Maccabiah Games

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The Maccabiah Games (a.k.a. the World Maccabiah Games; Hebrew: משחקי המכביה, or משחקי המכביה העולמית; sometimes referred to as the "Jewish Olympics"), first held in 1932, are an international Jewish and Israeli multi-sport event held quadrennially in Israel.[1][2][3] The Maccabiah Games are open to Jewish athletes from around the world, and to all Israeli citizens regardless of their religion. It is the third-largest sporting event in the world by number of competitors, with 10,000 athletes competing (after the Olympics and the FIFA World Cup).[4][5][6][7][8][9][10] The Maccabiah Games were declared a "Regional Sports Event" by, and under the auspices and supervision of, the International Olympic Committee in 1961.[11][12][13]

Games[edit]

Originally, the Maccabiah was held every three years. Since the 4th Maccabiah, the event has generally been held every four years, in the year following the Olympic Games.

The Maccabiah Games are open to Jewish athletes from around the world, as well as to all Israeli athletes regardless of ethnicity or religion; Arab Israelis have also competed in it.[3][14]

Competitions at the Maccabiah are organized into four divisions:[2][15] 1) Open (Seniors); 2) Juniors; 3) Masters; and 4) Disabled. The Games are organized by the Maccabi World Union.

Etymology[edit]

The name Maccabiah was chosen after Judah Maccabee, a Jewish leader who defended his country from King Antiochus.[16] Modi'in, Judah's birthplace, is also the starting location of the torch that lights the flames at the opening ceremony, a tradition that started at the 4th Maccabiah.[12]

History[edit]

Delegations in the streets of Tel Aviv during the parade of the 1st Maccabiah.

The Maccabiah Games were the result of a proposal put forward by Yosef Yekutieli in 1929 at the Maccabi World Congress. Yekutieli, who heard about the Stockholm Olympics, wanted to form a representation for Eretz Yisrael. Following the appointment of the new British Palestine High Commissioner, Sir Arthur Grenfell Wauchope, the Maccabiah got the go-ahead.

The 1st Maccabiah opened on March 28, 1932.[17] The Maccabiah Stadium in Tel Aviv, which was built with donations, was filled to capacity. Roughly 400 athletes from 18 countries took part in everything from swimming, football, and handball, to various athletics. In the first Games, the Polish delegation took first place.[17]

The Maccabiah Games were intended to take place at an interval of three years. Following the success of the first Games, the 2nd Maccabiah was held from April 2 to 10, 1935, despite official opposition by the British Mandatory government. Over 1,300 athletes from 28 nations participated. The 3rd Maccabiah, which was originally scheduled for spring of 1938,[12] was postponed until 1950 due to British concerns of large-scale illegal immigration,[12] World War II, and the 1948 Arab–Israeli War.[18] It became the first Maccabiah to be held after the establishment of the State of Israel.

Starting from the 4th Maccabiah, the games were changed to take place every four years in the year following the Olympics and since 1953, the Games have taken place every four years, with the exception of the 21st Maccabiah, which was postponed for one year due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The 15th edition was marred by what became known as the Maccabiah bridge disaster, when a temporary bridge built for the march of athletes at the opening ceremony collapsed, plunging about 100 members of the Australian delegation into the waters of the Yarkon River. Four athletes were killed, and 63 injured.[19][20] More than 5,000 participants from over 50 countries competed in those Games.[20]

US President Joe Biden, together with President Issac Herzog and Prime Minister Yair Lapid, at the Opening Ceremonies of the 2022 Maccabiah Games.

Over the last two decades, the number of participants grew to 9,000 athletes in the 19th Maccabiah, from 78 countries, making it the 3rd-largest sporting event in the world and the second largest sporting event in 2013, behind the 2013 Summer Universiade.[7][21] It is a forum for Jewish athletes to meet and convene, and provides the athletes with opportunities to explore Israel and Jewish history.[1]

Approximately 10,000 athletes, from 80 countries, were expected to compete in 42 sports categories in the 21st Maccabaiah. It was reportedly the world's largest sporting event in 2022.[22] President of the United States Joe Biden attended the opening ceremonies, cheering on the U.S. delegation of 1,400 athletes—larger than the U.S. delegation to the 2021 Tokyo Olympics.[23] This made him the first American president to attend the Maccabiah Games.[24]

Editions of World Maccabiah[edit]

The following is an overview of the Games:

Summer Maccabiah[edit]

Edition Year Date Main venue Countries
participating
Athletes
participating
Number of
Sports
Ref
1 1932 28 Mar–6 Apr Maccabiah Stadium 27 390 16 [25]
2 1935 2–10 Apr Maccabiah Stadium 28 1,250 18 [26]
3 1950 28 Sept–11 Oct Ramat Gan Stadium 20 800 17 [27]
4 1953 22–29 Sept Ramat Gan Stadium 22 892 19 [28]
5 1957 15–24 Sept Ramat Gan Stadium 20 980 19 [29]
6 1961 29 Aug–5 Sept Ramat Gan Stadium 27 1,000 20 [30]
7 1965 23–31 Aug Ramat Gan Stadium 27 1,200 22 [31]
8 1969 28 July–7 Aug Ramat Gan Stadium 27 1,450 22 [32]
9 1973 9–19 July Ramat Gan Stadium 26 1,500 23 [33]
10 1977 12–21 July Ramat Gan Stadium 34 2,700 26 [34]
11 1981 6–16 July Ramat Gan Stadium 34 3,450 30 [35]
12 1985 15–25 July Ramat Gan Stadium 37 3,700 28 [36]
13 1989 3–13 July Ramat Gan Stadium 45 4,400 32 [37]
14 1993 5–15 July Ramat Gan Stadium 48 5,100 [38]
15 1997 14–24 July Ramat Gan Stadium 33 5,500 34 [39]
16 2001 16–23 July Teddy Stadium 49 2,200 [40]
17 2005 11–23 July Ramat Gan Stadium 55 7,300 [41]
18 2009 13–23 July Ramat Gan Stadium 55 7,510 33 [42]
19 2013 18–30 July Teddy Stadium 77 7,500 34 [43]
20 2017 4–17 July Teddy Stadium 85 10,000 45 [44]
21 2022 12–26 July Teddy Stadium 80 10,000 47 [45]

Winter Maccabiah[edit]

Bronze medal from the winter games in Banska Bystrica, 1936, in the Jewish Museum of Switzerland's collection.

Prior to World War II there was an attempt to organize a winter Maccabiah. Due to the relatively warm temperatures in Palestine, the winter Maccabiot were organized in European nations. The 1st Winter Maccabiah was held in Zakopane, Poland, February 2 to 5, 1933.[46][47] The games were met with great opposition; the Gazeta Warszawska newspaper encouraged Polish youth to intervene during the games to prevent the "Jewification of Polish winter sports venues".[46]

A second attempt at the winter games was relatively more successful. The 2nd Winter Maccabiah took place February 18 to 22, 1936, in Banská Bystrica (then Czechoslovakia).[47] In the games, 2,000 athletes from 12 nations participated.[48][49] This was the last time a winter Maccabiah was ever held, and the only two Maccabiot to not take place in the Land of Israel; although Maccabi still runs smaller regional winter games to date.

Number Year Host Athletes Nations
1. 1933 Zakopane,  Poland 250 8
2. 1936 Banská Bystrica,  Czechoslovakia 2.000 12

Regional Maccabiah[edit]

European Maccabiah[edit]

List:[50]

Number Year Dates Hosts Athletes
1. 1929 Prague,  Czechoslovakia
2. 1930 Antwerpen,  Belgium
3. 1959 Kopenhagen,  Denmark
4. 1963 Lyon,  France
5. 1979 Leicester,  United Kingdom
6. 1983 Antwerpen,  Belgium
7. 1987 Kopenhagen,  Denmark
8. 1991 Marseille,  France
9. 1995 Amsterdam,  Netherlands
10. 1999 Stirling,  United Kingdom
11. 2003 Antwerpen,  Belgium
12. 2007 Rome,  Italy 1800[51]
13. 2011 Vienna,  Austria 2000[52]
14. 2015 27 July – 5 August Berlin,  Germany c. 2050[53]
15. 2019 29 July – 7 August Budapest,  Hungary 3000[54]
16. 2023

Pan American Maccabiah[edit]

Latin American Maccabi's (CLAM) from 1966 Pan American Maccabiah:[55][56]

Number Year Host
1. 1966 São Paulo,  Brazil
2.
3.
4. 1979 Mexico City,  Mexico
5. 1983  Brazil
6. 1987 Caracas,  Venezuela
7. 1991  Uruguay
8. 1995 Buenos Aires,  Argentina
9. 1999
10. 2003 Santiago de Chile,  Chile
11. 2007 Buenos Aires,  Argentina
12. 2011 São Paulo,  Brazil
13. 2015  Chile
14. 2019 Mexico City,  Mexico[57]
15. 2023

Oceania Maccabiah (Junior Carnival)[edit]

The Maccabi Junior Carnivals are a sporting event held for the Jewish youth of Australia or New Zealand. It has been held annually since 1982, usually in January.[58]

Venues were:[59]

  1. Sydney 1982
  2. Perth 1983
  3. Melbourne 1984
  4. Sydney 1986
  5. Brisbane 1987
  6. Adelaide 1988
  7. Sydney 1989
  8. Perth 1990
  9. Melbourne 1991
  10. Sydney 1992
  11. Perth 1993
  12. Melbourne 1994
  13. Sydney 1995
  14. Melbourne 1996
  15. Perth 1997
  16. Sydney 1998
  17. Melbourne 1999
  18. Perth 2000
  19. Sydney 2001
  20. Melbourne 2002
  21. Perth 2003
  22. Auckland 2004
  23. Sydney 2005
  24. Perth 2006
  25. Melbourne 2007
  26. Auckland 2008
  27. Sydney 2009
  28. Perth 2010
  29. Melbourne 2011
  30. Brisbane 2012
  31. Sydney 2013
  32. Perth 2014
  33. Melbourne 2015
  34. Sydney 2016
  35. Sydney 2017
  36. Melbourne 2018
  37. Sydney 2019

Medals[edit]

Ceremonies[edit]

The World Maccabi Movement flag during the opening ceremony of the 19th Maccabiah.

The Maccabiah ceremonies are two ceremonial events that take place during the first and last days of the Maccabiah games. The ceremonies are an important part of the Jewish culture in Israel and the Zionist movement. The ceremonies of the Maccabiah trace their roots to the Olympic Games of the early 20th century. As such, they share many similarities.

The Maccabiah opening ceremony, which is organized by the Maccabi World Union, has recently been presented in English, Hebrew, and Spanish.

Opening[edit]

Opening ceremony of the 17th Maccabiah.

The opening ceremonies represent the official commencement of the Maccabiah. Some sports however, such as golf and rugby, might start prior to the opening ceremonies in order to finish on time.

The opening ceremony for the first Games was held at the new Maccabiah Stadium. The Stadium, which is located next to the Yarkon River in Tel Aviv, was finished just the night before. The Stadium also hosted the 2nd Maccabiah in 1935. For the 3rd Maccabiah, the opening ceremony took place in a new stadium in Ramat Gan. The stadium has been hosting the opening ceremonies of the Maccabiah ever since, with the exception of the 16th, 19th, and 20th Maccabiah Games which were held in Teddy Stadium, Jerusalem.

The United States delegation to the 19th Maccabiah; with 1,106 people, the second-largest delegation (after Israel).

The ceremonies often start with the introduction of the active participants of the Maccabi youth movement. After the parade of nations, the opening ceremony continues on with a presentation of artistic displays of music, singing, dance, and theater representative of the Jewish culture. In recent games, Jewish singers from around the world participated in the opening ceremony. For example, in 2013, Grammy Award-winner Miri Ben-Ari and X Factor USA finalist Carly Rose Sonenclar performed at the opening ceremony.[60]

Parade of Nations[edit]

Just like at the Olympics, the Maccabiah starts out with a "Parade of Nations", during which most participating athletes march into the stadium, country by country. The countries enter the stadium in accordance with the Hebrew alphabet. The parade of nations, in contrast to some other games, include junior and disabled athletes who also partake in the competitions. In accordance with the Maccabiah's tradition, the Israeli delegation always enters last.

Closing[edit]

The closing ceremony of the Maccabiah Games takes place after all sporting events have concluded. Typically, a member of Maccabi or some other well-known figure makes the closing speech and the Games officially close. The ceremony includes large artistic displays of music, singing, and dance. Various Jewish singers perform during the closing ceremony. In recent years, the closing ceremonies included popular musicians and live music and dancing.

Medal presentation[edit]

A medal ceremony is held after each Maccabiah event is concluded. The winner, second, and third-place competitors or teams stand on top of a three-tiered rostrum to be awarded their respective medals. Medals are awarded by an official Maccabi member.

Ceremony hosts[edit]

Year Hosts (s)
1981 Azaria Rapoport (Closing)
2005 Becky Griffin and Rodrigo Gonzales
2009 Galit Giat and Michael HarPaz
2013 Miri Nevo and Dana Grotsky
2017
2022

Sports[edit]

Shaul Ladany (center), winner of the 10 kilometre walk, on podium during 8th Maccabiah Games at Ramat Gan Stadium (1969).
Israeli high jumping champion Gideon Harmat, a silver medalist at the 11th Maccabiah.

The Maccabiah Games recognize all 28 current Olympic sports, plus a number of other sports such as chess, cricket, and netball. In contrast with the Olympic Games and other major international sporting events, the Maccabiah rules regarding accepting new sports are very lenient. New sports are accepted to the Maccabiah Games provided that competitions will only take place if at least four delegations bring competitors for that sport (three in the case of female sports, as well as the junior divisions).[61] As a result, the Maccabiah has held various unique competitions such as duplicate bridge.

Karate, not yet on the Olympic schedule, made its debut in 1977 at the 10th Maccabiah Games. The requisite number of initial countries signed on and agreed to send delegations. Since 1977, karate has participated uninterrupted. Although at the beginning karate was only contested in the fighting or kumite category, forms or kata was included in 1981. In 1985, women's karate was added. Junior and youth categories made their debut in 2009. The World Karate Federation, a member of the International Olympic Committee (IOC), oversees and supervises the rules of karate competition at the Maccabiah.

The Maccabiah Games are organized into four divisions: Open, Junior, Masters, and Paralympics.

  • Open – The Open games are generally unlimited in age, and are intended for the best athletes from each delegation, bound by the governing international rules in each sport.
  • Junior – The Junior Maccabiah games are open to any qualifying athlete aged 15–18.
  • Masters – The Masters games are for older competitors; they are divided into a number of different age categories.
  • Paralympic – The Paralympic games are generally open to all athletes with a range of physical and intellectual disabilities. Past games included Para-cycling, Paralympic swimming, Para table tennis, Half Marathon, and Wheelchair Basketball.

In recent Maccabiot there has been a renewed interest in introducing new sports to the Maccabiah. In the 15th Maccabiah Games, ice hockey was first introduced. Ice hockey was not included in immediately subsequent games, but returned in the 19th Maccabiah. Squash became an official sport in the 10th Maccabiah Games in 1977. The 19th Maccabiah was also granted provisional approval for dressage and jumping competitions from the FEI.[62]

Champions and medalists[edit]

Notable participants[edit]

Four-time Olympic gold medalist Jason Lezak at the 2009 Maccabiah Games.
NHL hockey player Zach Hyman and brother Spencer helped Team Canada win a gold medal at the 2013 Maccabiah Games.

Athletes who have competed in the Maccabiah Games include many Olympic gold medalists, world champions, and world record holders. Among them have been Mark Spitz, Lenny Krayzelburg, Jason Lezak, Marilyn Ramenofsky, and Anthony Ervin (swimming); Mitch Gaylord, Abie Grossfeld, Ágnes Keleti, Valery Belenky, and Kerri Strug (gymnastics); Ernie Grunfeld, Danny Schayes, (coaches); Larry Brown, Nat Holman, and Dolph Schayes (basketball); Carina Benninga (field hockey); Lillian Copeland, Gerry Ashworth, and Gary Gubner (track and field); Angela Buxton, Brad Gilbert, Julie Heldman, Allen Fox, Nicolás Massú, and Dick Savitt (tennis); Angelica Rozeanu (table tennis); Sergey Sharikov, Vadim Gutzeit, Soren Thompson, and Mariya Mazina (fencing); Isaac Berger and Frank Spellman (weightlifting); Lindsey Durlacher, Jason Goldman, Fred Oberlander, and Henry Wittenberg (wrestling); Max Fried and Dean Kremer (baseball); Donald Spero and Michael Oren (rowing); Bruce Fleisher (golf); Adam Bacher, Dennis Gamsy, Neil Rosendorff, Marshall Rosen, Bob Herman (cricket);[63] Boris Gelfand and Judit Polgár (chess); Irwin Cotler (ping pong); Marcelo Lipatin, Jeff Agoos, and Jonathan Bornstein (association football); Steve March Tormé (fast-pitch softball); Shawn Lipman (rugby); Dov Sternberg (karate); and Ori Sasson (judo).[64][65]

Participating nations[edit]

  – Countries that participated in the 19th Maccabiah (2013).
  – Past participants.

The Maccabiah Games have grown into one of the world's largest sporting events, with 85 participating countries in the current edition of the Maccabiah. Below is a list of countries that participated in the most recent games in 2017. Scroll down for participating nations from the 2014 edition and other games[66]

Early games featured many delegations from the Arab nations. Iran, a Muslim, but not Arab country, which debuted at the 7th Maccabiah, stopped participating following the Iranian Revolution. Some of these countries have participated under multiple flags. Countries that previously participated but did not in the most recent Maccabiah are:

Former entity:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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Works cited[edit]

External links[edit]