List of military equipment used by Syrian opposition forces

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List of military equipment[1][2] used by Syrian opposition forces in the Syrian Civil War. This list does not include equipment used by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant.

Sources[edit]

Large equipment like tanks and vehicles are generally captured from Syrian Army supplies, but small arms are likely a mixture of captured Syrian Army weapons, weapons imported by foreign combatants joining the opposition forces, or other sources. These include funding by private donors (notably from the Gulf region) and equipment supplied by friendly nations.

The U.S. supplied a considerable amount of weapons and ammunition, of both American and Soviet-type from Eastern Europe, to Syrian rebel groups under operation Timber Sycamore. For example, Jane's Defence Weekly reported that in December 2015 the U.S. shipped 994 tonnes of weapons and ammunition (including packaging and container weight).[3][4]

Small arms[edit]

Model Image Caliber Type Origin Details
Pistols
TT-33 TT 33 Pistol.jpg 7.62×25mm Tokarev Pistol  Soviet Union
Makarov PM Пистолет Макарова.png 9×18mm Makarov Pistol  Soviet Union
M1911[5] M1911A1.png .45 ACP Pistol  United States
TİSAŞ Zigana C45[6] .45 ACP Pistol  Turkey
Glock 17[citation needed] Glock 17 2nd Gen.jpg 9×19mm Parabellum Pistol  Austria
Browning Hi-Power[citation needed] High power Inglis (6971784217).jpg 9×19mm Parabellum Pistol  Belgium
Kral Arms Canas[7] 9 mm Blank pistol  Turkey Blank pistol, possibly converted to fire live rounds.
SIG Sauer P226[citation needed] SIGSauerP226.JPG 9×19mm Parabellum Pistol  Germany
Rifles
Mosin–Nagant[8] M1907 Carbine.JPG 7.62×54mmR Bolt-action rifle  Soviet Union Limited usage.
MAS-36[9] MAS Modèle 36.jpg 7.5×54mm French Bolt-action rifle  France Limited usage.
M1 Garand[10] M1-Garand-Rifle.jpg .30-06 Springfield Semi-automatic rifle  United States Very limited usage.
SKS[11]

Type 56 carbine[12]
Simonov-SKS-45.JPG 7.62×39mm Semi-automatic rifle  Soviet Union

 People's Republic of China
Limited usage.

Chinese copy of SKS. Limited usage.
Heckler & Koch G3[13][14] G3a3 edit.png 7.62×51mm NATO Battle rifle  Germany
 Turkey
Sourced from Turkey and Saudi Arabia.
FN FAL[14][15][16] Un FN FAL version Para.jpg 7.62×51mm NATO Battle rifle  Belgium Often used as Marksman Rifle, sourced from Libya and UAE.
M14 rifle[17] M14 afmil.jpg 7.62×51mm NATO Battle rifle  United States Rare.
Assault rifles
StG 44[18][19] Sturmgewehr 44.jpg 7.92×33mm Kurz Assault rifle Nazi Germany Nazi Germany Around 5,000 captured from the Syrian Army, mainly from Syrian stockpiles. Very limited usage.
AK-47[3] AK47.jpg 7.62×39mm Assault rifle  Soviet Union
AKM Akm rifle fullstock.jpg 7.62×39mm Assault rifle  Soviet Union
Type 56 Norinco type 56.jpg 7.62×39mm Assault rifle  People's Republic of China Chinese variant of the Russian AK-47 and AKM.
Zastava M70 M70AB2.jpg 7.62×39mm Assault rifle  Yugoslavia Yugoslavian variant of the Russian AK-47 and AKM.
PM md. 63 AKROMAIM.jpg 7.62×39mm Assault rifle Romania Socialist Republic of Romania
AMD 65[citation needed] AMD-65M behajtott válltámasszal.jpg 7.62×39mm Assault rifle Hungary Hungarian People's Republic
vz. 58[20] Sa 58-JH01.jpg 7.62×39mm Assault Rifle Czechoslovakia Czechoslovakia
AK-104 Interpolitex 2013 (536-16).jpg 7.62×39mm Assault rifle  Russia
AK-74 AKS-74.jpg 5.45×39mm Assault rifle  Soviet Union
FB Tantal Tantal REMOV.jpg 5.45×39mm Assault rifle  Poland
M16 M16a2-final.png 5.56×45mm NATO Assault rifle  United States Used by Division 30, the New Syrian Army,Al-Moutasem Brigade and Euphrates Shield rebels
M4[14] M4 PEO Soldier.jpg 5.56×45mm NATO Assault rifle  United States
M14 EBR[21] PEO M14 EBR.jpg 7.62×51mm NATO Designated marksman rifle  United States
Norinco CQ NORINCO Type CQ 5'56x45mm assault rifle.jpg 5.56×45mm NATO Assault rifle  People's Republic of China
FAMAS[22] FAMAS F1 with bayonet.jpg 5.56×45mm NATO Assault rifle  France Limited usage.
Heckler & Koch G36[citation needed] Domok g36.JPG 5.56×45mm NATO Assault rifle  Germany
SIG SG 540[citation needed] SG 540 Manurhin.jpg 5.56×45mm NATO Assault rifle   Switzerland
Steyr AUG[15] AUG A1 508mm 04.jpg 5.56×45mm NATO Assault rifle  Austria

 Australia
Origin unclear; serial numbers removed. Used by Syrian Opposition special forces[23][24]
Sniper rifles
Steyr SSG 69[25] Steyr SSG 69.jpg 7.62×51mm NATO Sniper rifle  Austria
Dragunov SVD SVD Dragunov.jpg 7.62×54mmR Sniper rifle  Soviet Union
Zastava M91 Sniper Zastava M91.jpg 7.62×54mmR Sniper rifle  Yugoslavia
PSL Psl sniper rifle.jpeg 7.62×54mmR
7.62×51mm NATO
Designated marksman rifle Romania Socialist Republic of Romania
Tabuk Sniper Rifle Iraki with Tabuk.JPEG 7.62×39mm Designated marksman rifle  Iraq
OSV-96[26] ОСВ-96 12,7-мм снайперская винтовка - МАКС-2009 01.jpg 12.7×108mm Anti-materiel rifle  Russia
M99[27] 12.7×108mm Anti-materiel rifle  People's Republic of China Supplied by Qatar.[28]
PGM Hécate II 12.7×108mm Anti-materiel rifle  France
Sayad-2 Steyr HS .50-frontal-scope.jpg .50 BMG Anti-materiel rifle  Iran Unlicensed Iranian produced copy of the Steyr HS .50.
Captured from the Syrian Army.[29]
PTRS-41[30] PTRS 41.jpg 14.5×114mm Anti-tank rifle  Soviet Union
PTRD-41 14.5×114mm Anti-tank rifle  Soviet Union
Submachine guns
Sterling submachine gun[31] Sterling SMG2.JPG 9×19mm Parabellum Submachine Gun  United Kingdom
Sa vz. 23[32] Samopal Vz 25.JPG 7.62×25mm Tokarev Submachine gun Czechoslovakia Czechoslovakia
MAB 38[33] Beretta 38.jpg 9×19mm Parabellum Submachine Gun Kingdom of Italy Kingdom of Italy
Uzi[34] Uzi 1.jpg 9×19mm Parabellum Submachine Gun  Israel Rare.
Beretta M12[citation needed] Beretta mod12s scheda.jpg 9×19mm Parabellum Submachine Gun  Italy
Machine guns
FN MAG[35] FN MAG.jpg 7.62×51mm General-purpose machine gun  Belgium
RPD[36] LMG-RPD-44.jpg 7.62×39mm Light machine gun  Soviet Union
RPK[37] Soviet RPK-74.JPEG 5.45×39mm Light machine gun  Soviet Union
PK[3] PKM DD-ST-85-01257.JPEG 7.62×54mmR General-purpose machine gun  Soviet Union
PKM 7.62×54mmR General-purpose machine gun  Soviet Union
Zastava M84[citation needed] M84 mg.jpg 7.62×54mmR General-purpose machine gun  Yugoslavia Yugoslavian copy of the PK.
MG-34[17] Digital Museum MG 34 Right.jpg 7.92×57mm Mauser General-purpose machine gun Nazi Germany Nazi Germany Captured from some Syrian stockpiles. Very rare usage.
M240B[38] PEO M240B Profile.jpg 7.62×51mm NATO General-purpose machine gun Belgium Belgium Used by the NSA and al-Moutasem Brigade and Euphrates Shield forces
DShK[3]

Type 54 HMG
Doushka desert.jpg 12.7×108mm Heavy machine gun  Soviet Union

 People's Republic of China
Often mounted on technicals.

Chinese copy of DShK.
NSV NSVT (2).JPG 12.7×108mm Heavy machine gun  Soviet Union
W85[39] TankBiathlon2016Final-11 (cropped).jpg 12.7×108mm Heavy machine gun  People's Republic of China
KPV[40] KPVrear.jpg 14.5×114mm Heavy machine gun  Soviet Union Often mounted on technicals.
GShG-7.62 GShG 762.JPG 7.62×54mmR Gatling-type rotary cannon  Soviet Union
M2 Browning[41][42][43][38] Free Syrian Army M2 Browning in northern Aleppo.png .50 BMG Heavy machine gun  United States Used by US-backed FSA groups, including the al-Mu'tasim Brigade and the Hamza Division.
M1919 Browning[44] Browning M1919a.png Medium machine gun  United States

Grenades, grenade launchers and explosives[edit]

Model Image Diameter Type Origin Details
F1[citation needed] F1 grenade travmatik com 01 by-sa.jpg 55 mm Hand grenade  Soviet Union
Mk 2 grenade[45] MkII 07.JPG 59 mm Hand grenade  United States
M26 grenade[citation needed] M-67Grenade.jpg 57 mm Hand grenade  United States
RGD-5[citation needed] Rgd 5 hand grenade.jpeg 58 mm Hand grenade  Soviet Union
OHG-92[46] Grenade IMG 3098.jpg 65mm[47] Hand grenade   Switzerland Grenades originally delivered to the United Arab Emirates in 2003–2004 and then given to Jordan in 2004. Unclear how the hand grenades reached the Syrian rebels.[48]
AGS-17[49] 30-мм автоматический гранатомет АГС-17 Пламя.jpg 30×29mm grenade Automatic grenade launcher  Soviet Union
Type 87[50] Type 87 Grenade Launcher.jpg 35×32mm grenade Automatic grenade launcher  People's Republic of China
Mark 19 grenade launcher[51] MK19-02.jpg 40×53mm grenade Automatic grenade launcher  United States Supplied by the USA.
RBG-6[52][53][54] RBG6.png 40×46mm grenade Grenade launcher  Croatia Croatian-produced copy of South African Milkor MGL. Supplied by Saudi Arabia.[55]
Arsenal MSGL[56] 40x46 MSGL.jpg 40×46mm grenade Grenade launcher  Bulgaria
FN 303 FN 303.JPEG 18 mm Riot gun  Belgium Used by Free Syrian Police.[citation needed]
IED[57] IED Baghdad from munitions.jpg Improvised explosive device Syria/ Syria
Molotov cocktail[57] Euromaidan in Kiev 2014-02-19 11-43.jpg Incendiary device Syria/ Syria

Anti-tank weapons[edit]

Model Image Diameter Type Origin Details
Shoulder-fired missiles
SPG-82[58] 82 mm Anti-tank rocket launcher  Soviet Union
RPG-2[citation needed] RPG2 and PG2 TBiU 37.jpg 82 mm Recoilless rifle[59]  Soviet Union
RPG-7[3] RPG-7 detached.jpg 40 mm (launcher only, warhead diameter varies) Rocket-propelled grenade  Soviet Union
RPG-18[60] RPG-18-cutaway.JPG 64 mm Rocket-propelled grenade  Soviet Union
RPG-22[53] RPG-22 rocket launcher.jpg 72.5 mm Rocket-propelled grenade  Soviet Union Supplied by Saudi Arabia.[55]
RPG-26[61] Grenade launchers RPG-26.jpg 72.5 mm Rocket-propelled grenade  Soviet Union
RPG-29[62] RPG-29 USGov.JPG 105 mm Rocket-propelled grenade  Soviet Union
RPG-75[63] 68 mm Rocket-propelled grenade  Czechoslovakia
M72 LAW[16] 66 kertasinko 75.JPG 66 mm Anti-tank rocket launcher  United States Turkish HAR-66 (LAW copy) supllied by turkey
M79 Osa[53][64] M79-OSA.jpg 90 mm Anti-tank rocket launcher  Yugoslavia Supplied by Saudi Arabia.[55]
RBR-120 mm M90[65] Stršljen M90.jpg 120 mm Anti-tank rocket launcher  Serbia
Anti-tank guided weapons
9M14 Malyutka[66] 9M14P1 Maljutka.JPG 125 mm Wire-guided anti-tank missile  Soviet Union Designated AT-3 Sagger by NATO.
9K111 Fagot[3][67] Фагот ПТРК 9К111.jpg 120 mm Wire-guided anti-tank missile  Soviet Union Designated AT-4 Spigot by NATO.
9M113 Konkurs[3][68] Flickr - Israel Defense Forces - Russian-Made Missile Found in Hezbollah Hands.jpg 135 mm Wire-guided anti-tank missile  Soviet Union Captured from the Syrian Army and supplied by Saudi Arabia.[69] Designated AT-5 Spandrel by NATO.
9K115 Metis[70] 9K115 Metys.jpg 130 mm Wire-guided anti-tank missile  Soviet Union Designated AT-7 Spriggan by NATO.
9K115-2 Metis-M[71] Antitank missile system Metis-M1.jpg 130 mm Wire-guided anti-tank missile  Russia Designated AT-13 Saxhorn-2 by NATO.
9M133 Kornet[72] 9M133 Kornet.JPG 152 mm Wire-guided anti-tank missile  Russia Designated AT-14 Spriggan by NATO.
HJ-8[73][74] BaktarShikan3.JPG 120 mm Wire-guided anti-tank missile  People's Republic of China Supplied by Qatar.[75]
MILAN[76] MILAN P1220770.jpg 115 mm Wire-guided anti-tank missile  France

 Germany
Captured from the Syrian Army.[77] Some supplied by Qatar, Libya or Greece.[78]
BGM-71 TOW[79] Army of Glory fighter launch a BGM-71 TOW missile.png 152 mm Wire-guided anti-tank missile  United States Allegedly supplied by the U.S., but origin remains "unclear"; serial numbers removed.[80] The TOW missile system has seen extensive use during the Hama Offensive by Syrian opposition forces, mainly against armoured vehicles from both the SAA and NDF.

Anti-aircraft weapons[edit]

Model Image Diameter Type Origin Details
Towed anti-aircraft guns
ZU-23-2[81] Zu-23 30 M1-3 - InnovationDay2013part1-40.jpg 23 mm Autocannon  Soviet Union Often mounted on technicals.
37 mm automatic air defense gun M1939 (61-K)[82] Zagan 37 mm armata plot b.jpg 37 mm Autocannon  Soviet Union Mounted on technicals.
57 mm AZP S-60[83] S-60-57mm-hatzerim-1.jpg 57 mm Autocannon  Soviet Union
ZPU[57] ZPU morrocan.jpg 14.5×114mm Anti-aircraft gun  Soviet Union Based on the Soviet 14.5 mm KPV heavy machine gun. Often mounted on technicals.
ZPU-4[70] MY-ZPU4-1.jpg 14.5×114mm Anti-aircraft gun  Soviet Union Mostly mounted on Technicals.
ZPU-1[70] ZPU-1-batey-haosef-1.jpg 14.5×114mm Anti-aircraft gun  Soviet Union mounted on Technicals.
Self-propelled air defense
ZSU-23-4 "Shilka"[84] ZSU-23-4 Shilka 01.jpg 23 mm Self-propelled anti-aircraft gun  Soviet Union Often used against ground targets in urban environments.
9K33 Osa[85] Bulgarian SA-8.jpg 209.6 mm 9M33 missile Amphibious SAM system  Soviet Union Two captured from the Syrian Armed Forces and used by Jaysh al-Islam.
Man-portable air-defense systems
FN-6[86] 72 mm  People's Republic of China Supplied by Qatar.[87]
9K32 Strela-2[88] SA-7.jpg 72 mm Man-portable air-defense system  Soviet Union Designated SA-7 Grail by NATO.
9K310 Igla-1[89] IGLA-S MANPADS at IDELF-2008.jpg 72 mm Man-portable air-defense system  Soviet Union Designated SA-16 Gimlet by NATO.
9K338 Igla-S[90] 9K338 Igla-S (NATO-Code - SA-24 Grinch).jpg 72 mm Man-portable air-defense system  Soviet Union Designated SA-24 Grinch by NATO.

Artillery and Mortars[edit]

Model Image Caliber Type Origin Details
Mortars
82-BM-37[citation needed] Zagan 82 mm moździerz wz 37.jpg 82 mm Infantry mortar  Soviet Union
2B9M Vasilek[91] 2B9 Vasilek mortar-4058.JPG 82 mm Gun-mortar  Soviet Union Possible Chinese copy (W99).
At least one in use by Ansar al-Sham. Unclear origin. Also being used by Syrian Turkmen Brigade.[70][91]
Improvised mortars Various Improvised mortar Syria/ Syria
Field artillery
10.5 cm leFH 18M Bundesarchiv Bild 101I-204-1727-09, Balkan, leichte Feldhaubitze in Feuerstellung.jpg 105 mm Howitzer Nazi Germany Nazi Germany
122 mm howitzer M1938 (M-30) VDVHistorymuseum-21.jpg 122mm Howitzer  Soviet Union Captured during Ramouseh Artillery Base assault by Jaish al Fateh
D-30[92] 2015-05-05. Репетиция парада Победы 108.jpg 122 mm Howitzer  Soviet Union Captured from the Syrian Army
"Hell cannon"[93] Various Improvised howitzer Syria Syria Improvised howitzer that fires propane gas cylinders.
Originated with the Ahrar al-Shamal Brigades, now used widely.
M-46[40] M-46-beyt-hatotchan-1.jpg 130 mm Field gun  Soviet Union
180 mm gun S-23[94] Soviet-built S-23 gun.JPEG 180mm Heavy Gun  Soviet Union Captured during Ramouseh Artillery Base assault by Jaish al Fateh
152 mm howitzer 2A65 2015-05-05. Репетиция парада Победы 113.jpg 152mm Howitzer  Soviet Union
Self-propelled artillery
2S1 Gvozdika[95] FLMM - 2S1 Gvozdika.jpg 122 mm Self propelled howitzer  Soviet Union Armed with D-30 howitzer.
2S3 Akatsiya[96] 2S3 Akatsiya -2.jpg 152.4 mm Self propelled howitzer  Soviet Union Armed with D-22 howitzer.
Recoilless rifles
B-10[97]

Type 65
B-10-82mm-recoilles-rifle-batey-haosef-1-1.jpg 82 mm Recoilless rifle  Soviet Union

 People's Republic of China


Chinese copy of B-10.
M60[53] Yugo 82mm M60.png Recoilless rifle  Yugoslavia Supplied by Saudi Arabia.[55]
M40[98] Recoilless-rifle-beyt-hatotchan-1.jpg 105 mm Recoilless rifle  United States Possible Iranian copy.
Carl Gustav 84mm[99] Carl Gustav recoilless rifle.jpg 84 mm Recoilless rifle  Sweden
SPG-9[100] SPG-9M rus.jpeg 73 mm Recoilless rifle  Soviet Union
Rocket artillery
Type 63[71] H12 Type 63 multiple rocket launcher.JPG 106.7 mm Multiple rocket launcher  People's Republic of China Possible Iranian copy.[101]
RAK-12[102][103][104] VLR 128 mm RAK 12 M91 080810 24.jpg 128 mm Multiple rocket launcher  Croatia Croatian built version of Yugoslavian M-63 Plamen with 12
rocket tubes instead of the original 32. Supplied by Saudi Arabia.[55]
Katyusha[105][106][107] Multiple Rocket Launcher  Soviet Union
BM-21 Grad[108][109] Parad2014NN-32.jpg 122 mm Multiple rocket launcher  Soviet Union Initially captured from the Syrian Army,[110] later supplied by Saudi Arabia from Bulgaria.[111]
Grad-P Grad-P-batey-haosef-1.jpg 122 mm Light portable rocket system  Soviet Union
Improvised rocket launchers[57] 80mm-launcher-batey-haosef-1.jpg Various Rocket launcher Syria/ Syria
Khaibar 302 mm Multiple rocket launcher  China

Syria Syria

Tanks and armoured vehicles[edit]

Model Image Type Origin Details
T-54[112] Tawhid Brigade and Conquest Brigade T-54-1.png Medium tank
Main battle tank
 Soviet Union Captured from the Syrian Army, at least one operated by the al-Tawhid Brigade and the Conquest Brigade as of September 2013.
T-55 [113] Free Syrian Army T-55 near Daraa.jpg Medium tank
Main battle tank
 Soviet Union Captured from the Syrian Army.
T-62[114] Tawhid Brigade and Conquest Brigade T-62.png Main battle tank  Soviet Union Captured from the Syrian Army.
T-72[115] T72 cfb borden 1.JPG Main battle tank  Soviet Union Captured from the Syrian Army. At least 8 operated by Jaysh al-Islam.
Liwa Dawood had another 6, now owned by ISIL.[116]
T-90[117] T-90-ET 2010.jpg Main battle tank  Russia 1 operated by Harakat Nour al-Din al-Zenki, captured from the Syrian Army.
BMP-1 Bmp-1-DMSC9112086 JPG.jpg Infantry fighting vehicle  Soviet Union Captured from the Syrian Army.
BVP-1 AMB-S [118] Syrian BVP-1 AMB-S.png Field ambulance  Czechoslovakia Captured from the Syrian Army.
BMP-2 Rep parad4.jpg Infantry fighting vehicle  Soviet Union Two BMP-2s were captured from Syrian Army when FSA overran Aleppo's Infantry School and another was destroyed in the fight for Aleppo's Central Prison.[119]
BTR-60PB[120] BTR-60PB front left.JPEG Wheeled amphibious armoured personnel carrier  Soviet Union Captured from the Syrian Army.
BRDM-2[121] BRDM 2 TBiU 24 2.jpg Amphibious armoured scout car  Soviet Union Captured from the Syrian Army.
Humvee[51] Jülkat.png Armored car  United States some captured from ISIS and YPG/SDF.
Improvised fighting vehicles Free Syrian Army technical in the eastern Qalamoun Mountains.jpg Improvised fighting vehicle Syria Syria Examples are the Sham 1 armored pickup truck and the Sham 2 armored car
used by the Al-Ansar Brigade.[122]
Safir[citation needed] Off-road military light utility vehicle  Iran Captured from the Hezbollah.

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