This list of birds of Florida includes species documented in the U.S. state of Florida and accepted by the Florida Ornithological Society Records Committee (FOSRC). As of November 2022, there were 539 species included in the official list. Of them, 168 species and eight identifiable subspecies are classed as accidental, 18 have been introduced to North America, four are extinct, and one has been extirpated. More than 100 "verifiable...exotic species [are] found free-flying in the wild" according to the FOSRC. Additional accidental, extirpated and recently extinct species have been added from other sources. A hypothetical species has also been added from another source.
This list is presented in the taxonomic sequence of the Check-list of North and Middle American Birds, 7th edition through the 62nd Supplement, published by the American Ornithological Society (AOS). Common and scientific names are also those of the Check-list, except that the common names of families are from the Clements taxonomy because the AOS list does not include them.
The following status codes have been used to annotate some species:
- (A) Accidental - a species that occurs rarely or accidentally in Florida, and for which the FOSRC requests a full report for verification
- (I) Introduced - a species that has been introduced to North America by the actions of humans, either directly or indirectly, and has become established in Florida
- (E) Extinct - a recent bird that no longer exists
- (e) Extirpated - a species that is no longer in Florida, but exists elsewhere
The tinamous are one of the most ancient groups of bird. Although they look similar to other ground-dwelling birds like quail and grouse, they have no close relatives and are classified as a single family, Tinamidae, within their own order, the Tinamiformes. They are distantly related to the ratites (order Struthioniformes), that includes the rheas, emus, and kiwis.
The screamers are a small family of birds related to the ducks. They are large, bulky birds, with a small downy head, long legs and large feet which are only partially webbed. They have large spurs on their wings which are used in fights over mates and in territorial disputes.
- Horned screamer, Anhima cornuta (A) (not on the AOS checklist)
- Northern screamer, Chauna chavaria (A) (not on the AOS checklist)
Ducks, geese, and waterfowl
The family Anatidae includes the ducks and most duck-like waterfowl, such as geese and swans. These birds are adapted to an aquatic existence with webbed feet, flattened bills, and feathers that are excellent at shedding water due to special oils.
- West Indian whistling duck, Dendrocygna arborea (A)
- Black-bellied whistling-duck, Dendrocygna autumnalis
- Fulvous whistling-duck, Dendrocygna bicolor
- White-faced whistling duck, Dendrocygna viduata (A)
- Emperor goose, Anser canagicus (A)
- Snow goose, Anser caerulescens
- Ross's goose, Anser rossii
- Greater white-fronted goose, Anser albifrons
- Lesser white-fronted goose, Anser erythropus (A)
- Taiga bean-goose, Anser fabalis (A)
- Brant, Branta bernicla (A)
- Cackling goose, Branta hutchinsonii (A)
- Canada goose, Branta canadensis
- Tundra swan, Cygnus columbianus (A)
- Trumpeter swan, Cygnus buccinator (A)
- Egyptian goose, Alopochen aegyptiaca (I)
- Muscovy duck, Cairina moschata (I)
- Brazilian teal, Amazonetta brasiliensis (A) (not on the AOS checklist)
- Wood duck, Aix sponsa
- Blue-winged teal, Spatula discors
- Cinnamon teal, Spatula cyanoptera
- Northern shoveler, Spatula clypeata
- Gadwall, Mareca strepera
- Eurasian wigeon, Mareca penelope
- American wigeon, Mareca americana
- Mallard, Anas platyrhynchos
- Eastern spot-billed duck, Anas zonorhyncha (A)
- American black duck, Anas rubripes
- Mottled duck, Anas fulvigula
- White-cheeked pintail, Anas bahamensis (A)
- Northern pintail, Anas acuta
- Yellow-billed pintail, Anas georgica (A) (not on the AOS checklist)
- Green-winged teal, Anas crecca
- Common teal, A. c. crecca (A)
- Southern pochard, Netta erythrophthalma (A) (not on the AOS checklist)
- Canvasback, Aythya valisineria
- Redhead, Aythya americana
- Ring-necked duck, Aythya collaris
- Greater scaup, Aythya marila
- Lesser scaup, Aythya affinis
- King eider, Somateria spectabilis (A)
- Common eider, Somateria mollissima
- Harlequin duck, Histrionicus histrionicus (A)
- Surf scoter, Melanitta perspicillata
- White-winged scoter, Melanitta deglandi
- Black scoter, Melanitta americana
- Long-tailed duck, Clangula hyemalis
- Bufflehead, Bucephala albeola
- Common goldeneye, Bucephala clangula
- Labrador duck, Camptorhynchus labradorius (E)
- Hooded merganser, Lophodytes cucullatus
- Common merganser, Mergus merganser (A)
- Red-breasted merganser, Mergus serrator
- Masked duck, Nomonyx dominicus (A)
- Ruddy duck, Oxyura jamaicensis
Guans, chachalacas, and curassows
The chachalacas, guans, and curassows are birds in the family Cracidae. These are large birds, similar in general appearance to turkeys. The guans and curassows live in trees, but the smaller chachalacas are found in more open scrubby habitats. They are generally dull-plumaged, but the curassows and some guans have colorful facial ornaments.
New World quail
The New World quails are small, plump terrestrial birds only distantly related to the quails of the Old World, but named for their similar appearance and habits.
- Northern bobwhite, Colinus virginianus
- Crested bobwhite, Colinus cristatus (A)
- Marbled wood-quail, Odontophorus gujanensis (A)
- Scaled quail, Callipepla squamata (A)
- Montezuma quail, Cyrtonyx montezumae (A)
Pheasants, grouse, and allies
The Phasianidae is the family containing the pheasants and their allies. These are terrestrial birds, variable in size but generally plump, with broad, relatively short wings. Many are gamebirds or have been domesticated as a food source for humans.
Flamingoes are gregarious wading birds, usually 3 to 5 feet (0.9 to 1.5 m) tall, found in both the Western and Eastern Hemispheres. Flamingos filter-feed on shellfish and algae. Their oddly shaped beaks are adapted to separate mud and silt from the food they consume and, uniquely, are used upside-down.
- American flamingo, Phoenicopterus ruber
Grebes are small to medium-large freshwater diving birds. They have lobed toes and are excellent swimmers and divers. However, they have their feet placed far back on the body, making them quite ungainly on land.
- Least grebe, Tachybaptus dominicus (A)
- Pied-billed grebe, Podilymbus podiceps
- Horned grebe, Podiceps auritus
- Red-necked grebe, Podiceps grisegena (A)
- Eared grebe, Podiceps nigricollis
- Western grebe, Aechmorphorus occidentalis (A)
Pigeons and doves
Pigeons and doves are stout-bodied birds with short necks, and short slender bills with a fleshy cere.
- Rock pigeon, Columba livia (I)
- Common wood-pigeon, Columba palumbus (A)
- Scaled pigeon, Patagioenas speciosa (A)
- Scaly-naped pigeon, Patagioenas squamosa (A)
- Pale-vented pigeon, Patagioenas cayennensis (A)
- White-crowned pigeon, Patagioenas leucocephala
- Red-billed pigeon, Patagioenas flavirostris (A)
- Band-tailed pigeon, Patagioenas fasciata (A)
- Short-billed pigeon, Patagioenas nigrirostris (A)
- Eurasian collared-dove, Streptopelia decaocto (I)
- European turtle-dove, Streptopelia turtur (A)
- Passenger pigeon, Ectopistes migratorius (E)
- Inca dove, Columbina inca (A)
- Common ground dove, Columbina passerina
- Plain-breasted ground dove, Columbina minuta (A)
- Ruddy ground dove, Columbina talpacoti (A)
- Blue ground dove, Claravis pretiosa (A)
- Blue-headed quail-dove, Starnoenas cyanocephala (A)
- Ruddy quail-dove, Geotrygon montana (A)
- Violaceous quail-dove, Geotrygon violacea (A)
- Key West quail-dove, Geotrygon chrysia (A)
- White-tipped dove, Leptotila verreauxi (A)
- Gray-chested dove, Leptotila cassinii (A)
- Lined quail-dove, Zentrygon linearis (A)
- White-winged dove, Zenaida asiatica
- Eared dove, Zenaida auriculata (A)
- Zenaida dove, Zenaida aurita (A)
- Mourning dove, Zenaida macroura
The family Cuculidae includes cuckoos, roadrunners, and anis. These birds are of variable size with slender bodies, long tails, and strong legs.
- Smooth-billed ani, Crotophaga ani
- Groove-billed ani, Crotophaga sulcirostris
- Greater ani, Crotophaga major (A)
- Little cuckoo, Coccycua minuta (A)
- Squirrel cuckoo, Piaya cayana (A)
- Pheasant cuckoo, Dromococcyx phasianellus (A)
- Rufous-vented ground-cuckoo, Neomorphus geoffroyi (A)
- Dark-billed cuckoo, Coccyzus melacoryphus (A)
- Yellow-billed cuckoo, Coccyzus americanus
- Mangrove cuckoo, Coccyzus minor
- Black-billed cuckoo, Coccyzus erythropthalmus
Nightjars and allies
Nightjars are medium-sized nocturnal birds that usually nest on the ground. They have long wings, short legs, and very short bills. Most have small feet, of little use for walking, and long pointed wings. Their soft plumage is cryptically colored to resemble bark or leaves.
- Lesser nighthawk, Chordeiles acutipennis
- Common nighthawk, Chordeiles minor
- Short-tailed nighthawk, Lurocalis semitorquatus (A)
- Common pauraque, Nyctidromus albicollis (A)
- Common poorwill, Phalaenoptilus nuttallii (A)
- Antillean nighthawk, Chordeiles gundlachii
- Chuck-will's-widow, Antrostomus carolinensis
- Eastern whip-poor-will, Antrostomus vociferus
The potoos (sometimes called poor-me-ones) are large near passerine birds related to the nightjars and frogmouths. They are nocturnal insectivores which lack the bristles around the mouth found in the true nightjars.
The swifts are small birds, spending most of their lives flying. They have very short legs and never settle voluntarily on the ground, perching instead only on vertical surfaces. Many swifts have very long swept-back wings which resemble a crescent or boomerang.
- White-collared swift, Streptoprocne zonaris (A)
- Band-rumped swift, Chaetura spinicaudus (A)
- Gray-rumped swift, Chaetura cinereiventris (A)
- Chimney swift, Chaetura pelagica
- Vaux's swift, Chaetura vauxi (A)
- White-throated swift, Aeronautes saxatalis (A)
- Antillean palm-swift, Tachornis phoenicobia (A)
- Short-tailed swift, Chaetura brachyura (A)
- Lesser swallow-tailed swift, Panyptila cayennensis (A)
Hummingbirds are small birds capable of hovering in mid-air due to the rapid flapping of their wings. They are the only birds that can fly backwards.
- White-necked jacobin, Florisuga mellivora (A)
- Bahama woodstar, Calliphlox evelynae (A)
- Green-breasted mango, Anthracothorax prevostii (A)
- Ruby-topaz hummingbird, Chrysolampis mosquitus (A)
- Green-throated mango, Anthracothorax viridigula (A) (not on the AOS checklist)
- Long-billed starthroat, Heliomaster longirostris (A)
- Ruby-throated hummingbird, Archilochus colubris
- Black-chinned hummingbird, Archilochus alexandri
- Anna's hummingbird, Calypte anna (A)
- Costa's hummingbird, Calypte costae (A)
- Calliope hummingbird, Selasphorus calliope (A)
- Rufous hummingbird, Selasphorus rufus
- Allen's hummingbird, Selasphorus sasin (A)
- Broad-tailed hummingbird, Selasphorus platycercus (A)
- Broad-billed hummingbird, Cynanthus latirostris (A)
- Cuban emerald, Riccordia ricordii (A)
- White-eared hummingbird, Basilinna leucotis (A)
- Antillean crested hummingbird, Orthorhyncus cristatus (A)
- Buff-bellied hummingbird, Amazila yucatanensis
- Copper-rumped hummingbird, Saucerottia tobaci (A) (not on the AOS checklist)
Rails, gallinules, and coots
The Rallidae is a large family of small to medium-sized birds which includes the rails, crakes, coots, and gallinules. The most typical family members occupy dense vegetation in damp environments near lakes, swamps, or rivers. In general they are shy and secretive, making them difficult to observe. Most have strong legs with long toes, short rounded wings, and are weak fliers.
- Clapper rail, Rallus crepitans
- King rail, Rallus elegans
- Virginia rail, Rallus limicola
- Sora, Porzana carolina
- Common gallinule, Gallinula galeata
- American coot, Fulica americana
- Purple gallinule, Porphyrio martinicus
- Yellow-breasted crake, Hapalocrex flaviventer (A)
- White-throated crake, Laterallus albigularis (A)
- Giant wood-rail, Aramides ypecaha (A) (not on the AOS checklist)
- Purple swamphen, Porphyrio poliocephalus (I)
- Yellow rail, Coturnicops noveboracensis (A)
- Black rail, Laterallus jamaicensis
Heliornithidae is a small family of tropical birds with webbed lobes on their feet similar to those of grebes and coots.
- Limpkin, Aramus guarauna
The thick-knees are a group of largely tropical waders in the family Burhinidae. They are found worldwide within the tropical zone, with some species also breeding in temperate Europe and Australia. They are medium to large waders with strong black or yellow-black bills, large yellow eyes, and cryptic plumage. Despite being classed as waders, most species have a preference for arid or semi-arid habitats.
- Double-striped thick-knee, Burhinus bistriatus (A)
- Eurasian thick-knee, Burhinus oedicnemus (A) (not on the AOS checklist)
Cranes are large, tall birds with long legs and long necks. Unlike the similar-looking but un-related herons, cranes fly with necks extended. Most have elaborate and noisy courtship displays or "dances". When in a group, they may also "dance" for no particular reason, jumping up and down in an elegant manner, seemingly just for pleasure or to attract a mate.
- Demoiselle crane, Anthropoides virgo (A) (not on the AOS checklist)
- Sandhill crane, Antigone canadensis
- Common crane, Grus grus (A)
- Whooping crane, Grus americana (reintroduced)[note 1]
Stilts and avocets
Recurvirostridae is a family of large wading birds which includes the avocets and stilts. The avocets have long legs and long up-curved bills. The stilts have extremely long legs and long, thin, straight bills.
- American oystercatcher, Haematopus palliatus
Lapwings and plovers
The family Charadriidae includes the plovers, dotterels, and lapwings. They are small to medium-sized birds with compact bodies, short thick necks, and long, usually pointed, wings. They are generally found in open country, mostly in habitats near water.
- Southern lapwing, Vanellus chilensis (A)
- Northern lapwing, Vanellus vanellus (A)
- Black-bellied plover, Pluvialis squatarola
- American golden-plover, Pluviali dominicas
- Pacific golden-plover, Pluvialis fulva (A)
- Killdeer, Charadrius vociferus
- Semipalmated plover, Charadrius semipalmatus
- Piping plover, Charadrius melodus
- Lesser sand-plover, Charadrius mongolus (A)
- Greater sand-plover, Charadrius leschenaultii (A)
- Wilson's plover, Charadrius wilsonia
- Collared plover, Charadrius collaris (A)
- Snowy plover, Charadrius nivosus
- Mountain plover, Charadrius montanus (A)
The jacanas are a family of waders found worldwide within the tropical zone. They are identifiable by their huge feet and claws which enable them to walk on floating vegetation in the shallow lakes that are their preferred habitat.
Sandpipers and allies
Scolopacidae is a large and diverse family of small to medium-sized shorebirds which includes the sandpipers, curlews, godwits, shanks, tattlers, woodcocks, snipes, dowitchers, and phalaropes. Most eat small invertebrates picked out of the mud or sand. Different lengths of legs and bills enable multiple species to feed in the same habitat, particularly on the coast, without direct competition for food.
- Upland sandpiper, Bartramia longicauda
- Whimbrel, Numenius phaeopus
- Long-billed curlew, Numenius americanus
- Bar-tailed godwit, Limosa lapponica (A)
- Black-tailed godwit, Limosa limosa (A)
- Hudsonian godwit, Limosa haemastica
- Marbled godwit, Limosa fedoa
- Ruddy turnstone, Arenaria interpres
- Red knot, Calidris canutus
- Surfbird, Calidris virgata (A)
- Ruff, Calidris pugnax
- Sharp-tailed sandpiper, Calidris acuminata (A)
- Stilt sandpiper, Calidris himantopus
- Curlew sandpiper, Calidris ferruginea (A)
- Red-necked stint, Calidris ruficollis (A)
- Sanderling, Calidris alba
- Dunlin, Calidris alpina
- Purple sandpiper, Calidris maritima
- Baird's sandpiper, Calidris bairdii
- Least sandpiper, Calidris minutilla
- White-rumped sandpiper, Calidris fuscicollis
- Buff-breasted sandpiper, Calidris subruficollis
- Pectoral sandpiper, Calidris melanotos
- Semipalmated sandpiper, Calidris pusilla
- Western sandpiper, Calidris mauri
- Short-billed dowitcher, Limnodromus griseus
- Long-billed dowitcher, Limnodromus scolopaceus
- American woodcock, Scolopax minor
- Wilson's snipe, Gallinago delicata
- Spotted sandpiper, Actitis macularius
- Solitary sandpiper, Tringa solitaria
- Gray-tailed tattler, Tringa brevipes (A)
- Lesser yellowlegs, Tringa flavipes
- Willet, Tringa semipalmata
- Common greenshank, Tringa nebularia (A)
- Greater yellowlegs, Tringa melanoleuca
- Wilson's phalarope, Phalaropus tricolor
- Red-necked phalarope, Phalaropus lobatus
- Red phalarope, Phalaropus fulicarius
Pratincoles and coursers
Glareolidae is a family of wading birds comprising the pratincoles, which have short legs, long pointed wings and long forked tails, and the coursers, which have long legs, short wings and long, pointed bills which curve downwards.
Skuas and jaegers
Skuas are medium to large seabirds, typically with gray or brown plumage, often with white markings on the wings. They have longish bills with hooked tips and webbed feet with sharp claws. They look like large dark gulls, but have a fleshy cere above the upper mandible. They are strong, acrobatic fliers.
- South polar skua, Stercorarius maccormicki (A)
- Pomarine jaeger, Stercorarius pomarinus
- Parasitic jaeger, Stercorarius parasiticus
- Long-tailed jaeger, Stercorarius longicaudus
Auks, murres, and puffins
Alcids are superficially similar to penguins due to their black-and-white colors, their upright posture, and some of their habits; however they are not closely related to penguins and are (with one extinct exception) able to fly. Auks live on the open sea, only deliberately coming ashore to breed.
- Dovekie, Alle alle (A)
- Common murre, Uria aalge (A)
- Thick-billed murre, Uria lomvia (A)
- Razorbill, Alca torda (A)
- Great auk, Pinguinus impennis (E)
- Black guillemot, Cepphus grylle (A)
- Long-billed murrelet, Brachyrampus perdix (A)
- Ancient murrelet, Synthliboramphus antiquus (A)
- Atlantic puffin, Fratercula arctica (A)
- Tufted puffin, Fratercula cirrhata (A)
Gulls, terns, and skimmers
The Laridae are a family of medium to large seabirds and containing the gulls, terns, kittiwakes, and skimmers. They are typically gray or white, often with black markings on the head or wings. They have stout, longish bills and webbed feet.
- Black-legged kittiwake, Rissa tridactyla (A)
- Sabine's gull, Xema sabini
- Bonaparte's gull, Chroicocephalus philadelphia
- Gray-hooded gull, Chroicocephalus cirrocephhalus (A)
- Black-headed gull, Chroicocephalus ridibundus (A)
- Little gull, Hydrocoleus minutus (A)
- Laughing gull, Leucophaeus atricilla
- Gray gull, Leucophaeus modestus (A)
- Franklin's gull, Leucophaeus pipixcan
- Audouin's gull, Ichthyaetus audouinii (A) (not on the AOS checklist)
- Belcher's gull, Larus belcheri (A)
- Black-tailed gull, Larus crassirostris (A)
- Heermann's gull, Larus heermanni (A)
- Ring-billed gull, Larus delawarensis
- California gull, Larus californicus (A)
- Herring gull, Larus argentatus
- "Vega gull", L. a. vega (A)
- Yellow-legged gull, Larus michahellis (A)
- Iceland gull, Larus glaucoides
- "Nominate Iceland gull", L. g. glaucoides (A)
- Thayer's gull, L. g. thayeri (A)
- Lesser black-backed gull, Larus fuscus
- Slaty-backed gull, Larus schistisagus (A)
- Glaucous gull, Larus hyperboreus
- Great black-backed gull, Larus marinus
- Kelp gull, Larus dominicanus (A)
- Brown noddy, Anous stolidus
- Black noddy, Anous minutus
- Sooty tern, Onychoprion fuscata
- Bridled tern, Onychoprion anaethetus
- Least tern, Sternula antillarum
- Gull-billed tern, Gelochelidon nilotica
- Caspian tern, Hydroprogne caspia
- Inca tern, Larosterna inca (A)
- White-winged tern, Chlidonias leucopterus (A)
- Black tern, Chlidonias niger
- Yellow-billed tern, Sternula superciliaris (A)
- Large-billed tern, Phaetusa simplex (A)
- Roseate tern, Sterna dougallii
- Common tern, Sterna hirundo
- Arctic tern, Sterna paradisaea
- Forster's tern, Sterna forsteri
- Royal tern, Thalasseus maxima
- Sandwich tern, Thalasseus sandvicensis
- "Cayenne tern", T. s. eurygnathus (A)
- Elegant tern, Thalasseus elegans (A)
- Black skimmer, Rynchops niger
The sunbittern is a bittern-like bird of tropical regions of the Americas and the sole member of the family Eurypygidae (sometimes spelled Eurypigidae) and genus Eurypyga.
Tropicbirds are slender white birds of tropical oceans with exceptionally long central tail feathers. Their long wings have black markings, as does the head.
Loons are aquatic birds the size of a large duck, to which they are unrelated. Their plumage is largely gray or black and they have spear-shaped bills. Loons swim well and fly adequately but, because their legs are placed towards the rear of the body, are clumsy on land.
- Red-throated loon, Gavia stellata
- Arctic loon, Gavia arctica (A)
- Pacific loon, Gavia pacifica (A)
- Common loon, Gavia immer
- Yellow-nosed albatross, Thalassarche chlororhynchos (A)
The storm-petrels are the smallest seabirds, relatives of the petrels, feeding on planktonic crustaceans and small fish picked from the surface, typically while hovering. The flight is fluttering and sometimes bat-like. Until 2018, this family's three species were included with the other storm-petrels in family Hydrobatidae.
- Wilson's storm-petrel, Oceanites oceanicus
Though the members of this family are similar in many respects to the southern storm-petrels, including their general appearance and habits, there are enough genetic differences to warrant their placement in a separate family.
- European storm-petrel, Hydrobates pelagicus (A)
- Leach's storm-petrel, Hydrobates leucorhous
- Band-rumped storm-petrel, Hydrobates castro
Shearwaters and petrels
- Northern fulmar, Fulmarus glacialis (A)
- Bermuda petrel, Pterodroma cahow (A)
- Black-capped petrel, Pterodoma hasitata
- Fea's petrel, Pterodroma feae (A)
- Bulwer's petrel, Bulweria bulwerii (A)
- Cory's shearwater, Calonectris diomedea
- Wedge-tailed shearwater, Ardenna pacifica (A)
- Short-tailed shearwater, Ardenna tenuirostris (A)
- Sooty shearwater, Ardenna griseus
- Great shearwater, Ardenna gravis
- Manx shearwater, Puffinus puffinus (A)
- Audubon's shearwater, Puffinus lherminieri
Storks are large, heavy, long-legged, long-necked wading birds with long stout bills and wide wingspans. They lack the powder down that other wading birds such as herons, spoonbills and ibises use to clean off fish slime. Storks lack a pharynx and are mute.
- Jabiru, Jabiru mycteria (A)
- White stork, Ciconia ciconia (A?) (not on the AOS checklist)
- Wood stork, Mycteria americana
Frigatebirds are large seabirds usually found over tropical oceans. They are large, black, or black-and-white, with long wings and deeply forked tails. The males have colored inflatable throat pouches. They do not swim or walk and cannot take off from a flat surface. Having the largest wingspan-to-body-weight ratio of any bird, they are essentially aerial, able to stay aloft for more than a week.
Boobies and gannets
- Masked booby, Sula dactylatra
- Nazca booby, Sula granti (A)
- Blue-footed booby, Sula nebouxii (A)
- Brown booby, Sula leucogaster
- Red-footed booby, Sula sula (A)
- Northern gannet, Morus bassanus
Anhingas, also known as darters or snakebirds, are cormorant-like water birds with long necks and long, straight beaks. They are fish eaters, diving for long periods, and often swim with only their neck above the water, looking rather like a water snake.
- Anhinga, Anhinga anhinga
Cormorants and shags
Cormorants are medium-to-large aquatic birds, usually with mainly dark plumage and areas of colored skin on the face. The bill is long, thin, and sharply hooked. Their feet are four-toed and webbed.
- Great cormorant, Phalacrocorax carbo (A)
- Double-crested cormorant, Nannopterum auritum
- Neotropic cormorant, Nannopterum brasilianum
- Guanay cormorant, Leucocarbo bougainvillii (A)
Pelicans are very large water birds with a distinctive pouch under their beak. Like other birds in the order Pelecaniformes, they have four webbed toes.
- Dalmatian pelican, Pelecanus crispus (A) (not on the AOS checklist)
- American white pelican, Pelecanus erythrorhynchos
- Brown pelican, Pelecanus occidentalis
- Great white pelican, Pelecanus onocrotalus (A) (not on the AOS checklist)
Herons, egrets, and bitterns
The family Ardeidae contains the herons, egrets, and bitterns. Herons and egrets are wading birds with long necks and legs. Herons are large and egrets are smaller. The cattle egret or "cow bird" is seen amongst flocks of cattle, for instance in ranches north of the Everglades. A bird will often attach itself to a particular bull, cow or calf, even being tolerated perching on the back or even the head of the animal. The birds are more shy than the animals, and will fly away if approached. The birds feed on various items turned over by the cattle as they graze and tramp the ground. Bitterns tend to be shorter necked and more secretive. Unlike other long-necked birds such as storks, ibises, and spoonbills, members of the Ardeidae fly with their necks pulled back into a curve.
- American bittern, Botaurus lentiginosus
- Least bittern, Ixobrychus exilis
- Rufescent tiger-heron, Tigrisoma lineatum (A)
- Bare-throated tiger-heron, Tigrisoma mexicanum (A)
- Great blue heron, Ardea herodias
- Gray heron, Ardea cinerea (A)
- Cocoi heron, Ardea cocoi (A)
- Goliath heron, Ardea goliath (A) (not on the AOS checklist)
- Purple heron, Ardea purpurea (A) (not on the AOS checklist)
- Great egret, Ardea alba
- Intermediate egret, Ardea intermedia (A)
- Whistling heron, Syrigma sibilatrix (A)
- Capped heron, Pilherodius pileatus (A)
- Little egret, Egretta garzetta (A)
- Pacific reef-heron, Egretta sacra (A) (not on the AOS checklist)
- Snowy egret, Egretta thula
- Little blue heron, Egretta caerulea
- Tricolored heron, Egretta tricolor
- Reddish egret, Egretta rufescens
- Cattle egret, Bubulcus ibis
- Green heron, Butorides virescens
- Striated heron, Butorides striata (A)
- Agami heron, Agamia agami (A)
- Black-crowned night-heron, Nycticorax nycticorax
- Yellow-crowned night-heron, Nyctanassa violacea
- Boat-billed heron, Cochlearius cochlearius (A)
Ibises and spoonbills
The family Threskiornithidae includes the ibises and spoonbills. They have long, broad wings. Their bodies are elongated, the neck more so, with long legs. The bill is also long, curved downward in the ibises, straight and markedly flattened in the spoonbills.
- White ibis, Eudocimus albus
- Scarlet ibis, Eudocimus ruber (A)
- Glossy ibis, Plegadis falcinellus
- White-faced ibis, Plegadis chihi
- Bare-faced ibis, Phimosus infuscatus (A)
- Green ibis, Mesembrinibis cayennensis (A)
- Roseate spoonbill, Platalea ajaja
New World vultures
New World vultures are not closely related to Old World vultures, but superficially resemble them because of convergent evolution. Like the Old World vultures, they are scavengers. Unlike Old World vultures, which find carcasses by sight, New World vultures have a good sense of smell with which they locate carcasses. The turkey vulture has a red head. The black vulture has a grey head. Although not a water bird, a flock of black vultures at the Myakka River State Park, southeast of Sarasota, has been seen bathing at the edge of the lake and then drying out their wings in the same way as cormorants like the Florida anhinga. This habit may help free them of parasites.
- King vulture, Sarcoramphus papa (e)
- Andean condor, Vultur gryphus (A) (not on the AOS checklist)
- Black vulture, Coragyps atratus
- Turkey vulture, Cathartes aura
Pandionidae is a family of fish-eating birds of prey possessing a very large, powerful hooked beak for tearing flesh from their prey, strong legs, powerful talons, and keen eyesight. The family is monotypic.
- Osprey, Pandion haliaetus
Hawks, eagles, and kites
Accipitridae is a family of birds of prey that includes hawks, eagles, kites, harriers, and Old World vultures. They have very large, hooked beaks for tearing flesh from their prey, strong legs, powerful talons, and keen eyesight.
- White-tailed kite, Elanus leucurus
- Hook-billed kite, Chondrohierax uncinatus (A)
- Gray-headed kite, Leptodon cayanensis (A)
- Swallow-tailed kite, Elanoides forficatus
- Golden eagle, Aquila chrysaetos (A)
- Double-toothed kite, Harpagus bidentatus (A)
- Northern harrier, Circus hudsonius
- Harpy eagle, Harpia harpyja (A)
- Ornate hawk-eagle, Spizaetus ornatus (A)
- Tiny hawk, Microspizias superciliosus (A)
- Sharp-shinned hawk, Accipiter striatus
- Cooper's hawk, Accipiter cooperii
- American goshawk, Accipiter atricapillus (A)
- Gundlach's hawk, Accipiter gundlachi (A)
- Red kite, Milvus milvus (A) (not on the AOS checklist)
- Black kite, Milvus migrans (A) (not on the AOS checklist)
- Bald eagle, Haliaeetus leucocephalus
- Steller's sea-eagle, Haliaeetus pelagicus (A)
- White-tailed eagle, Haliaeetus albicilla (A)
- Mississippi kite, Ictinia mississippiensis
- Black-collared hawk, Busarellus nigricollis (A)
- Crane hawk, Geranospiza caerulescens (A)
- Snail kite, Rostrhamus sociabilis
- Slender-billed kite, Helicolestes hamatus (A)
- Plumbeous hawk, Cryptoleucopteryx plumbea (A)
- Rufous crab hawk, Buteogallus aequinoctialis (A)
- Savanna hawk, Buteogallus meridionalis (A)
- Great black hawk, Buteogallus urubitinga (A)
- Roadside hawk, Rupornis magnirostris (A)
- Harris's hawk, Parabuteo unicinctus (A)
- White hawk, Pseudastur albicollis (A)
- Red-shouldered hawk, Buteo lineatus
- Gray-lined hawk, Buteo nitidus (A)
- Broad-winged hawk, Buteo platypterus
- Short-tailed hawk, Buteo brachyurus
- Swainson's hawk, Buteo swainsoni
- Zone-tailed hawk, Buteo albonotatus (A)
- Red-tailed hawk, Buteo jamaicensis
- Harlan's hawk, B. j. harlani
- Rough-legged hawk, Buteo lagopus (A)
- Ferruginous hawk, Buteo regalis (A)
Barn-owls are medium to large owls with large heads and characteristic heart-shaped faces. They have long strong legs with powerful talons.
- Barn owl, Tyto alba
Typical owls are small to large solitary nocturnal birds of prey. They have large forward-facing eyes and ears, a hawk-like beak, and a conspicuous circle of feathers around each eye called a facial disk.
- Flammulated owl, Psiloscops flammeolus (A)
- Eastern screech-owl, Megascops asio
- Crested owl, Lophostrix cristata (A)
- Spectacled owl, Pulsatrix perspicillata (A)
- Great horned owl, Bubo virginianus
- Snowy owl, Bubo scandiacus (A)
- Northern pygmy-owl, Glaucidium gnoma (A)
- Ferruginous pygmy-owl, Glaucidium brasilianum (A)
- Elf owl, Micrathene whitneyi (A)
- Burrowing owl, Athene cunicularia
- Mottled owl, Strix virgata (A)
- Spotted owl, Strix occidentalis (A)
- Black-banded owl, Strix huhula (A) (not on the AOS checklist)
- Great gray owl, Strix nebulosa (A)
- Black-and-white owl, Strix nigrolineata (A)
- Barred owl, Strix varia
- Long-eared owl, Asio otus (A)
- Stygian owl, Asio stygius (A)
- Short-eared owl, Asio flammeus
- Striped owl, Asio clamator (A)
- Boreal owl, Aegolius funereus (A)
- Northern saw-whet owl, Aegolius acadicus (A)
Hoopoes have black, white, and orangey-pink coloring with a large erectile crest on their head.
The family Trogonidae includes trogons and quetzals. Found in tropical woodlands worldwide, they feed on insects and fruit, and their broad bills and weak legs reflect their diet and arboreal habits. Although their flight is fast, they are reluctant to fly any distance. Trogons have soft, often colorful, feathers with distinctive male and female plumages.
- Pharomachrus species, Pharomachrus sp. (A)
- Slaty-tailed trogon, Trogon massena (A)
- Black-tailed trogon, Trogon melanurus (A)
- White-tailed trogon, Trogon viridis (A)
- Collared trogon, Trogon collaris (A)
The motmots have colorful plumage and long, graduated tails which they display by waggling back and forth. In most of the species, the barbs near the ends of the two longest (central) tail feathers are weak and fall off, leaving a length of bare shaft and creating a racket-shaped tail.
- Amazonian motmot, Momotus momota (A)
- Lesson's motmot, Momotus lessonii (A)
- Rufous motmot, Baryphthengus martii (A)
Kingfishers are medium-sized birds with large heads, long pointed bills, short legs, and stubby tails.
- Ringed kingfisher, Megaceryle torquata (A)
- Belted kingfisher, Megaceryle alcyon
- Amazon kingfisher, Chloroceryle amazona (A)
- American pygmy kingfisher, Chloroceryle aenea (A)
- Green kingfisher, Chloroceryle americana (A)
- Green-and-rufous kingfisher, Chloroceryle inda (A)
The puffbirds are related to the jacamars and have the same range, but lack the iridescent colors of that family. They are mainly brown, rufous, or gray, with large heads and flattened bills with hooked tips. The loose abundant plumage and short tails makes them look stout and puffy, giving rise to the English common name of the family.
- White-necked puffbird, Notharchus hyperrhynchus (A)
- Black-breasted puffbird, Notharchus pectoralis (A)
The jacamars are near passerine birds from tropical South America, with a range that extends up to Mexico. They feed on insects caught on the wing and are glossy, elegant birds with long bills and tails. They resemble the Old World bee-eaters, although they are more closely related to puffbirds.
New World barbets
The barbets are plump birds, with short necks and large heads. They get their name from the bristles which fringe their heavy bills. Most species are brightly colored.
The toucan-barbets are birds of montane forests in the Neotropics. They are highly social and non-migratory.
Toucans are near passerine birds from the Neotropics. They are brightly marked and have enormous, colorful bills which in some species amount to half their body length.
- Northern emerald-toucanet, Aulacorhynchus prasinus (A)
- Collared aracari, Pteroglossus torquatus (A)
- Keel-billed toucan, Ramphastos sulfuratus (A)
Woodpeckers are small to medium-sized birds with chisel-like beaks, short legs, stiff tails, and long tongues used for capturing insects. Some species have feet with two toes pointing forward and two backward, while several species have only three toes. Many woodpeckers have the habit of tapping noisily on tree trunks with their beaks.
- Red-headed woodpecker, Melanerpes erythrocephalus
- Acorn woodpecker, Melanerpes formicivorus (A)
- Golden-fronted woodpecker, Melanerpes aurifrons (A)
- Red-bellied woodpecker, Melanerpes carolinus
- Williamson's sapsucker, Sphyrapicus thyroideus (A)
- Yellow-bellied sapsucker, Sphyrapicus varius
- Downy woodpecker, Dryobates pubescens
- Red-cockaded woodpecker, Dryobates borealis
- Hairy woodpecker, Dryobates villosus
- Black-backed woodpecker, Picoides arcticus (A)
- Golden-olive woodpecker, Piculus rubiginosus (A)
- Northern flicker, Colaptes auratus
- Red-naped sapsucker, Sphyrapicus nuchalis (A)
- Pileated woodpecker, Dryocopus pileatus
- Ivory-billed woodpecker, Campephilus principalis (considered (E) by FOSRC) [note 2]
Falcons and caracaras
- Laughing falcon, Herpetotheres cachinnans (A)
- Barred forest-falcon, Micrastur ruficollis (A)
- Slaty-backed forest-falcon, Micrastur mirandollei (A)
- Collared forest-falcon, Micrastur semitorquatus (A)
- Red-throated caracara, Ibycter americanus (A)
- Crested caracara, Caracara plancus
- Yellow-headed caracara, Milvago chimachima (A)
- Eurasian kestrel, Falco tinnunculus (A)
- American kestrel, Falco sparverius
- "Cuban American kestrel", F. s. sparveroides (A)
- Prairie falcon, Falco mexicanus (A)
- Aplomado falcon, Falco femoralis (A)
- Bat falcon, Falco rufigularis (A)
- Merlin, Falco columbarius
- Peregrine falcon, Falco peregrinus
New World and African parrots
Characteristic features of parrots include a strong curved bill, an upright stance, strong legs, and clawed zygodactyl feet. Many parrots are vividly colored, and some are multi-colored. In size they range from 8 cm (3.1 in) to 1 m (3.3 ft) in length. Most of the more than 150 species in this family are found in the New World.
- Monk parakeet, Myiopsitta monachus (I)
- Carolina parakeet, Conuropsis carolinensis (E)
- Green parakeet, Psittacara holochlorus (A)
- Red-bellied macaw, Orthopsittaca manilatus (A)
- Blue-headed parrot, Pionus menstruus (A)
- Green-rumped parrotlet, Forpus passerinus (A)
- Nanday parakeet, Aratinga nenday (I)
- Mitred parakeet, Psittacara mitratus (I)
- White-winged parakeet, Brotogeris versicolurus (I)
Old World parrots
Characteristic features of parrots include a strong curved bill, an upright stance, strong legs, and clawed zygodactyl feet. Many parrots are vividly colored, and some are multi-colored. In size they range from 8 cm (3.1 in) to 1 m (3.3 ft) in length. Old World parrots are found from Africa east across south and southeast Asia and Oceania to Australia and New Zealand.
- Budgerigar, Melopsittacus undulatus (I) (e) ("Disestablished" per the FOSRC)
Ovenbirds comprise a large family of small sub-oscine passerine bird species found in Central and South America. They are a diverse group of insectivores which gets its name from the elaborate "oven-like" clay nests built by some species, although others build stick nests or nest in tunnels or clefts in rock. The woodcreepers are brownish birds which maintain an upright vertical posture, supported by their stiff tail vanes. They feed mainly on insects taken from tree trunks.
The manakins are a family of subtropical and tropical mainland Central and South America, and Trinidad and Tobago. They are compact forest birds, the males typically being brightly colored, although the females of most species are duller and usually green-plumaged. Manakins feed on small fruits, berries, and insects.
- Blue-backed manakin, Chiroxiphia pareola (A)
- White-collared manakin, Manacus candei (A)
- White-bearded manakin, Manacus manacus (A)
Tityras and allies
Tityridae is family of suboscine passerine birds found in forest and woodland in the Neotropics. The approximately 30 species in this family were formerly lumped with the families Pipridae and Cotingidae. They are small to medium-sized birds.
Tyrant flycatchers are passerines which occur throughout North and South America. They superficially resemble the Old World flycatchers, but are more robust and have stronger bills. They do not have the sophisticated vocal capabilities of the songbirds. Most, but not all, are rather plain. As the name implies, most are insectivorous.
- Elaenia species, Elaenia sp. (A)
- Ash-throated flycatcher, Myiarchus cinerascens
- Great crested flycatcher, Myiarchus crinitus
- Dusky-capped flycatcher, Myiarchus tuberculifer (A)
- Brown-crested flycatcher, Myiarchus tyrannulus
- Great kiskadee, Pitangus sulphuratus (A)
- La Sagra's flycatcher, Myiarchus sagrae (A)
- Sulphur-bellied flycatcher, Myiodynastes luteiventris (A)
- Piratic flycatcher, Empidonomus leucophaius (A)
- Variegated flycatcher, Empidonomus varius (A)
- Tropical kingbird, Tyrannus melancholicus
- Cassin's kingbird, Tyrannus vociferans (A)
- Western kingbird, Tyrannus verticalis
- Eastern kingbird, Tyrannus tyrannus
- Gray kingbird, Tyrannus dominicensis
- Loggerhead kingbird, Tyrannus caudifasciatus (A)
- Giant kingbird, Tyrannus cubensis (A?)
- Scissor-tailed flycatcher, Tyrannus forficatus
- Fork-tailed flycatcher, Tyrannus savana (A)
- Olive-sided flycatcher, Contopus cooperi
- Western wood-pewee, Contopus sordidulus (A)
- Eastern wood-pewee, Contopus virens
- Cuban pewee, Contopus cariibaeus (A)
- Yellow-bellied flycatcher, Empidonax flaviventris (A)
- Acadian flycatcher, Empidonax virescens
- Alder flycatcher, Empidonax alnorum
- Willow flycatcher, Empidonax traillii (A)
- Least flycatcher, Empidonax minimus
- Hammond's flycatcher, Empidonax hammondii (A)
- Western flycatcher, Empidonax difficilis (A)
- Black phoebe, Sayornis nigricans (A)
- Eastern phoebe, Sayornis phoebe
- Say's phoebe, Sayornis saya (A)
- Vermilion flycatcher, Pyrocephalus rubinus
The antbirds are a large family of small passerine birds of subtropical and tropical Central and South America. They are forest birds which tend to feed on insects at or near the ground.
Vireos, shrike-babblers, and erpornis
The vireos are a group of small to medium-sized passerines. They are typically greenish in color and resemble wood warblers apart from their heavier bills.
- White-eyed vireo, Vireo griseus
- Thick-billed vireo, Vireo crassirostris
- Cuban vireo, Vireo gundlachii (A)
- Black-capped vireo, Vireo atricapilla (A)
- Bell's vireo, Vireo bellii
- Yellow-throated vireo, Vireo flavifrons
- Blue-headed vireo, Vireo solitarius
- Philadelphia vireo, Vireo philadelphicus
- Warbling vireo, Vireo gilvus
- Red-eyed vireo, Vireo olivaceus
- Yellow-green vireo, Vireo flavoviridis (A)
- Black-whiskered vireo, Vireo altiloquus
Old World orioles
The Old World orioles are colorful passerine birds that are not related to the New World orioles.
Shrikes are passerines known for their habit of catching other birds and small animals and impaling the uneaten portions of their bodies on thorns. A shrike's beak is hooked, like that of a typical bird of prey.
Crows, jays, and magpies
The family Corvidae includes crows, ravens, jays, choughs, magpies, treepies, nutcrackers, and ground jays. Corvids are above average in size among the Passeriformes and some of the larger species show high levels of intelligence.
- Black-throated magpie-jay, Calocitta colliei (A)
- Green jay, Cyanocorax yncas (A)
- Blue jay, Cyanocitta cristata
- Florida scrub-jay, Aphelocoma coerulescens
- American crow, Corvus brachyrhynchos
- Carrion crow, Corvus corone (A) (not on the AOS checklist)
- Tamaulipas crow, Corvus imparatus (A)
- Fish crow, Corvus ossifragus
- Chihuahuan raven, Corvus cryptoleucus (A)
- Common raven, Corvus corax (A)
- Black-billed magpie, Pica hudsonia (A)
Tits, chickadees, and titmice
The Paridae are mainly small stocky woodland species with short stout bills. Some have crests. They are adaptable birds, with a mixed diet including seeds and insects.
- Carolina chickadee, Poecile carolinensis
- Black-capped chickadee, Poecile atricapillus (A)
- Tufted titmouse, Baeolophus bicolor
Larks are small terrestrial birds with often extravagant songs and display flights. Most larks are fairly dull in appearance. Their food is insects and seeds.
- Horned lark, Eremophila alpestris
The family Hirundinidae is adapted to aerial feeding. They have a slender streamlined body, long pointed wings, and a short bill with a wide gape. The feet are adapted to perching rather than walking, and the front toes are partly joined at the base.
- Bank swallow, Riparia riparia
- Tree swallow, Tachycineta bicolor
- Bahama swallow, Tachycineta cyaneovirdis (A)
- Violet-green swallow, Tachycineta thalassina (A)
- Mangrove swallow, Tachycineta albilinea (A)
- Southern rough-winged swallow, Stelgidopteryx ruficollis (A)
- Northern rough-winged swallow, Stelgidopteryx serripennis
- Brown-chested martin, Progne tapera (A)
- Purple martin, Progne subis
- Gray-breasted martin, Progne chalybea (A)
- Southern martin, Progne elegans (A)
- Cuban martin, Progne cryptoleuca (A)
- Caribbean martin, Progne dominicensis (A)
- Barn swallow, Hirundo rustica
- Cliff swallow, Petrochelidon pyrrhonota
- Cave swallow, Petrochelidon fulva
- Red-whiskered bulbul, Pycnonotus jocosus (I)
The kinglets are a small family of birds which resemble the titmice. They are very small insectivorous birds. The adults have colored crowns, giving rise to their name.
The waxwings are a group of birds with soft silky plumage and unique red tips to some of the wing feathers. In the Bohemian and cedar waxwings, these tips look like sealing wax and give the group its name. These are arboreal birds of northern forests. They live on insects in summer and berries in winter.
The silky-flycatchers are a small family of passerine birds which occur mainly in Central America, although the range of one species extends to central California. They are related to waxwings and like that group, have soft silky plumage, usually gray or pale-yellow. They have small crests.
Nuthatches are small woodland birds. They have the unusual ability to climb down trees head first, unlike most other birds which can only go upwards. Nuthatches have big heads, short tails, and powerful bills and feet.
- Red-breasted nuthatch, Sitta canadensis
- White-breasted nuthatch, Sitta carolinensis
- Brown-headed nuthatch, Sitta pusilla
- Pygmy nuthatch, Sitta pygmaea (A)
Treecreepers are small woodland birds, brown above and white below. They have thin pointed down-curved bills, which they use to extricate insects from bark. They have stiff tail feathers, like woodpeckers, which they use to support themselves on vertical trees.
- Brown creeper, Certhia americana
The family Polioptilidae is a group of small insectivorous passerine birds containing the gnatcatchers and gnatwrens.
- Blue-gray gnatcatcher, Polioptila caerulea
Wrens are small and inconspicuous birds, except for their loud songs. They have short wings and thin down-turned bills. Several species often hold their tails upright. All are insectivorous.
- Rock wren, Salpinctes obsoletus (A)
- House wren, Troglodytes aedon
- Winter wren, Troglodytes hyemalis
- Sedge wren, Cistothorus platensis
- Marsh wren, Cistothorus palustris
- Carolina wren, Thryothorus ludovicianus
- Bewick's wren, Thryomanes bewickii (A)
Mockingbirds and thrashers
The mimids are a family of passerine birds which includes thrashers, mockingbirds, tremblers, and the New World catbirds. They are notable for their vocalization, especially their remarkable ability to mimic a wide variety of birds and other sounds heard outdoors. The species tend towards dull grays and browns in their appearance.
- Gray catbird, Dumetella carolinensis
- Curve-billed thrasher, Toxostoma curvirostre (A)
- Brown thrasher, Toxostoma rufum
- Sage thrasher, Oreoscoptes montanus (A)
- Bahama mockingbird, Mimus gundlachii
- Northern mockingbird, Mimus polyglottos
- White-banded mockingbird, Mimus triurus (A) (not on the AOS checklist)
Starlings are small to medium-sized passerines with strong feet. Their flight is strong and direct and they are very gregarious. Their preferred habitat is open country, and they eat insects and fruit. Their plumage is typically dark with a metallic sheen.
Thrushes and allies
The thrushes are a group of passerine birds that occur mainly but not exclusively in the Old World. They are plump, soft plumaged, small to medium-sized insectivores or sometimes omnivores, often feeding on the ground. Many have attractive songs.
- Eastern bluebird, Sialia sialis
- Mountain bluebird, Sialia currucoides (A)
- Townsend's solitaire, Myadestes townsendi (A)
- Veery, Catharus fuscescens
- Gray-cheeked thrush, Catharus minimus
- Bicknell's thrush, Catharus bicknelli (A)
- Swainson's thrush, Catharus ustulatus
- Hermit thrush, Catharus guttatus
- Wood thrush, Hylocichla mustelina
- Clay-colored thrush, Turdus grayi (A)
- American robin, Turdus migratorius
- Red-legged thrush, Turdus plumbeus (A)
- Varied thrush, Ixoreus naevius (A)
Old World flycatchers
The Old World flycatchers are a large family of small passerine birds. These are mainly small arboreal insectivores, many of which, as the name implies, take their prey on the wing.
- European robin, Erithacus rubecula (A)
- Blue rock thrush, Monticola solitarius (A) (not on the AOS checklist)
- Common rock thrush, Monticola saxatilis (A) (not on the AOS checklist)
- Northern wheatear, Oenanthe oenanthe (A)
Waxbills and allies
The estrildid finches are small passerine birds native to the Old World tropics. They are gregarious and often colonial seed eaters with short thick but pointed bills. They are all similar in structure and habits, but have wide variation in plumage colors and patterns.
Old World sparrows
Old World sparrows are small passerine birds. In general, sparrows tend to be small plump brownish or grayish birds with short tails and short powerful beaks. Sparrows are seed eaters, but they also consume small insects.
- House sparrow, Passer domesticus (I)
Wagtails and pipits
Motacillidae is a family of small passerine birds with medium to long tails. They include the wagtails, longclaws, and pipits. They are slender, ground-feeding insectivores of open country.
- Eastern yellow wagtail, Motacilla tschutschensis (A)
- White wagtail, Motacilla alba (A)
- American pipit, Anthus rubescens
- Sprague's pipit, Anthus spragueii (A)
Finches, euphonias, and allies
Finches are seed-eating passerines. They are small to moderately large and have strong, usually conical and sometimes very large, beaks. All have twelve tail feathers and nine primaries. They have a bouncing flight with alternating bouts of flapping and gliding on closed wings, and most sing well.
- Evening grosbeak, Coccothraustes vespertinus (A)
- Eurasian bullfinch, Pyrrhula pyrrhula (A)
- House finch, Haemorhous mexicanus (I) (native to the southwestern U.S; introduced in the east)
- Purple finch, Haemorhous purpureus
- Common redpoll, Acanthis flammea (A)
- Red crossbill, Loxia curvirostra (A)
- White-winged crossbill, Loxia leucoptera (A)
- Common chaffinch, Fringilla coelebs (A)
- Pine siskin, Spinus pinus
- Lesser goldfinch, Spinus psaltria (A)
- American goldfinch, Spinus tristis
- Thick-billed euphonia, Euphonia laniirostris (A)
- Orange-bellied euphonia, Euphonia xanthogaster (A)
- Violaceous euphonia, Euphonia violacea (A)
Longspurs and snow buntings
The Calcariidae are a group of passerine birds that had traditionally been grouped with the New World sparrows, but differ in a number of respects and are usually found in open grassy areas.
- Lapland longspur, Calcarius lapponicus (A)
- Chestnut-collared longspur, Calcarius ornatus (A)
- Smith's longspur, Calcarius pictus (A)
- Snow bunting, Plectrophenax nivalis (A)
Old World buntings
Emberizidae is a family of passerine birds containing a single genus. Until 2017, the New World sparrows (Passerellidae) were also considered part of this family.
New World sparrows
Until 2017, these species were considered part of the family Emberizidae. Most of the species are known as sparrows, but these birds are not closely related to the Old World sparrows which are in the family Passeridae. Many of these have distinctive head patterns.
- Bachman's sparrow, Peucaea aestivalis
- Grasshopper sparrow, Ammodramus savannarum
- Florida grasshopper sparrow, A. s. floridanus
- Black-throated sparrow, Amphispiza bilineata (A)
- Lark sparrow, Chondestes grammacus
- Lark bunting, Calamospiza melanocorys (A)
- Chipping sparrow, Spizella passerina
- Clay-colored sparrow, Spizella pallida
- Field sparrow, Spizella pusilla
- Brewer's sparrow, Spizella breweri (A)
- Fox sparrow, Passerella iliaca
- American tree sparrow, Spizelloides arborea (A)
- Dark-eyed junco, Junco hyemalis
- "Oregon junco", J. h. oreganus group (A)
- White-crowned sparrow, Zonotrichia leucophrys
- Golden-crowned sparrow, Zonotrichia atricapilla (A)
- Harris's sparrow, Zonotrichia querula (A)
- White-throated sparrow, Zonotrichia albicollis
- Vesper sparrow, Pooecetes gramineus
- LeConte's sparrow, Ammospiza leconteii
- Seaside sparrow, Ammospiza maritima
- Nelson's sparrow, Ammospiza nelsoni
- Saltmarsh sparrow, Ammospiza caudacta
- Henslow's sparrow, Centronyx henslowii
- Savannah sparrow, Passerculus sandwichensis
- Song sparrow, Melospiza melodia
- Lincoln's sparrow, Melospiza lincolnii
- Swamp sparrow, Melospiza georgiana
- Green-tailed towhee, Pipilo chlorurus (A)
- Spotted towhee, Pipilo maculatus (A)
- Eastern towhee, Pipilo erythrophthalmus
The members of this small family, newly recognized in 2017, are native to the Greater Antilles. One species occurs fairly frequently in Florida.
- Western spindalis, Spindalis zena
This species was historically placed in the wood-warblers (Parulidae) but nonetheless most authorities were unsure if it belonged there. It was placed in its own family in 2017.
- Yellow-breasted chat, Icteria virens
Troupials and allies
The icterids are a group of small to medium-sized, often colorful, passerines restricted to the New World, including the grackles, New World blackbirds and New World orioles. Most have black as a predominant plumage color, often enlivened by yellow, orange or red.
- Yellow-headed blackbird, Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus
- Bobolink, Dolichonyx oryzivorus
- Crested oropendola, Psarocolius decumanus (A)
- Red-rumped cacique, Cacicus haemorrhous (A)
- Eastern meadowlark, Sturnella magna
- Western meadowlark, Sturnella neglecta (A)
- Orchard oriole, Icterus spurius
- Hooded oriole, Icterus cucullatus (A)
- Bullock's oriole, Icterus bullockii
- Spot-breasted oriole, Icterus pectoralis (I)
- Baltimore oriole, Icterus galbula
- Scott's oriole, Icterus parisorum (A)
- Red-winged blackbird, Agelaius phoeniceus
- Tawny-shouldered blackbird, Agelaius umeralis (A)
- Shiny cowbird, Molothrus bonariensis
- Bronzed cowbird, Molothrus aeneus
- Brown-headed cowbird, Molothrus ater
- Rusty blackbird, Euphagus carolinus
- Brewer's blackbird, Euphagus cyanocephalus
- Common grackle, Quiscalus quiscula
- Boat-tailed grackle, Quiscalus major
- Great-tailed grackle, Quiscalus mexicanus (A)
- Yellow-hooded blackbird, Chrysomus icterocephalus (A)
New World warblers
The wood warblers are a group of small, often colorful, passerines restricted to the New World. Most are arboreal, but some are terrestrial. Most members of this family are insectivores.
- Ovenbird, Seiurus aurocapilla
- Worm-eating warbler, Helmitheros vermivorum
- Louisiana waterthrush, Parkesia motacilla
- Northern waterthrush, Parkesia noveboracensis
- Bachman's warbler, Vermivora bachmanii (E)
- Golden-winged warbler, Vermivora chrysoptera
- Blue-winged warbler, Vermivora cyanoptera
- Black-and-white warbler, Mniotilta varia
- Prothonotary warbler, Protonotaria citrea
- Swainson's warbler, Limnothlypis swainsonii
- Tennessee warbler, Leiothlypis peregrina
- Orange-crowned warbler, Leiothlypis celata
- Nashville warbler, Leiothlypis ruficapilla
- Connecticut warbler, Oporornis agilis
- MacGillivray's warbler, Geothlypis tolmiei (A)
- Mourning warbler, Geothlypis philadelphia (A)
- Kentucky warbler, Geothlypis formosa
- Common yellowthroat, Geothlypis trichas
- Hooded warbler, Setophaga citrina
- American redstart, Setophaga ruticilla
- Kirtland's warbler, Setophaga kirtlandii (A)
- Cape May warbler, Setophaga tigrina
- Cerulean warbler, Setophaga cerulea
- Northern parula, Setophaga americana
- Tropical parula, Setophaga pitiayumi (A?)
- Magnolia warbler, Setophaga magnolia
- Bay-breasted warbler, Setophaga castanea
- Blackburnian warbler, Setophaga fusca
- Yellow warbler, Setophaga petechia
- Chestnut-sided warbler, Setophaga pensylvanica
- Blackpoll warbler, Setophaga striata
- Black-throated blue warbler, Setophaga caerulescens
- Palm warbler, Setophaga palmarum
- Pine warbler, Setophaga pinus
- Yellow-rumped warbler, Setophaga coronata
- "Audubon's warbler", S. c. auduboni (A)
- Yellow-throated warbler, Setophaga dominica
- Prairie warbler, Setophaga discolor
- Black-throated gray warbler, Setophaga nigrescens (A)
- Townsend's warbler, Setophaga townsendi (A)
- Hermit warbler, Setophaga occidentalis (A)
- Golden-cheeked warbler, Setophaga chrysoparia (A)
- Black-throated green warbler, Setophaga virens
- Canada warbler, Cardellina canadensis
- Wilson's warbler, Cardellina pusilla
Cardinals and allies
The cardinals are a family of robust, seed-eating birds with strong bills. They are typically associated with open woodland. The sexes usually have distinct plumages.
- Summer tanager, Piranga rubra
- Scarlet tanager, Piranga olivacea
- Western tanager, Piranga ludoviciana
- Northern cardinal, Cardinalis cardinalis
- Rose-breasted grosbeak, Pheucticus ludovicianus
- Black-headed grosbeak, Pheucticus melanocephalus (A)
- Blue grosbeak, Passerina caerulea
- Lazuli bunting, Passerina amoena (A)
- Red-crowned ant-tanager, Habia rubica (A)
- Indigo bunting, Passerina cyanea
- Varied bunting, Passerina versicolor (A)
- Painted bunting, Passerina ciris
- Dickcissel, Spiza americana
Tanagers and allies
The tanagers are a large group of small to medium-sized passerine birds restricted to the New World, mainly in the tropics. Many species are brightly colored. As a family they are omnivorous, but individual species specialize in eating fruits, seeds, insects, or other types of food. Most have short, rounded wings.
- Green honeycreeper, Chlorophanes spiza (A)
- Bananaquit, Coereba flaveola (A)
- Red-legged honeycreeper, Cyanerpes cyaneus (A)
- Black-faced dacnis, Dacnis lineata (A)
- Blue dacnis, Dacnis cayana (A)
- Yellow-faced grassquit, Tiaris olivacea (A)
- Black-faced grassquit, Tiaris bicolor (A)
- Swallow tanager, Tersina viridis (A)
- Blue-black grassquit, Volatinia jacarina (A)
- Speckled tanager, Ixothraupis guttata (A)
- Yellow-bellied seedeater, Sporophila nigricollis (A)
- Wing-barred seedeater, Sporophila americana (A)
- Ruddy-breasted seedeater, Sporophila minuta (A)
- Grassland yellow-finch, Sicalis luteola (A)
- Golden-hooded tanager, Stilpnia larvata (A)
- Scarlet-rumped tanager, Ramphocelus passerinii (A)
- Bay-headed tanager, Tangara gyrola (A) (not on the AOS checklist)
- Turquoise tanager, Tangara mexicana (A) (not on the AOS checklist)
- Cuban grassquit, Phonipara canora (A)
- Black-headed saltator, Saltator atriceps (A)
- Buff-throated saltator, Saltator maximus (A)
- Cuban bullfinch, Melopyrrha nigra (A)
- Greater Antillean bullfinch, Melopyrrha violacea (e)
The following introduced species, while not considered officially established by the FOSRC, have self-sustaining populations and, within range and proper habitat, are likely to be encountered.
- Mandarin duck, Aix galericulata (I)
- Red junglefowl, Gallus gallus (I - Key West)
- Common peafowl, Pavo cristatus (I)
- Blue-and-yellow macaw, Ara araruana (I)
- The former natural wild population is locally extinct; a non-migratory flock is now resident.
- Often considered extinct; see the species' article for the controversy surrounding it.
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- "Sporophila americana". GBIF. Retrieved 21 September 2023.
- "Sporophila minuta". GBIF. Retrieved 19 September 2023.
- "Sicalis luteola". GBIF. Retrieved 24 September 2023.
- "Tangara larvata". GBIF. Retrieved 24 September 2023.
- "Ramphocelus passerinii". GBIF. Retrieved 24 September 2023.
- "Tangara gyrola". GBIF. Retrieved 24 September 2023.
- "Tangara mexicana". GBIF. Retrieved 21 September 2023.
- "Cuban Grassquit". The Finch Weekly. Retrieved 6 September 2023.
- "Saltator atriceps". GBIF. Retrieved 24 September 2023.
- "Saltator maximus". GBIF. Retrieved 24 September 2023.
- Richmond, Jeff. "10 Finches Found in Florida". WildBirdScoop. Retrieved 6 September 2023.
- Lepage, Denis. "Greater Antillean Bullfinch". Avibase. Retrieved 15 September 2023.
- Pranty, Bill; Feinstein, Daria; Lee, Karen (2010). "Natural History of Blue-and-yellow Macaws (Ara ararauna) in Miami-Dade County, Florida" (PDF). Florida Field Naturalist. 38 (2): 55–62. Retrieved March 13, 2021.
- List of North American birds
- List of birds of Everglades National Park
- List of birds of Dry Tortugas National Park
- List of invasive species in the Everglades
- List of amphibians of Florida
- Reptiles of Florida
- Florida Ornithological Society
- Non-native birds according to Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission
- Pictures of birds of Florida