a program to provide better nutrition and health education at Thai public schools. Its aims are to increase average IQ from 94 to 100 and boost the average height of children. Currently boys measure on average 167 cm and girls 157 cm. Over the 10-year life of the program heights are targeted to increase to 175 cm and 165 cm respectively. Children at schools across the country will receive healthier meals and more instruction on healthy living and exercise.[13]

In 2015, a World Bank study concluded that " of 15-year-old Thais are 'functionally illiterate'", including almost half of those studying in rural schools.[9] The bank suggested that Thailand reform its education system partly through merging and optimising its more than 20,000 schools nationwide. The alternative is hiring 160,000 more teachers for up-country schools in order to match Bangkok's teacher-student ratios.[14] The Economist notes that, "Thailand’s dismal performance is not dramatically out of step with countries of similar incomes. But it is strange given its unusually generous spending on education, which in some years has hoovered up more than a quarter of the budget. Rote learning is common. There is a shortage of maths and science teachers, but a surfeit of physical-education instructors. Many head teachers lack the authority to hire or fire their own staff."[9]

Secondary school admissions protest[edit]

In May 2012, parents and students at the prestigious Bodindecha (Sing Singhaseni) School, commonly referred to as "Bodin", in Bangkok staged a hunger strike to protest what they viewed as admissions irregularities. The issue arose when 200 Bodin students were denied the right to continue their studies at the school at the end of the 2011 school year. The students suspected that school executives had taken away their seats to give to children of parents willing to pay huge sums of "tea money" or bribes.[15] Admission to popular schools can cost "tea money" sums up to seven figures. The greater the competition, the higher the amount of donations the parents believe they have to offer in exchange for their children's chances to get a good education at a quality school.[16]

Status of teachers[edit]

Thai society holds teachers in high regard as evidenced by naming one day of the year as "Teacher's Day."[17] But the high esteem held for Thai teachers does not extend to their pay packets. "Thai teachers, as well as university lecturers, are not as well paid as their colleagues in Malaysia or Singapore, not to mention those in the United States or Europe," according to the Bangkok Post.[18] This has led to the finding that each Thai teacher may be up to three million baht in debt. The government is taking steps to ameliorate the plight of teachers by refinancing loans owed to "formal" lenders.[18]



Almost all villages have an elementary school. Most sub-districts (tambon) have a school for ages 6 through 14 and all districts (amphoe) have secondary schools for ages 12 through 17. Many have vocational colleges for students from age 15.

The government is not able to cope with the entire number of students, thus the private sector, which is supervised by the government, provides a significant contribution. The level of education in the private sector is generally, but not always, higher than that of the government schools. Expensive, exclusive private and international schools provide for a high level of achievement and a large number of their students continue their education at universities abroad.

Charitable organisations (missionary societies or diocesan), and other religions provide the backbone of non-government, low-fee, general education and some established universities, and their standard is relatively high. Cheaper, newer and individual private schools, are occasionally run more for profit and government subsidies than for results, and are often indistinguishable from government schools in terms of quality of buildings, resources, teaching competency, and overcrowded classrooms. Their only real benefit is the prestige afforded to the parents for schooling their children in the private sector.

In rural schools, absenteeism among both students and teachers is high due to family and farming commitments. Some schools close down during rice planting and harvesting seasons.

Over 400 government vocational colleges accept students who have completed Matthayom 3. Their campuses are usually located within daily commuting distances, although some may offer limited dormitory accommodation on campus. Many specialised vocational schools offer training in agriculture, animal husbandry, nursing, administration, hospitality and tourism.


The complexity of administration of Thai education gives rise to duplication among the many ministries and agencies providing education and establishing of standards. In 1980, under the recommendation the Minister of Education, Dr. Sippanondha Ketudat, a Harvard scholar, responsibility for basic elementary education was moved from the Ministry of Interior to the Ministry of Education. Both the Ministry of University Affairs and the Ministry of Education have been actively involved in teacher training. In the early 21st century devolution of some responsibility to newly created educational regions is intended to increase the awareness and ability to address different regional needs.[19]


In comparison with the educational expenditures of other countries, (especially developing countries): China 13%, Indonesia 8.1%, Malaysia 20%, Mexico, 24.3%, Philippines 17%, United Kingdom and France 11%, the Thai GDP and national budget allocate considerable funds to education. By 2006 it represented 27% of the national budget. Although education is mainly financed by the national budget, local funds, particularly in urban areas, are being released to support education. In the Bangkok Metropolitan Authority, up to 28.1% of the education budget has been provided by local financing. Loans and technical assistance for education are also received from Asian Development Bank, the World Bank, and the Overseas Economic Cooperation Fund (OECF) (Japan).[20] In December 2008 Education Minister Jurin Laksanawisit announced the intention to provide Thai children with free textbooks and learning materials throughout their 15 years of government-sponsored free education and implemented this policy in May of the 2009 academic year. In 2011, the new elected government proposed providing tablet computers to elementary school students.


Systematic educational research began in 1955 when the International Institute for Child Study was established in Bangkok. The institute has now become the Behavioral Science Research Institute and has conducted both basic and applied research. In the 1960s, the Ministry of Education and the Office of the National Education Commission (ONEC), a department of the Office of the Prime Minister, began programmes of educational research. In-depth research, particularly that of the ONEC, contributed to the education reform initiative of 1999-2002, and extensive research is provided by the country's universities, especially in faculties of education. The Department of Curriculum and Instructional Development of the Ministry of Education also conducts research into testing, curriculum, and content. The National Library, university libraries, and other libraries around the country are electronically networked in order to facilitate research.

Elementary and secondary levels[edit]

At elementary levels, students follow eight core subjects each semester: Thai language, mathematics, science, social science, health and physical education, arts and music, technology, and foreign languages. At age 16 (Matthayom 4), students are allowed to choose one or two elective courses. The science program (Wit-Kanit) and the mathematics-English language program (Sil-Kamnuan) are among the most popular. Foreign language programs (Sil-Phasa) (Chinese, French, Japanese, Korean, Russian, Spanish and German) for example, and the social science program (sometimes called the general program) are also offered. Both elementary and secondary level have special programs for students called English Program and Gifted Program. In English Program students can learn almost every subject in English except for Thai and Social Studies. The Gifted Program is the Mathematics-Science program.

Vocational education[edit]

As of 2016 there were 424 colleges governed by the Vocational Education Commission (VEC), of the Ministry of Education[21] and about the same number of private colleges.

Technical and vocational education (TVE) begins at the senior high school grade where students are divided into either general or vocational education. At present, around 60 percent of students follow the general education programmes. However, the government is endeavouring to achieve an equal balance between general and vocational education.

Three levels of TVE are offered: the Certificate in Vocational Education (Bor Wor Chor) which is taken during the upper secondary period; the Technical Diploma (Bor Wor Sor), taken after school-leaving age, and the Higher Diploma on which admission to university for a bachelor's degree programme may be granted. Vocational education is also provided by private institutions.

Dual vocational training (DVT)[edit]

Essential to DVT is the active participation of the private sector. In 1995, based primarily on the German model,[22] the Department of Vocational Education launched the initiative to introduce dual vocational training programmes which involve the students in hand-on training in suitably selected organisations in the private sector.

DVT is a regular element of the DoVE "certificate" and "diploma" program. The training is for a period of three years with more than half of the time devoted to practical training on-the-job, spread over two days a week, or for longer periods depending on the distance, throughout the semesters.

Two levels of DVT are offered: the three-year certificate level for skilled workers where students and trainees are admitted at the age of 15 after completing Matthayom 3 (Grade 9); and the two-year diploma technician level for students who have graduated with the Certificate of Vocational Education after 12 years of formal education.

In the scheme, vocational, unlike regular internships, where students may be assigned to work on unpaid irrelevant jobs, the cooperative education programme enables students of the vocational schools to do field work while benefiting from an allowance to cover living expenses or free accommodation, and compensation for their contributions made towards the company's income and profits as temporary employees.

Schools collaborate directly with the private sector in drafting action plans and setting goals for students to meet. Generally, the company will offer permanent employment to the trainees on graduation and successful completion of the programme. Conversely, companies that recruit trainees from among young people who have completed a minimum of nine years at school may enroll their employees with a technical or vocational college where they are taught vocational subjects as the theoretical background to the occupational field in which they are being trained.[23]


The Office of Vocational Education Commission showed student enrollment for the 2005 academic year as follows:

Technical colleges, 290,058; industrial and community colleges, 137,377; business administration and tourism colleges, 3,480; commercial colleges, 16,266; arts and crafts colleges, 2,214; polytechnic colleges, 36,304; vocational colleges, 89,703; agricultural and technology colleges, 34,914; Golden Jubilee Royal Goldsmith College, 525; industrial and shipbuilding colleges, 2,391; fishery colleges, 1,510; agricultural engineering training centres, 806; with a further 340,000 in private vocational schools.[24]

Concerns of multi-national corporations[edit]

Shiro Sadoshima, the Japanese ambassador to Thailand, believes that the Thai government must invest more in education to produce a labour force that can meet the demands of Japanese industry. He noted that while Thailand has a policy to improve vocational skills and cultivate skilled labour, the skills exhibited by Thai workers are not up to Japanese standards. The ambassador's remarks echoed those of major Japanese manufacturers such as Toyota, which has been investing in Thailand for decades. Shuichi Ikeda, chief representative of the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), also voiced concerns that even though Thailand has produced a lot of vocational graduates to serve rising demand for factory workers, those graduates lack required skills. Thailand is expected to produce around 67,000 vocational graduates over the next 10 years but only around 3,100 of them can meet labour standards and get a job, he said.[25]

Tertiary and higher education[edit]

Established public and private universities and colleges of higher education are under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of University Affairs. They offer programmes especially in the fields of medicine, the arts, humanities, and information technology, although many students prefer to pursue studies of law and business in Western institutions abroad or in those which have created local facilities in Thailand. During the first years of the 21st century, the number of universities increased dramatically on a controversial move by the Thaksin government to rename many public institutes as universities.


There are 170 institutions of higher education in Thailand, both public and private, offering 4,100 curricula. For the 2015 academic year, the universities could accommodate 156,216 new students, but only 105,046 applied to take entrance exams. Exacerbating the student shortfall, the National Economic and Social Development Board projects that the number of Thais in the school-age group 0–21 years will fall to 20 percent of the population by 2040, a drop from 62.3 percent in 1980.[26]

Many public universities receive financial support from the government for research purposes. Over half of the provinces have a government Rajabhat University formerly Rajabhat Institutes and Rajamangala University of Technology, traditionally teacher training colleges.

Some of the more highly regarded public universities in Thailand include by QS World University Rankings, Times higher Education, Center for World University Ranking, Round University Ranking are:

  • Chulalongkorn University: is a comprehensive and research-intensive university, offering programs in arts and humanities, engineering and technology, life sciences and medicine, natural sciences and Social sciences and management.
  • Thammasat University: Programs in social science and humanities, science and technology, and health sciences.[27]
  • Kasetsart University: Programs in agriculture, business administration, fisheries, forestry, humanities and aerospace engineering.
  • Mahidol University: Medicine (Siriraj Hospital and Ramamathibodi Hospital), pharmacy, veterinary science, medical technology.
  • King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang: Best known for programs in electrical engineering, automotive engineering, computer engineering and architecture.
  • Srinakharinwirot University: Education, dentistry, social sciences.
  • Chiang Mai University: Political science and public administration, humanities, agriculture, nursing.
  • Khon Kaen University: First university in northeastern Thailand. Engineering, education, college of local administration.
  • Prince of Songkla University: First university in southern Thailand. Natural resources, hospitality and tourism, management sciences.
  • Burapha University: First higher education institution outside of Bangkok; in eastern Thailand's industrial region. Humanities and social sciences, logistics, management, and tourism.


Most bachelor's degree courses are four year, full-time programs. Exceptions are education and architecture that require five years, and the doctor of dental surgery, medicine, pharmacy, and veterinary medicine that require six years of study. Master's degree programs last for either one or two years and the degree is conferred on course credits with either a thesis or a final exam. On completion of a master's degree, students may apply for an admission exam to a two to five year doctoral program. The doctorate is conferred upon completion of coursework, research, and the successful submission of a dissertation. There are at least 1,000 PhD programs offered at 33 Thai universities. The number of PhD students rose to over 25,000 in 2015, up from just 1,380 in 2008.[28]


At present, there are two methods to select students for admission to universities in Thailand. The first method is the direct admission system operated by each university. The second method is the original admission system managed by the National Institute of Education Testing Service (NIETS).[29]

On graduating from high school, students need to pass the CUAS (Central University Admission System) which contains 50% of O-NET and A-NET results and the other half of the fourth level GPA (grade point average). Many changes and experiments in the university admissions system have taken place since 2001, but by late 2007 a nationwide system had yet to be accepted by the students, the universities, and the government. In 2008, the newly formed coalition led by the People's Power Party (a party formed by the remnants of deposed Taksin Shinwatra's Thai Rak Tai party) announced more changes to the national curriculum and university entrance system. At present, state-run universities screen 70% of their students directly, with the remaining 30% coming from the central admission system. The new system gives 20% weight to cumulative grade point average, which varies upon a school's standard. Some students have voiced distrust of the new system and fear it will encounter score counting problems as happened with the A-NET in its first year. The new aptitude test, to be held for the first time in March 2009 and which will be supervised by NIETS, will replace the Advanced National Education Test (A-net). Students may sit for the aptitude test a maximum of three times, with their best scores counted. After the first tests in March 2009, the next two are scheduled for July and October. Direct admissions are normally held around October.

The new test includes the compulsory General Aptitude Test (GAT), which covers reading, writing, analytical thinking, problem solving and English communication. The voluntary Professional Aptitude Test (PAT) has a choice of seven subjects: Thai language, English language, social studies, mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology. These seven subject areas are managed by NIETS.

NIETS clearinghouse[edit]

In 2013, NIETS began to use a clearinghouse system. It is designed to avoid the problem of having the same student be accepted by several universities. After completing the exam and deciding on a university to attend, the student's name will automatically be removed from other university databases and admissions system. Universities currently in the system are Chulalongkorn University, Kasetsart University, Thammasat University, King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, and 14 other state universities.[citation needed]

The required qualifications and number of students admitted are established by each university. The qualifications needed for admission vary by university. Some universities require a high GPA and test score. Students with a GPA and test score lower than required cannot apply for admission to that university. Some faculties may add an aptitude test. It depends on the faculty and the university. Students are not required to take the every subject area examination. For example, the faculty of engineering requires mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology, but the faculty of management requires English and mathematics. This is a departure from the original admission system which requires a score in every subject of the O-net test and academic aptitude test (PAT).[citation needed]

Grade point average[edit]

Grade point average is an average of the grades received for courses taken.[30]

  • 21 Thai
  • 22 Social studies, religion, and culture
  • 23 Foreign Language
  • 24 Mathematics
  • 25 Science
  • 26 Physical education
  • 27 Arts
  • 28 Career and Technology

National Educational Test[edit]

It is composed of O-NET, N-NET, V-NET, and GAT-PAT.

Ordinary National Education Test (O-NET)[edit]

O-NET is a test of basic education. All students at grade 6,9,12 can take O-NET one time.

Non-Formal National Education Test (N-NET)[edit]

N-NET is to measure the knowledge to students who are studying in non-formal education at secondary education and high school education.

Vocational National Educational Test (V-NET)[edit]

V-NET is a test to measure the knowledge of vocational students.

General Aptitude Test (GAT)[edit]

General Aptitude Test[31] or GAT is measure of 1. Ability to read, write, and solve problems (50 percent) 2. Ability to communicate in English (50 percent)

Professional and Academic Aptitude Test (PAT)[edit]

Professional and academic aptitude test or PAT is knowledge that is a fundamental to university study.

  • PAT 1 math aptitude
  • PAT 2 scientific aptitude
  • PAT 3 engineering aptitude
  • PAT 4 architectural aptitude
  • PAT 5 teachers aptitude
  • PAT 6 arts aptitude
  • PAT 7 foreign language aptitude
    • PAT7.1 French aptitude
    • PAT7.2 German aptitude
    • PAT7.3 Japanese aptitude
    • PAT7.4 Chinese aptitude
    • PAT7.5 Arabic aptitude
    • PAT7.6 Pali aptitude
    • PAT7.7 Korean

International schools[edit]

The ministry of education defines international schools as, " educational institution providing an international curriculum or international curriculum which its subject's detail has been adjusted or a self-organised curriculum, which is not the Ministry of Education's. A foreign language is used as the medium of teaching and learning and students are enrolled without restriction or limitation on nationality or religion or government regime, and are not against the morality or stability of Thailand."[32]

Prior to 1992, only a very small number of international schools existed in Thailand, and they catered entirely to the children of expatriates, as Thai law prohibited Thai nationals from enrolling. When the first international school, International School Bangkok, relocated to a new campus outside of the city proper, a group of parents worked with United Nations staff to lobby the Ministry of Education to change this law and open the first new international school in decades. This led to the establishment of New International School of Thailand (later changed to NIST International School), and the repeal of the prohibition against the enrollment of Thais. Due to the high demand for private international education, this change also sparked the opening of dozens of other international schools over the subsequent years.

The curriculum is required to be approved by the Ministry of Education and may be an international one, an international curriculum with modifications, or a curriculum established by the school itself. Thai language and culture constitutes a core subject and is mandatory at every level for all Thai students registered as Thai nationals. Non-Thai citizens are not required to study Thai language or culture. International schools must operate within a framework of requirements and conditions established by the Ministry of Education, that stipulates the ownership, location and size of the plot, design and structure of buildings, ratio of students to classroom surface, sanitary installations, administration and educational support facilities such as libraries and resources centres. Within one year from their commencement, elementary and secondary schools must apply accreditation from an international organisation recognised and accepted by the Office of the Private Education Commission and accreditation must be granted within six years. Managers and head teachers must be of Thai nationality though frequently there will also be a foreign head teacher to oversee the international curriculum and implement school policy.

Approximately 90 international schools operate in Thailand, of which about two-thirds are in the Bangkok area.[33]

Distance learning support by TV[edit]

Established in 1996, DLTV (Distance Learning via TV)[34] currently broadcasts a total of 15 educational channels from Klaikangwon Palace School, Hua Hin, providing educational benefits and equal opportunities to Thai students nationwide especially in the remote and far-reaching areas of the country where the lack of teachers is still a major challenge to the educational system. It broadcasts via the Ku-band beam on the THAICOM 5 satellite to more than 17,000 schools across the country and also to other viewers who subscribe to satellite providers of commercial television. In December 2008, the Thaicom Public Company, the operator of the IPSTAR satellite broadband system, announced it has renewed a 10-year contract with the Distance Learning Education via Satellite Foundation of Thailand (DLF) for three-quarters of one Ku-band transponder on the Thaicom 5 satellite to broadcast DLTV channels.

Teacher training[edit]

Teacher training is offered either in universities by the Ministry of University Affairs or in teacher training colleges administered by the Ministry of Education’s Department of Teacher Education. The university programmes are now commonly influenced by child-centred learning methods and several universities operate a Satit demonstration elementary and secondary school staffed by lecturers and trainee teachers.

Elementary and lower secondary school teachers[edit]

The mainstay of the teacher output is provided by the government Rajaphat Universities (formerly Rajaphat Institutes), the traditional teacher training colleges in most provinces. Programmes include courses in teaching methodology, school administration, special education, optional specialisation, supervised practical teaching experience, and the general education subjects of language and communication, humanities, social science, mathematics, and technology. Completion of upper secondary education (Matthayom 6) is required for access to basic teacher training programmes and elementary and lower secondary school teachers are required to complete a two-year program leading to the Higher Certificate of Education, also known as the Diploma in Education or an associate degree.

Upper secondary school teachers[edit]

To teach at the upper secondary school level, the minimum requirement is a four-year Bachelor of Education degree through government programmes provided either at a teacher’s training college or in a university faculty of education. Students who have acquired the Higher Certificate of Education are eligible to continue their studies at a university or teacher's training college for two additional years of full-time study for a bachelor's degree. Prospective teachers with a bachelor's degree in other disciplines must undergo an additional one year of full-time study to complete a Bachelor of Education degree.

Teacher development and associated problems[edit]

On the government's own admission, general education is of a low academic standard compared to the development and modernisation of the country as a whole: Dr. Kasam Wattanachai, Privy Counselor to the King, August 10, 2002 "Ability of students down to the level of Laos — other countries are taking the lead."

The shortage of teachers in rural areas and the overcrowding of classes in the public schools are exacerbated by the fact that many teachers who have qualified through the university system will obtain employment in the better-remunerated private sector. Many of the places in the faculties of education are taken up by students who enrol not with the intention of pursuing a teaching career but to benefit from the superior quality of the foreign language instruction.

In recent years, the number of fresh graduates from teacher-producing institutes ranged between 50,000 and 60,000 annually, raising concerns about quality and oversupply. The government is trying to reduce the number of graduates from teacher-education programmes to no more than 25,000 a year, but direct those graduates to underserved localities. "We need to focus on quality, not quantity," a spokesperson said. In September 2015, the Office of the Higher Education Commission (OHEC) put forward an initiative to provide 58,000 grants to student-teachers over a 15-year period. The bulk of the grants would go to those who would be sent to work in areas with a shortage of teachers.[35]

The acquired knowledge and competency of newly graduated teachers from the Rajabhat Universities are often comparable to the level of an American senior high school graduation, a British A-level, a French Baccalauréat, or a German Abitur. Apart from the security of being a civil servant with guaranteed employment and a pension, and the extraordinary cultural respect for the profession, there is little incentive to choose a future as a teacher in a government school. As a result, most classes in secondary schools are overcrowded with often as many as sixty students in a classroom, a situation that continues to favour the rote system that is firmly anchored in Thai culture as the only method possible.

As teaching by rote requires little pedagogic skill, once qualified — apart from weekend seminars which are considered to be part of the reward system — teachers tend to resist attempts to encourage them to engage in any forms of further training to improve their subject knowledge and to adopt new methodologies which will require them to use more initiative and to be more creative.

Students are not encouraged to develop analytical and critical thinking skills, which is clearly demonstrated by their inability to complete a cloze test, or to grasp a notion through context. The teachers will avoid introducing dialogue into the classroom or eliciting response from the students — to give a wrong answer would be to lose face in the presence of one's peers, a situation that in Thai culture must always be avoided.

Dr. Adith Cheosokul, professor, Chulalongkorn University, September 1, 2002: "Thai kids have no courage to question their teachers… foreign students are very eager to communicate with their teachers. The Thais are usually silent in class. I think it's the culture. Our students tend to uphold teachers as demi-gods" — a perception that is reinforced by the celebration of wai khru (literally 'praise the teacher') day, in all schools and colleges shortly after the beginning of the new school year, where during a festive general assembly, the students file before the teachers on their knees and offer them gifts, usually of real or hand-crafted flowers.

The essence of education therefore still hinges first and foremost on the traditional values of Buddhism, respect for the king, the monkhood, the teachers, and the family (in that order) through the rote method. Whilst indisputably very noble, these features are the main hurdle to the implementation of modern educational methodology and the development of a more engaging approach to communication while also retaining Thai cultural values.

Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra, August 18, 2002: "Teachers must radically change their way of thinking — I'm not sure they can do this."[citation needed]

Elementary and secondary school teachers do not enjoy the same long breaks as the students and are required to work through the vacations on administrative duties. Many of these tasks concern their familiarisation with the frequent improvements to the National Curriculum; indeed, changes often occur faster than authors and publishers can update the textbooks and the teachers must improvise without support material and have to design their own tests and exams — neither of which is conducive to an improvement in quality.

The frequent changes in policy can cause confusion. Often one department of the Ministry of Education is not aware of the work of another, and the principals and the teachers in the schools are always at the end of the information chain.

English language education in Thailand[edit]

The use of English in Thailand, while far from being as developed as in the Netherlands, Germany, the Scandinavian countries or the Philippines, is nevertheless slowly increasing through the influence of the media and the Internet. Thai university applicants scored an average 28.34% in English in recent university entrance exams. Thailand produces a "workforce with some of the world's weakest English-language skills."[36] In a recent IMD World Competitiveness Yearbook Thailand was ranked 54th out of 56 countries globally for English proficiency, the second-lowest in Asia. Singapore was third, Malaysia 28th and Korea 46th.[citation needed]

The government has long realised the importance of the English language as a major core subject in schools, and it has been a compulsory subject at varying levels for several decades. Since 2005 schools are being encouraged to establish bilingual departments where the core subjects are taught in English and to offer intensive English language programmes.[37]

Notwithstanding the extensive use of and exposure to English in everyday life in Thailand, the standard of correct English in the schools is now the lowest in Southeast Asia. In 1997 Thailand was still in the forefront, but by 2001 Laos and Vietnam had caught up, and by mid-2006 were clearly ahead.[38]

Thai teachers[edit]

Following the announcement of the University of Cambridge to launch a new course[39] and qualification for non-native speaker teachers, a survey was carried out in February 2006,[40] with the collaboration of the University of Cambridge as part of a field trial, by one of the country's largest groups of independent schools of its 400 or so teachers of English.

The project reported that in over 60% of the teachers, the knowledge of the language and teaching methodology was below that of the syllabus level which they were teaching. Some teachers for age group 11, or lower, in the language were attempting to teach age groups 15, 16, and even 17. Of the remaining top 40%, only 3% had a reasonable level of fluency and only 20% were teaching grades for which they were qualified and competent.

Within the group of over 40 schools representing nearly 80,000 students in elementary and secondary education, random parallel test groups of elementary school pupils often scored higher in some tests than many of the teachers in other schools of the same group. The schools resisted the initiative of the central governing body to provide intensive upgrading programmes for the teachers. In spite of the evidence, the schools doubted the results and, to save face, argued that their teachers had qualified through their universities and colleges and either had nothing more to learn or could not afford the time.

In the government schools the standards are similar and many elementary teachers freely admit that they are forced to teach English although they have little or no knowledge of the language. A debate began in academic circles as to whether teaching English badly during the most influential years is better than not teaching it at elementary level. Whatever results that any formal research may provide, there clearly exists room for much improvement.

The situation is further exacerbated by a curriculum, which in its endeavour to improve standards and facilitate learning, is subject to frequent change, and thus misinterpreted into syllabuses by the teachers themselves at levels often far too advanced for the cognitive development of the students.

Native-speaker teachers[edit]

Several thousand native-English speakers are employed in public and private schools throughout the country. This is being encouraged by the need to develop students' oral expression and knowledge of foreign culture; much of their time, however, is taken up with remedial teaching: putting right any grammar, orthography, pronunciation and cultural background that has been wrongly taught and which leads to great misunderstanding — they see this as a greater priority.

The official version of English, although not always practical in its dispensation, is British. Qualified native teachers with a background in linguistics may ensure that students are exposed to both major variations of the language and understand them and their differences, whichever version the students choose to speak.

Language classes, sponsored by the governments of English-speaking countries such as those provided by the British Council, enjoy an excellent reputation for quality, both for general English, and for the preparation for international exams such as the American English TOEFL and the British English IELTS, which are prerequisites for the entry into many professions, particularly aircrew and tourism. There is no shortage of cramming schools, usually franchise chains, in the capital and larger cities; although they are staffed mainly by highly motivated, qualified native speakers and have excellent resources, they are often branded by cynics as 'the McDonalds of English language'.

There has been a dramatic increase since 2000 in the number of Thailand-based TEFL/TESOL (Teaching of English as a Foreign Language / Teaching of English to Speakers of Other Languages) teacher-training institutions. Some dispense internationally recognised teaching certificates and diplomas that follow the courses of established universities, and some provide courses and certification franchised from other organisations and universities. Still others dispense their own courses and certification.

Currently, to teach English in licensed schools, public or private, the minimum academic qualification for native speakers is a bachelor's degree in any subject. However, the government is in the process of exercising greater control, particularly to combat the use of bogus certificates or degrees issued by diploma mills and to prevent access to schools by persons with doubtful motives. In 2008, the government announced plans to improve requirements for native-speaker teachers in mainstream schools. They now require academic qualifications in either education or linguistics, in addition to their bachelor's degrees, and to complete a government course in Thai culture and language.

In 2008 applications for TESOL posts in Thailand experienced a significant drop, and many posts are being taken up by second-language English speakers from Asian countries where the use of English may be of a high standard and officially recognized, but not as a first language. Parents, particularly those with children in fee-paying schools, believe that native English speakers should have Western ethnic origins.

There is also a no fail policy in Thailand and often in most schools a multiple choice marking. This can be for many reasons, such as there are just too many students in the classroom, and so teachers feel no choice but to employ multiple choice marking. But even in private schools this can be the case. Few students are taught to read and write on any great level. Thai also as a language does not have any or many spaces or fullstops, and so for students to use them is even a challenge. This added to the feeling that students should not be embarrassed or made to feel bad in the classroom means that many do not understand the importance of trying, getting it wrong and learning from their mistakes. Parents often castigate foreign teachers when their children fare badly and blame the teacher, and so there is little incentive to try and for them to learn complex reading and writing. Instead most of the emphasis is on grammar which few understand or appreciate the importance of it. Because Thai is so different, they feel Thai is easier and rarely do they speak English outside of their lesson.

Filipino teachers have taken up many jobs but they are seen as less qualified since the parents prefer white Europeans or Americans. Even African Americans are often considered not to be native speakers simply because they are not white. Education in Thailand will continue to produce students who feel too scared to speak, read and write English, because of the emphasis on grammar, little writing and reading and on rote learning. Games are also considered an essential part in the clasroom even when they do not understand anything else.

There is no Teacher's Union in Thailand, foreign teachers have few rights, and can often be fired overnight which means that often foreign teachers feel they are abused. Few of the government agencies are able to help such as the Ministry of Education or Ministry of Labour and often schools flout rules when it comes to assisting, paying and helping with work permits in Thailand. Many contracts are not upheld and often tax deducted is not paid to the right department or at all.

Situation with students in ethnic minority areas[edit]

Students in ethnic minority areas score consistently lower in standardized national and international tests.[41] [42] [43] This is likely due to unequal allocation of educational resources, weak teacher training, socio-economic factors (poverty) and lower ability in the Thai language, the language of the tests.[41][44][45]


School violence instigated by students among technical or technology vocational schools is frequent ongoing problem for at least a decade. While some of this violence erupts on-campus, the majority of this violence occurs where groups mingle in public locations off-campus (often shootings in well known public spots with lots of foot traffic). This can be a busy intersection, a bar, pub, arena, mall, park or similar spot, and often results in mass hospitalizations and death of students involved, as well as innocent bystanders.[46] Guns are frequently used, sometimes even grenades, machetes, axes, but also knives. The military and PM General Prayut under martial law has attempted to stop these students but there lawlessness still remains.[47][48][49]

Sex education[edit]

Thai researcher Wichit Wongwarithip asserts that Thailand does not deliver on sex education. It fails with regard to gender diversity, gender equality, and safe sex. "Society tends to think that 'good morals' are the solutions to all problems and that Thai culture is the best," said Wichit. Thai sex education rests on the bedrock of the traditional values of heterosexuality and patriarchy. Instead of encouraging safe sex, Thai sex education tells schoolgirls to abstain until they are ready to form a family. Some Thai textbooks characterise masturbation as deviant behaviour and recommend meditation to suppress sexual desire. Jiraphon Arunakon, Director of the Gender Variation Clinic, says that sex education as taught in Thailand lags behind or ignores scientific research. The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) removed homosexuality from the "disease" classification in 1990 and Thailand's Ministry of Public Health asserted in 2002 that homosexuality is not a mental disorder. Parit Chiwarak, an education activist from Education for Liberation Network, says that students read their sex ed textbooks in order to pass exams, but do not take them seriously. "We all know that Thai textbooks are...sexist....I don't think that students nowadays perceive LGBT people as deviants. Students these days are not stupid. It's self-destructive to write things that oppose ordinary people's belief [sic] like this....", stated Parit.[50]

Meanwhile, Thai sex education has done little to decrease Thailand's high teenage pregnancy rate. In 2014, about 334 babies were born daily to mothers aged between 15 to 19.[50] Teen births in Thailand have been on the rise. Of every 1,000 live births, 54 are from teen mothers aged 15–19, higher than in the US and 10 times higher than Singapore. The number of live births by Thai teenage mothers aged 15–18 increased 43 percent between 2000 and 2011. The reasons for this may be societal norms. "Women are told to protect their virginity but Thai men who have multiple sexual encounters are seen as cool," said Visa Benjamano, a commissioner at the National Human Rights Council (NHRC).[51]


Uniforms are compulsory for all students with very few variations from the standard model throughout the public and private school systems, including colleges and universities.

The dress code in elementary and secondary grades for boys is knee-length dark blue, khaki, or black shorts with a white open collar short-sleeved shirt, long socks, and brown or black trainers. Girls wear a knee-length dark blue or black skirt and a white blouse with a loosely hanging bow tie. The bow tie is dropped in favor of an open-necked light blue shirt from Matthayom 4. The girls' uniform is complemented by white ankle socks and black school shoes.

The student's name, number, and name of the school are often embroidered on the blouse or shirt. Some independent or international schools have uniforms more closely resembling British school uniform standards, and boys in senior high school grades may be allowed to wear long trousers.

The standard dress for children in kindergarten is a red skirt and white blouse for girls and red shorts and a white shirt for boys. In all Thai schools, one day per week, usually Thursday, is dedicated to scouting, when beige scout uniforms for boys and dark green guide uniforms are the rule, both wearing yellow neckerchiefs. Many schools have some color variations of the scout uniform such as blue uniforms with blue neckerchiefs for girl scouts at Wattana Wittaya Academy. The use of accessories is prohibited for males, while females are sometimes allowed to use simple accessories. All students are prohibited from coloring their hair or having tattoos.

University uniforms are standard throughout the country and consist of a white blouse and plain or pleated skirt for females, and long black trousers, a white long-sleeved shirt with a dark blue or black tie for males.

See also[edit]

Nuvola Thai flag.svg
Life in Thailand


  1. ^
  2. ^ [1] Thai National Budget (Thai)
  3. ^ Mala, Dumrongkiat (2016-03-03). "Ex-WTO chief decries Thai education". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 3 March 2016. 
  4. ^ "Thailand Education Overview". Unicef. Retrieved 18 June 2016. 
  5. ^ Education department of Bangkok Archdiocese
  6. ^ "กฎกระทรวง ว่าด้วยการแบ่งระดับและประเภทของการศึกษาขั้นพื้นฐาน พ.ศ. ๒๕๔๖" [Ministerial regulation concerning the stages and types of basic education, B.E. 2546] (PDF). Office of the Council of State. Retrieved 17 June 2014. 
  7. ^ Ministry of Education
  8. ^ History of Chulalongkorn University Archived February 10, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
  9. ^ a b c "Poor schools are at the heart of Thailand's political malaise". The Economist. 21 January 2017. Retrieved 20 January 2017. 
  10. ^ "Prayuth Asks Media To Stop Asking Kids About '12 Values'". Khaosod English. 2015-01-24. Retrieved 2016-10-19. 
  11. ^ Cochrane, Liam (23 December 2016). "Thai junta begins military program for kindergarten children to instil patriotism". ABC News. Retrieved 23 December 2016. 
  12. ^ a b c d Maxwell, Daniel; Kamnuansilpa, Peerasit (2015-06-06). "Low IQ levels a wake-up call for Thailand". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 6 June 2015. 
  13. ^ "Thailand to boost average height with better school meals". The Nation. 2015-07-17. Retrieved 17 July 2015. 
  14. ^ Changsorn, Pichaya (2015-06-04). "Education reforms critical for the Thai economy, says World Bank". The Nation. Retrieved 15 May 2016. 
  15. ^ Frederickson, Terry (2011-06-08). "Tea Money". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 2 July 2015. 
  16. ^ Saengpassa, Chularat (2012-05-28). "The rampant custom of 'tea money' persists, and where has it got us?". The Nation. Retrieved 2 July 2015. 
  17. ^ "Teachers' Day in Thailand". Retrieved 11 February 2016. 
  18. ^ a b "Our teachers' heavy burden". Bangkok Post. 2016-02-11. Retrieved 11 February 2016. 
  19. ^ Government of Thailand, MoE publication 2004 Archived March 27, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
  20. ^ EFAIDS-WHO 2006
  21. ^ [2]
  22. ^ Dybowski, Dr Gisela. "The Dual Vocational Education and Training System in Germany" (PDF). BIBB. Federal Institute for Vocational Education and Training. Retrieved 2 July 2015. 
  23. ^ "Skills and Employability Department (EMP/SKILLS)". Retrieved 2011-10-28. 
  24. ^ "Students in Formal School System by Jurisdiction in Bangkok Metropolis and other Provinces : Academic Year 2005" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-19. Retrieved 2011-10-28. 
  25. ^ Apsitniran, Lamonphet (2015-03-22). "Japanese fret over Thai labour force". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 23 March 2016. 
  26. ^ Mala, Dumrongkiat (13 June 2016). "Unis face crisis as students turn away". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 13 June 2016. 
  27. ^ "Faculties-Colleges-Institutes". Thammasat University. Retrieved 27 December 2016. 
  28. ^ Mala, Dumrongkiat (18 June 2016). "Sub-par PhD courses trigger investigation". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 18 June 2016. 
  29. ^ "GAT/PAT (General Aptitude Test/ Professional and Academic Aptitude Test)". The National Institute of Educational Testing Service (NIETS). Retrieved 28 March 2017. 
  30. ^
  31. ^
  32. ^ "International School List 2003". Ministry of Education (Thailand). Archived from the original on 28 October 2011. Retrieved 20 January 2017. 
  33. ^ "Map of the best international schools in Bangkok and Thailand: Location, Curriculum and Language of Instruction". International Schools in Thailand. Retrieved 2 October 2015. 
  34. ^
  35. ^ Aramnet, Chuleeporn (2015-09-26). "Bt8 bn sought to produce teachers over 15 years". The Nation. Retrieved 25 September 2015. 
  36. ^ Saiyasombut, Saksith (2012-03-21). "Thai Education Failures – Part 4: Dismal English-language training". Asian Correspondent. Retrieved 2 July 2015. 
  37. ^ George, Harrison (2015-09-18). "Old Vinegar in Old Bottles". Pratchathai English. Retrieved 20 September 2015. 
  38. ^ SEAMEO Conference, Singapore, April 2006
  39. ^ TKT - Teaching Knowledge Test
  40. ^ Education Department of Bangkok Archdiocese
  41. ^ a b Draper, John (2012), "Revisiting English in Thailand", Asian EFL Journal, Asian EFL Journal, 14 (4): 9–38, ISSN 1738-1460 
  42. ^ OECD (2013), Structural Policy Country Notes: Thailand (PDF), OECD 
  43. ^ Khaopa, Wannapa (12 December 2012). "Thai students drop in world maths and science study". The Nation. 
  44. ^ Draper, John (12 December 2011). "Solving Isaan's education problem". The Isaan Record. 
  45. ^ Draper, John (21 February 2014). "PISA Thailand regional breakdown shows inequalities between Bangkok and Upper North with the rest of Thailand". The Isaan Record. 
  46. ^
  47. ^
  48. ^
  49. ^
  50. ^ a b Editor4 (1 December 2016). "Sex education strengthens sexual discrimination in Thailand". Prachatai English. Retrieved 4 December 2016. 
  51. ^ Fernquest, Jon (2013-03-08). "Teen pregnancy: Growing problem in Thailand". Bangkok Post. Reuters. Retrieved 4 December 2016. 

External links[edit]