Nour al-Din al-Zenki Movement
|Nour al-Din al-Zenki Movement|
حركة نور الدين الزنكيParticipant in the Syrian Civil War
Logo of the Nour al-Din al-Zenki Movement
|Active||Late 2011 – 25 March 2019|
|Area of operations||Aleppo Governorate and Idlib Governorate, Syria|
|Allies|| Saudi Arabia|
United States (Until 2015)
Al-Nusra Front/ Tahrir al-Sham (2012–14, 2016–17)
Liwa al-Muhajireen wal-Ansar
Syrian Democratic Forces
Sultan Murad Division (since 2017)
Levant Front (since late 2016)
Army of Mujahideen (since late 2016)
Al-Nusra Front/ Tahrir al-Sham (2015, since November 2017)
Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant
Hamza Division (Since 2017)
|Battles and war(s)||Syrian Civil War
The Nour al-Din al-Zenki Movement (Arabic: حركة نور الدين الزنكي Ḥaraka Nūr ad-Dīn az-Zankī) is a Sunni Islamist rebel group involved in the Syrian Civil War. Between 2014 and 2015, it was part of the Syrian Revolutionary Command Council and recipient of U.S.-made BGM-71 TOW anti-tank missiles.
In 2014, it was reportedly one of the most influential factions in Aleppo. The Nour al-Din al-Zenki Movement made multiple attempts to merge with Ahrar al-Sham but were refused by Ahrar al-Sham's leadership, the Zenki Movement also made attempts to merge with Jaysh al-Islam and the Sham Legion, however all merging efforts with these groups failed leading to the Zenki Movement joining Hayat Tahrir al-Sham in 2017. But the group later left HTS and eventually went to war with HTS by joining the Syrian Liberation Front alongside Ahrar al-Sham on 18 February 2018. After a series of clashes in early 2019 Al Zenki were largely defeated by the rival rebel group Hay'at Tahrir al-Sham and expelled to Afrin.
The Nour al-Din al-Zenki Battalion was formed in late 2011 by Shaykh Tawfiq Shahabuddin in the Shaykh Salman area north-west of Aleppo. It is named after Nur ad-Din Zengi, atabeg of Aleppo, an emir of Damascus and Aleppo in the 12th century. The group's greatest concentration of fighters in the city of Aleppo are in its northwestern suburbs. Nour al-Din al-Zenki took part in the initial battles that started the Battle of Aleppo in July 2012, capturing the Salaheddine neighborhood, although it soon withdrew to its heartland in the countryside.
The group has gone through many affiliations since it was founded. It was initially a branch of the Dawn Movement, then went on to join the al-Tawhid Brigades during the attack on Aleppo, before withdrawing and allying with the Saudi-backed Authenticity and Development Front.
In January 2014, Nour al-Din al-Zenki was one of the founding factions in the anti-ISIL umbrella group Army of Mujahideen. In May 2014 it withdrew from the alliance and subsequently received increased financial support from Saudi Arabia, which had been reluctant to support the Army of Mujahideen due to its links with the Syrian Muslim Brotherhood.
In December 2014, Nour al-Din al-Zenki joined the Levant Front, a broad coalition of Islamist rebel groups operating in Aleppo. On 6 May 2015, it joined 13 other Aleppo-based groups in the Fatah Halab joint operations room.
On 6 October 2015, positions of the Nour al-Din al-Zenki Movement in Aleppo city was attacked by al-Qaeda's al-Nusra Front. 19 October 2015, the military commander of the group was reported as killed during fighting with government forces near the Aleppo area.
Since November 2015, the Nour al-Din al-Zenki Movement absorbed several Syrian Turkmen groups supported by Turkey. On 11 November, 35 Turkmen fighters in the group defected to the al-Nusra Front, and on 15 November, one of its leaders was replaced by a Turkmen commander.
On 28 January 2016, the Nour al-Din al-Zenki Movement withdrew from its positions in Aleppo, which were then taken over by the al-Nusra Front. In the same month, the group's headquarters included banners of quotes from prominent Salafist jihadist figures, including Abdullah Azzam.
On 24 September 2016, al-Zenki joined the Army of Conquest. On 15 October 2016, four 'battalions' left the Levant Front (they were also former members of Al-Tawhid Brigade) and joined the group.[better source needed]
On 2 November 2016, during the Aleppo offensive, Fastaqim Union fighters captured a military commander of the Zenki Movement. In response, al-Zenki fighters attacked the Fastaqim Union's headquarters in the Salaheddine District and al-Ansari district of Aleppo. At least one rebel were killed and more than 25 wounded on both sides in the raid. The next day, the Levant Front and the Abu Amara Brigades began to patrol the streets to arrest any rebels taking part in the clashes. At least 18 rebels were killed in the infighting. The Zenki Movement and the Abu Amara Brigades eventually captured all positions of the Fastaqim Union in eastern Aleppo. Dozens of rebels from the latter group surrendered and were either captured, joined Ahrar al-Sham, or deserted.
On 15 November 2016, Liwa Ahrar Souriya and the Swords of Shahba Brigade announced that it has pledged allegiance and joined the Nour al-Din al-Zenki Movement. Also during November, the Northern Army joined.[better source needed]
The following day, the group's Idlib branch joined Tahrir al-Sham while its northern branch defected to Sham Legion. The branch then formed the Revolutionary Knights Brigade at the end of February.[better source needed] It later became involved in fighting against other TFS factions in northern Aleppo.
Separation from HTS
On 20 July 2017, the Nour al-Din al-Zenki Movement led by Sheikh Tawfiq Shahabuddin announced its withdrawal from Tahrir al-Sham amid widespread conflict between HTS and Ahrar al-Sham, and became an independent group. In a statement released by the Nour al-Din al-Zenki Movement, the group stated the separation was over the following reasons,
- Lack of applying the ruling of Shari'a for which we expended our lifeblood and what is precious to implement its ruling. That became manifest as follows:
- Neglecting the fatwa committee in the commission [Hay'at Tahrir al-Sham] and the issuing of a statement from the Shari'i council without the knowledge of most of its members.
- The lack of acceptance of the initiative that the virtuous 'ulama launched last Thursday night.
- Neglecting the Shura council of the commission [Hay'at Tahrir al-Sham] and taking the decision to fight Ahrar al-Sham despite the fact that the commission's formation was built on the basis of not committing aggression against the factions.
Defeat of Al Zenki by HTS
In January 2019, the group came under attack by HTS, with HTS capturing most of the towns held by the group. The offensive attacked the Al-Zenki areas from multiple locations, with allegations from Zenki that HTS has set up a situation where they would be seen as responding to aggression against themselves, after four of their members were attacked. The HTS offensive against Al Zenki was largely successful, with HTS gaining most of the Al Zenki held villages and towns. Al Zenki was beaten in Idlib, with some members joining either the NLF (an allied Turkish supported force) or fleeing into the Turkish held Afrin canton. Al Zenki tried to take some of its tanks and armoured forces into Afrin, but these were destroyed.
After withdrawing to Afrin on 5 February 2019 the group began clashing with Ahrar al-Sharqiya which is composed of exiles from eastern Syria many of whom were in either al-Nusra or Ahrar al-Sham, many also belong to the Shaitat tribe, the clashes began over unknown reasons and heavy weapons were reportedly used.
On 25 March 2019, The group announced its own dissolution and that remaining elements would be integrated into the Syrian National Army's Third Legion and would be merged with the Glory Corps. Remnants of the Nour al-Din al-Zenki Movement subsequently took part in the 2019 Turkish offensive into north-eastern Syria.
In late January 2020, former Zenki fighters part of the Glory Corps had entered the western Aleppo countryside which was formerly the Nour al-Din al-Zenki Movement's stronghold until being ousted by HTS, to defend the area from pro-government advances.
In May 2014 al-Zenki received increased financial support from Saudi Arabia after it withdrew from the Army of Mujahideen. The group also received financial aid from the United States, in a CIA run program to support US-approved rebel groups, reportedly via the Turkey-based Military Operation Centre (MOC). However, by October 2015, the group claimed that it was no longer supplied by the MOC – "because of regular reports that it had committed abuses."
On 9 May 2016, a plan was reportedly proposed by the US, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, and Qatar to have the Nour al-Din al-Zenki Movement form a "Northern Army" to gather more than 3,000 fighters for the operation. The next phase will be to transfer the fighters from Idlib to northern Aleppo through the Bab al-Hawa Border Crossing and the Azaz border crossing. This reportedly began on 13 May. However, the plan was delayed due to doubts from U.S. officials about the capabilities of the Syrian rebel forces that Turkey had recruited to fight with its military, the opposition from the US-backed Syrian Democratic Forces, and the rift between Turkey and Russia that had only been mended in early August 2016.
According to the Amnesty International, the Nour al-Din al-Zenki Movement, along with the 16th Division, the Levant Front, Ahrar al-Sham, and the al-Nusra Front, were involved in abduction and torture of journalists and humanitarian workers in rebel-held Aleppo during 2014 and 2015.
In January 2017, it was reported that the Abu Amara Brigades, then aligned with Nour al-Din al-Zenki, had been accused of executing homosexuals by throwing them off buildings in Aleppo.[better source needed]
2016 beheading incident
On 19 July 2016, during the Aleppo offensive, a video emerged that appeared to show al-Zenki fighters recording themselves taunting and later beheading a Palestinian boy named Abdullah Tayseer Al Issa. In the video, they claim he had been captured while fighting with the pro-government militia Liwa al-Quds. Liwa al-Quds denied this, and claimed instead that Al Issa was a 12-year-old Palestinian refugee from a poor family who had been kidnapped.
The following day, a social media account purportedly owned by Al Issa's sister, Zoze Al Issa, claimed that Issa was a Syrian from the Wadi al-Dahab district of Homs, who had volunteered to fight with pro-government forces. The New Arab published a photograph purporting to be the boy's identity card and putting his age at 19 years old. The report also quoted a cousin who claimed that Al Issa's had thalassemia, which causes stunted growth.
According to Thomas Joscelyn, writing in The Weekly Standard, U.S. President Donald Trump was shown the beheading video in 2017, and it influenced Trump's decision to end the CIA's support for anti-Assad Syrian rebels: "Trump wanted to know why the United States had backed Zenki if its members are extremists. The issue was discussed at length with senior intelligence officials, and no good answers were forthcoming."
- "The Mujahedeen Army of Aleppo". Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. 8 April 2014. Retrieved 15 September 2014.
- Jennifer Cafarella and Genevieve Casagrande (13 February 2016). "Syrian Armed Opposition Forces in Aleppo" (PDF). Institute for the Study of War.
- "Hassan Ridha on Twitter".
- "Hassan Ridha on Twitter". Retrieved 24 January 2017.
- "اندماجات جديدة بصفوف الزنكي غرب حلب مع اقتراب معركة عفرين". 18 January 2018.
- Mekut (5 January 2019). "Atarib completely surrenders to HTS. The al-Zinki loyal factions in the town, Thuwar al-Sham and Bayariq al-Islam, will be dissolved and members guaranteed no-persecution by HTS.pic.twitter.com/I2iDOUzJ2t".
- كودي (29 May 2018). "Humat al-Islam forms as part of Nour al-Dein al-Zenkey, while Saraya Tulab al-Shahada, Rabee Hamsho Battalion and Suhada Yaqed al-Adas join #JTS #Aleppopic.twitter.com/IhBSUSOZgZ".
- Al-Mohammad, Alaa (28 July 2016). "Rebel military leader killed in Aleppo clashes". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 28 July 2016.
- Fadel, Leith (29 July 2016). "Syrian Armed Forces carry out special operation to avenge the beheaded boy in northern Aleppo". Al-Masdar. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
- Fadel, Leith (19 January 2017). "Top Zinki commander killed in west Aleppo". Al-Masdar. Retrieved 19 January 2017.
- David Enders (25 March 2018). "Under Turkish tutelage FSA becomes better organised, but its mission shifts". The National World.
- "Nour e-Din a-Zinki defects from HTS, citing unwillingness to end rebel infighting". Syria Direct. 20 July 2017.
- "Translation: the Formation of the Syrian Revolutionary Command Council". Goha's Nail. 3 August 2014. Retrieved 15 September 2014.
- "The Levant Front: Can Aleppo's Rebels Unite?". Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. 26 December 2014. Retrieved 9 March 2015.
- "Guide to the Syrian rebels". BBC News. Retrieved 19 May 2015.
- "Jeish al-Mujahideen Charter – Comment and Translation". Goha's Nail. 4 May 2014. Retrieved 19 May 2015.
- "Harakat Nour al-Din al-Zenki". Civil War al-Sham. 17 October 2016. Archived from the original on 6 November 2016. Retrieved 6 November 2016.
- "Mark on Twitter". Retrieved 24 January 2017.
- "Hardline Syria rebels announce merger". Agence France-Presse. 19 February 2018.
- الخطيب, خالد. "ريف حلب: المعارضة تنهي "فرسان الثورة"". almodon.
- Fehim Tastekin (26 January 2018). "Erdogan's plans for Afrin might not sit well with Syria". al-Monitor. Retrieved 29 January 2018.
- "EXCLUSIVE – 18 Syrian revolutionary factions advancing toward a One Army project". The Arab Chronicle. Archived from the original on 26 August 2014. Retrieved 15 September 2014.
- "Rigged Cars and Barrel Bombs: Aleppo and the State of the Syrian War" (PDF). International Crisis Group. 9 September 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 September 2014. Retrieved 15 September 2014.
- "How the Once Moderate Nour al-Din al-Zenki Group Joined Fateh al-Sham". Syria.
- "New Opposition Coalition Jaish Al-Mujahideen Announced in Aleppo". Jamestown Foundation. 30 January 2014. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 15 September 2014.
- "The Story of Al-Tawhid Brigade: Fighting for Sharia in Syria". Al-Monitor (As-Safir). 22 October 2013. Retrieved 15 September 2014.
- Pierret, Thomas (9 August 2013). "External support and the Syrian insurgency". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 5 August 2016.
- Jennifer Cafarella; Genevieve Casagrande (7 October 2015). Syrian Opposition Guide (PDF). Backgrounder. Institute for the Study of War.
- "Syrian troops advance toward air base besieged by IS". Associated Press. 19 October 2015. Retrieved 19 October 2015.
- Albin Szakola and Ullin Hope CIA-vetted Aleppo rebels lash out at Jordan, NOW
- "Hassan Ridha on Twitter". Twitter. Retrieved 24 January 2017.
- "Syrian Rebellion Obs on Twitter". Twitter. Retrieved 24 January 2017.
- SMART News Agency - وكالة سمارت للأنباء (15 October 2016). "لواء التوحيد يعلن اندماجه بحركة نور الدين الزنكي". Retrieved 24 January 2017 – via YouTube.
- "Fighting between 2 factions in the eastern section of Aleppo kills and injures about 25 fighters from both parties". Syria HR. 2 November 2016.
- "Factions of the opposition clashed in the city of Aleppo, the front maize are trying to resolve conflict". ARA News. 3 November 2016.
- @InsideSourceInt (2 November 2016). "Approximately 18 dead so far in rebel infighting across East Aleppo" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- "Zenki and Abu Amarah control all headquarters of Fastaqim Kama Umirt, the leaders of which go to Ahrar al-Sham". Syria HR. 3 November 2016.
- "Brigade Syria are free to join Noureddine Zanki movement in Aleppo and its countryside". 15 November 2016.
- "Syrian Rebellion Obs on Twitter". Retrieved 24 January 2017.
- "Terrormonitor.org on Twitter". Retrieved 24 January 2017.
- "Hassan Ridha on Twitter".
- "Zinki and Sham Legion merger in N Syria forms Liwa Fursan al-Thawra • r/syriancivilwar".
- Al-Tamimi, Aymenn Jawad. "Harakat Nour al-Din al-Zinki Splits from Hay'at Tahrir al-Sham". Aymenn Jawad Al-Tamimi.
- "The victory attacks Zanki in the countryside of Aleppo and Idleb .. And news of a military alliance to confront them". Al Mayadeen. 10 November 2017.
- "'Radical' fighters 'capture 20 towns and villages' from rebels in western Aleppo". Middle East Eye.
- "PressTV-Over 500 militants killed as infighting spreads in Syria". PressTV.
- "Battles continue between Tahrir Al-Sham against the National Liberation Front west of Aleppo amid calm prevailing the clash areas in Idlib province • The Syrian Observatory For Human Rights". January 4, 2019.
- "120 rebels killed in fighting with al-Qaida-linked militants in Syria's Aleppo". Xinhuanet.
- "Eyeing greater bargaining power, Tahrir Al Sham seizes wider slices of Syria's north". The National.
- Desk, News (February 5, 2019). "Update: Turkish-backed rebel groups use heavy weapons to attack one another in Afrin".
- "حركة "نور الدين الزنكي" تحلّ نفسها وتنضمّ إلى كيان جديد". نداء سوريا. March 25, 2019.
- Sami Moubayed (11 October 2019). "Kurds face uphill battle against Turkish and Syrian armies". Gulf News. Retrieved 28 October 2019.
- "Rebels in northern Syria say U.S. has stopped paying them". McClatchy Newspapers. 9 December 2014. Retrieved 9 February 2015.
The aid cutoff will not affect fighters from two groups now fighting to hold onto areas of Aleppo, Syria's one-time commercial center. Those groups include some 600 fighters from Harakat Hazm, which had been the biggest recipient of U.S. aid, and as many as 1,000 fighters fielded by the Nuruddin az Zinki force
- Fidaa Itani, "Aleppo syndrome" NOW 25 July 2014
- Jamie Dettmer "Rebel Defiance, Relief as Assad Forces Get Bogged Down" VOA 26 October 2015
- Martin Chulov "Syrian opposition group that killed child 'was in US-vetted alliance'" Guardian 20 July 2016
- "Proposed 'Northern Army' in Syria alienates Kurds". The Arab Weekly. 22 May 2016.
- "Putin mends broken relations with Turkey′s Erdoğan". BBC. 9 August 2016. Retrieved 4 September 2016.
- "Syria: Abductions, torture and summary killings at the hands of armed groups". Amnesty International. 5 July 2016.
- @Dalatrm (31 January 2017). "Several witnesses from Aleppo City accusing Zinki JFS aligned Abu Amara Brigade of summary executions, throwing gay men off rooftops" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- "Syria conflict: Boy beheaded by rebels 'was fighter'". BBC. 21 July 2016. Retrieved 22 July 2016.
- "Syria conflict: Rebels 'filmed beheading boy' in Aleppo". BBC. 19 July 2016. Retrieved 19 July 2016.
- "Rebels in Syria call boy's beheading a 'mistake'". CNN. 21 July 2016. Retrieved 24 August 2016.
- "Boy beheaded by Syrian rebels was '19-year-old regime fighter'". The New Arab. 21 July 2016. Retrieved 24 August 2016.
- "Syria rebel beheading of child sparks outrage". The Daily Star. 20 July 2016. Retrieved 21 July 2016.
- Abrahms, Max (2018). Rules for Rebels: The Science of Victory in Militant History. Oxford University Press. pp. 187–191. ISBN 9780192539441.
- Joscelyn, Thomas (2017-08-07). "Trump Got This One Right". The Weekly Standard. Retrieved 2017-07-31.