Haverfordwest

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Haverfordwest
Haverfordwest Main Street South Wales.jpg
Haverfordwest is located in Pembrokeshire
Haverfordwest
Haverfordwest
Haverfordwest shown within Pembrokeshire
Population 12,042 (parish 2011)[1]
OS grid reference SM955155
Principal area
Ceremonial county
Country Wales
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town HAVERFORDWEST
Postcode district SA61, SA62
Dialling code 01437
Police Dyfed-Powys
Fire Mid and West Wales
Ambulance Welsh
EU Parliament Wales
UK Parliament
Welsh Assembly
List of places
UK
Wales
Pembrokeshire
51°48′N 4°58′W / 51.80°N 4.97°W / 51.80; -4.97Coordinates: 51°48′N 4°58′W / 51.80°N 4.97°W / 51.80; -4.97
Haverfordwest town centre

Haverfordwest (/ˌhævərfərdˈwɛst/; Welsh: Hwlffordd [ˈhuːlfɔrð]) is the county town of Pembrokeshire, Wales, and the most populous urban area in Pembrokeshire with a population of 13,367 in 2001,[2] though its community boundaries made it the second-most populous settlement in the county, with 10,812 people.[3] The 2011 census quoted a population of only 12,042 living within the confines of the parish. This agreed with the total population of all 5 wards involved: Castle, Prendergast, Portfield, Priory and Garth. Merlin's Bridge is a separate village and community situated to the south.[4]

The suburbs include the former parish of Prendergast,[5] Albert Town and the residential and industrial area of Withybush (housing, retail parks, hospital, airport and showground).

Haverfordwest has held a strategic position from the Roman era to the opening of the Cleddau Bridge (1975) because of being the lowest fordable point of the Western Cleddau.

Topography[edit]

The "New" Bridge at Haverfordwest
The Priory, Haverfordwest
Henry G Gastineau, 1830

Haverfordwest is a market town, the county town of Pembrokeshire and an important road network hub between Milford Haven, Pembroke Dock, Fishguard and St David's as a result of its position at the tidal limit of the Western Cleddau. The majority of the town, comprising the old parishes of St. Mary, St. Martin and St. Thomas, lies on the right (west) bank of the river. On the left bank are the suburbs of Prendergast and Cartlett. At this point, a pair of sandstone ridges extending east-west and separated by a deep, narrow valley, are cut through by the Western Cleddau. This leaves two high spurs on the west side of the river. On the northern spur, the castle and its surrounding settlement form the core of St Martin's parish. On the southern spur, the High Street ascends steeply from the river and forms the core of St Mary's parish. From the foot of each spur, ancient bridges cross the river to Prendergast: St Martin's Bridge ("the Old Bridge") and St Mary's Bridge ("the New Bridge", built in 1835). St Thomas's parish occupies the south side of the southern spur. From these core areas, the town has spread, mainly along the ridges. In addition to the four ancient parish churches, the remains of an Augustinian priory are visible at the southern edge of the town.

Toponymy[edit]

The name of the town[6] means "ford used by heifers", from Old English hæfar=heifer. In local dialect, it is pronounced "Harford". The Welsh name is said by B. G. Charles to be "merely a corruption of the English name", and as such has no meaning in Welsh. Another claim is that Tudor monarchs called it "Hereford or Hertford in the West", to distinguish it from either Hereford in Herefordshire or Hertford in Hertfordshire. The veracity of these competing explanations of the name origin continues to be a matter of debate amongst scholars and linguistic experts.

History[edit]

Quay Street

The town has been English-speaking for centuries (south Pembrokeshire being known as 'Little England Beyond Wales'), but because the town markets traded the goods of Welsh farmers to the north and east, there has always been a significant Welsh-speaking influence. The suburb of Prendergast seems to have originated as an extramural Welsh dormitory, dating from the times when all agricultural trade had to pass through the borough, and the fearful Normans before the destruction of Anglo-Norman power in 1136 tried to prevent Welshmen bearing arms from entering within the castle walls after nightfall.

Origins[edit]

It seems likely that such an obvious strategic location would have been settled in some way from an early date. Some[who?] have asserted that there is no documentary or archaeological evidence of a settlement on the site before the 12th century, when the first Norman architecture castle was established. However archaeological discoveries in Pembrokeshire suggest otherwise. Edward Llwyd's note to Camden's Britannia (ed. 1695) refers to a valuable find of silver coins at Llanboidy, the latest coin being one of Domitian struck in AD 91. In the 1920s Sir Mortimer Wheeler partially excavated a Roman dwelling or villa at Wolfscastle; work was restarted in 2002 by Professor Merroney.

The scores of Iron Age and Roman coinage and artefact discoveries, and excavations by the Dyfed Archaeological Trust under the direction of Heather James at Carmarthen (Maridunum) in the 1980s, point convincingly[citation needed] to significant Roman penetration to this westernmost part of Wales. In 1992 aerial photography identified a Roman road running west of Carmarthen past Wiston to Poyston Cross, raising the possibility of Roman fortlets at strategic river crossings at Whitland and Haverfordwest.

The strategic position of Haverfordwest with its defensive bluff overlooking the lowest fordable point on the western Cleddau and accessible to sea traffic would have required a Roman presence, probably modest in scale, from the 1st century AD to protect supplies to and from the coast.[citation needed] The Roman legionary headquarters at Caerleon were roofed with slates from the lower slopes of the Preseli Hills.

James Phillips, in The History of Pembrokeshire (published 1909), records a find of Roman silver coins in Haverfordwest, the earliest dated coin a Valerian and the latest a Claudius Gothicus. The museum in which the coins were deposited has been "scattered to the winds" and the whereabouts of the coins is unknown. Phillips claimed that the pre-Norman name of Haverfordwest was Caer Alun, so named by the Emperor Maximus (Macsim Gwledig). His sources are not given but the Cambro-Briton in 1822 also recorded that Maximus, the last Roman Emperor of Britain, a man who for a time divided the Roman Empire with Theodosius I, on withdrawing Roman legions from Britain granted civic status and Celtic names to a number of pacified Romano-British settlements, including Southampton, Chichester, Old Sarum near Salisbury, Carmarthen (Caerfyrddin) and Haverfordwest (Caer Alun). Maximus had married Elen, a Welsh noblewoman, and they had three sons. Phillips claims that the name actually given to the town was Caer Elen, in honour of his wife (the name later changing to Caer Alun).

Medieval period[edit]

The ecclesiastical centre of the area (perhaps the seat of a bishop in the Age of the Saints) was probably one of the several churches of the local St Ismael, most probably St. Ishmael's.[7] This occurred around 1110.[8]

The proposition[by whom?] that Haverfordwest Castle was founded by Tancred, a Flemish Marcher Lord is questionable. The Marcher Lords were not Flemish but Norman Barons originally along the Marches (Anglo-Welsh border).[citation needed] The castle is recorded as having been founded in 1100 by the Norman Gilbert de Clare. The Flemings, said to have arrived in three groups in 1107, 1111 and 1151, are likely to have participated in its later development for their own and the Normans' protection from the Welsh warlords. It is recorded that the Constable of the castle in 1207 was Itohert, son of Richard Tancard, possibly a descendant of the first Tancred.

The Flemish presence, reputed to result from floods in the Low Countries, was more likely to have consisted initially of Flemish mercenaries originally in the invading army of William the Conqueror, who in reward for their part in William's victory were granted lands in parts of Northern Britain, and in Wales in the Gower, and Geraldus Cambrensis recorded their presence in the Hundred of Roose in Pembrokeshire.

A Fleming, Wizo, who died in 1130 founded at Wiston a motte and bailey fortification, forerunner of the stone castle, for protection against the Welsh warlords: the Flemings were reportedly unpopular wherever they settled. The precarious position of Normans and Flemings was demonstrated in 1136 when the Normans, having already lost 500 men in battle at Loughor, re-recruited from Lordships from all over South Wales and led by Robert fitz Martin at Crug Mawr near Cardigan attacked Owain Gwynedd and his army. Routed, they fled over the Teifi Bridge which collapsed; the retreating Normans drowning under the weight of their armour. Their leader Richard de Clare had previously been intercepted and killed by Iorwerth ab Owen. Wiston and the castle were overrun in 1147 by Hywel Sais, son of the Lord Rhys. Ranulf Higden in his Polychronicus records the Flemings as extinct in Pembrokeshire by 1327 but Flemish mercenaries reappear in 1400 when at the behest of Henry IV they joined an army of 1,500 English settlers who marched north from Pembrokeshire to attack the army of Owain Glyndŵr at Mynydd Hyddgen. The attack was repulsed with heavy casualties and legend has it that English prisoners were spared but surviving Flemish mercenaries were massacred or sold into slavery.

St Mary's Church, viewed from Tower Hill
St David & St Patrick Roman Catholic Church, Dew Street

St Mary's Church originated at the end of the 12th century and the current (Grade I listed) building was constructed between the 13th and 15th centuries[9] and prominently visible at the top of the High Street.

Haverfordwest rapidly grew, initially around the castle and St Martin's Church (the settlement being called Castletown), then spreading into the High Street area. It immediately became the capital of the hundred of Roose (part of Little England beyond Wales), and because of its pivotal position, the commercial centre of western Dyfed, which it has remained to this day. In common with other British towns, its growth was rapid during the period up to 1300, and its extent[10] by then was much the same as it was in the early 19th century. A large town by the standards of the time, its population was probably around 4,000–5,000. It received its first marcher charter from William Marshall, 1st Earl of Pembroke some time between 1213 and 1219, and obtained the lucrative trading privileges of an English borough. It traded both by land and sea, and had a busy tidal quay on the river below the "New" Bridge. At least ten guilds operated, and there was significant woollen cloth manufacture. On 30 April 1479, the town was designated a county corporate by a charter of Edward, Prince of Wales, with the aim of supporting a campaign against piracy in local waters. It shared this distinction only with Carmarthen and a few towns in England, and remained officially "The Town and County of Haverfordwest" until the abolition of the borough in 1974.

In common with other large towns in Europe, Haverfordwest was hit hard by the Black Death in 1348, suffering both depopulation (perhaps by more than 50%) and diminution of trade. Large parts of the town were abandoned, and it did not start to recover until the Tudor period. At the end of the 17th century,[11] the town was still significantly smaller than in 1300. In 1405, the town was burned by the French allies of Owain Glyndwr, although in its early history Haverfordwest suffered less than most towns in Wales from such depredations.

Post-medieval[edit]

During the English Civil War, the burgesses of the borough supported Parliament, while the ruling gentry were Royalist. As a result, there was considerable conflict, and the town changed hands five times.[12] There followed a period of stagnation in which the comparative status of the town declined. Haverfordwest today has the air of a typical small country market town, but the centre still conveys the feel of the important mediaeval borough. The once run-down riverside area has been renovated and Bridge Street has been pedestrianised and improved.

Haverfordwest was bombed for the first time during the Second World War on 24 September 1940. The City Road and New Road areas were hit, although there had been little preparation and no warning siren sounded. There were no casualties.[13]

Haverford Township, Haverford and Havertown in Pennsylvania, United States, are all named after Haverfordwest.

Governance[edit]

For local government purposes the community of Haverfordwest comprises five wards: Castle, Prendergast, Portfield, Priory and Garth. The community has its own town council and mayor.[14]

Pembrokeshire County Council conducted an extensive review of community boundaries in 2007[15] which made a number of submissions to the boundary commission for Wales. These submissions included a number of recommendations for the extension of the Haverfordwest community boundary where there had been perceived community overspill due to housing developments. These suggestions were mostly implemented,[16] with one significant exception[17] leading to an increase in the number of electors in the Haverfordwest community. One area of contention concerned the status of the once separate village of Merlin's Bridge which continues to have its own community council despite its close proximity to Haverfordwest and a degree of community over-spill.[18] As such the conurbation of Haverfordwest and Merlin's Bridge is the most populous urban area in Pembrokeshire though Haverfordwest's community boundaries mean it is only the second most populous settlement in the county after Milford Haven.[3]

Haverfordwest is part of the Preseli Pembrokeshire National Assembly for Wales constituency and UK Parliamentary constituency. The local Assembly Member is Paul Davies of the Conservative Party[19] and the local Member of Parliament is Stephen Crabb[20] also a Conservative.

Haverfordwest is twinned with Oberkirch, Germany.

Economy[edit]

Footbridge crossing the River Cleddau giving access to a newly-developed shopping-complex

In accordance with its status as a sub-regional hub-town, Haverfordwest continues to serve as Pembrokeshire's principal commercial and retail centre.[21] Development of the riverside shopping centre has recently been added to in the suburb of Withybush on the outskirts of the town with the opening of a Marks & Spencer store in 2010[22] and Debenham's in 2013.[23]

Concerns about the relative decline of the historic town centre compared to the growth of the out-of-town centre retail centres at Withybush has led to Welsh historian John Davies expressing his concern that Haverfordwest was becoming "a medieval town surrounded by tin sheds".[citation needed]

Education[edit]

  • Haverfordwest Grammar School, 1488–1978, was for a period in the 20th century one of only two public schools in Wales.
  • The town's comprehensive schools are Sir Thomas Picton School and Tasker Milward School. These comprehensive schools provide secondary education and serve both the town and its surrounding areas. Each school has a pupil roll of approximately 1,200.
  • Pembrokeshire College, an affiliated college of the University of Glamorgan, is situated in the Merlin's Bridge suburb of the town. The college serves as the principal centre of further and higher education in Pembrokeshire.
  • Ysgol Caer Elen, a new Welsh-medium school opened in September 2018 for pupils aged 3 to 16. It replaces Ysgol Gymraeg Glan Cleddau, which closed in August 2018. The new school cost £28 million to build and has the capacity for 315 primary and 600 secondary pupils. The nursery has the capacity for 45 children.[24]
  • Redhill Preparatory School is an independent school established in 2001 which includes a Montessori learning component for younger pupils.[25]

Sport and leisure[edit]

Haverfordwest County A.F.C., an association football team, play at New Bridge Meadow Stadium. They play in the Welsh Football League Division One. The town is also home to rugby union club, Haverfordwest RFC, which formed in 1885, and Haverfordwest Cricket Club.

In 2009 Haverfordwest's sports and leisure provision benefited from significant investment with the opening of a new £8 million leisure centre situated at St. Thomas Green.[26]

The kayaking club venture to sea as well as using the rivers.[27]

Sir Thomas Picton School, one of the town's two secondary schools, also benefits from a wide range of sporting facilities including a purpose-built sports centre, hockey pitch, astro-turf and full-sized athletics track.

Health[edit]

Withybush General Hospital is one of the main hospitals of West Wales and part of the Hywel Dda Local Health Board, formerly Pembrokeshire & Derwen NHS Trust. The paediatric and maternity services have now been moved to Carmarthen.

The headquarters of Hywel Dda Health Board (covering Pembrokeshire, Carmarthenshire and Ceredigion) are in Haverfordwest.

Transport[edit]

Haverfordwest is served by Haverfordwest Airport.

Haverfordwest railway station is on the West Wales Line.

Haverfordwest Bus Station is located beside Riverside Quay Shopping Centre. It has six bus stops with two additional bays for coach drop off/pickup.[28]

Forming one of the major "road hubs" of West Wales the town is at the junction of the A40, A4076 and A487 roads and several rural B roads including the B4329 running northwards to Eglwyswrw across the Preseli Mountains. The A40 connects Haverfordwest with Carmarthen to the east and Fishguard to the north; the A4076 connects Haverfordwest with Milford Haven and Pembroke Dock to the south; the A487 connects Haverfordwest with St David's to the northwest.

Notable people[edit]

See Category:People from Haverfordwest

Bibliography[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Haverfordwest parish population 2011". Archived from the original on 18 April 2015. Retrieved 18 April 2015. 
  2. ^ [1] Archived August 20, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
  3. ^ a b "2001 Settlement Populations". Archived from the original on 2016-05-08. Retrieved 2013-09-10. 
  4. ^ Merlins Bridge Community Council Archived 2015-04-17 at the Wayback Machine., Pembrokeshire Town & Community Councils
  5. ^ "GENUKI: Prendergast". Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 8 April 2015. 
  6. ^ Charles, B. G, The Placenames of Pembrokeshire, National Library of Wales, Aberystwyth, 1992, ISBN 0-907158-58-7, Vol II, p 643
  7. ^ Williams, A. H., An Introduction to the History of Wales: Volume I: Prehistoric Times to 1063, UoWP, 1941, p 120
  8. ^ Miles p 12
  9. ^ "Church of Saint Mary, Haverfordwest". British Listed Buildings. Archived from the original on 2015-07-24. Retrieved 2015-01-18. 
  10. ^ Miles p 28
  11. ^ Miles p 23
  12. ^ Miles, p 177
  13. ^ Richards, Bill, Pembrokeshire Under Fire: The Story Of The Air Raids OF 1940–1, Paterchurch Publications, 1995. ISBN 1-870745-05-1
  14. ^ "Haverfordwest | Haverfordwest Tourism and Travel | Town Council | Community | Sport and Leisure | Holiday in Haverfordwest, Pembrokeshire South West Wales". Haverfordwesttown.co.uk. Archived from the original on 2013-10-28. Retrieved 2013-09-10. 
  15. ^ "Community Council Boundary Review - Pembrokeshire County Council". Pembrokeshire.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 2015-01-12. Retrieved 2013-09-10. 
  16. ^ "Comisiwn Ffiniau a Democratiaeth Leol Cymru - Local Democracy and Boundary Commission for Wales" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-06-15. 
  17. ^ "Uzmaston community will not be merged with Haverfordwest (From Western Telegraph)". Westerntelegraph.co.uk. 2010-09-17. Archived from the original on 2015-01-12. Retrieved 2013-09-10. 
  18. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-09-29. Retrieved 2010-12-23. 
  19. ^ "National Assembly for Wales | Paul Davies". Assemblywales.org. Archived from the original on 2012-02-12. Retrieved 2013-09-10. 
  20. ^ "The Conservative Party | People | Members of Parliament | Stephen Crabb MP". Conservatives.com. Archived from the original on 2013-10-03. Retrieved 2013-09-10. 
  21. ^ [2][dead link]
  22. ^ "Excited crowds gather for M&S opening (From Western Telegraph)". Westerntelegraph.co.uk. 2010-11-11. Archived from the original on 2013-10-05. Retrieved 2013-09-10. 
  23. ^ "Debenhams opening in Haverfordwest sparks road chaos fears". Western Telegraph. 2013-09-26. Archived from the original on 12 January 2015. Retrieved 5 December 2014. 
  24. ^ "New £28m Welsh medium school in Haverfordwest opens". BBC News. 6 September 2018. Retrieved 6 September 2018. 
  25. ^ "Redhill invests £1m for the future". Western Telegraph. 23 July 2014. Archived from the original on 15 March 2018. Retrieved 14 March 2018. 
  26. ^ "Haverfordwest Leisure opens its doors". Leisureopportunities.co.uk. 2009-02-27. Archived from the original on 2009-03-03. Retrieved 2013-09-10. 
  27. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-02-27. Retrieved 2015-02-27. 
  28. ^ "Pembrokeshire County Council - New Bus Station to Open on Time". Pembrokeshire.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 2011-09-29. Retrieved 2013-09-10. 
  29. ^ "BBC News - Terrence Higgins' legacy, 30 years after death". BBC News. Archived from the original on 2017-12-02. 
  30. ^ Gareth Thompson (8 August 2010). "Early Struggles of Soldier Charged in Leak Case". New York Times. Retrieved 20 August 2018. 
  31. ^ Turvey, Roger (2004). "Perrot, Sir John (1528–1592)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/21986.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)

External links[edit]