118th United States Congress

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118th United States Congress
117th ←
→ 119th
A photo of the United States Capitol, with a sunrise in the background.

January 3, 2023 – January 3, 2025
Members100 senators
435 representatives
6 non-voting delegates
Senate majorityDemocratic
Senate PresidentKamala Harris (D)
House majorityRepublican
House SpeakerKevin McCarthy (R)
1st: January 3, 2023 – TBD
A small pin held onto an article of clothing with a Congressional seal on it
118th Congress member pin

The 118th United States Congress is the current meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It convened in Washington, D.C., on January 3, 2023, and will end on January 3, 2025, taking place during the final two years of President Joe Biden's initial term.

In the 2022 midterm elections, the Republican Party won control of the House for the first time since the 115th Congress, while the Democratic Party gained one seat in the Senate, giving them a 51–49 majority (with a caucus of 48 Democrats and three independents). This marks the first split Congress since the 116th, and the first Republican House–Democratic Senate split since the 113th. With Republicans winning the House, the 118th Congress ended the federal government trifecta Democrats held in the 117th.[1]

This congress also features the first female Senate president pro tempore (Patty Murray), the first Black party leader (Hakeem Jeffries) in congressional history, and the longest serving Senate party leader (Mitch McConnell). Additionally, it began with a multi-ballot election for Speaker of the House, which had not happened since the 68th Congress in 1923. Kevin McCarthy was eventually elected speaker on the 15th ballot.

Major events[edit]

President Joe Biden during his 2023 State of the Union Address with Vice President Kamala Harris and House Speaker Kevin McCarthy

Major legislation[edit]


  • March 20, 2023: COVID-19 Origin Act of 2023, S. 619

Proposed (but not enacted)[edit]

House bills
Senate bills
  • S. 316: A bill to repeal the authorizations for use of military force against Iraq.

Major resolutions[edit]




  • H.J.Res. 30: Providing for congressional disapproval under chapter 8 of title 5, United States Code, of the rule submitted by the Department of Labor relating to "Prudence and Loyalty in Selecting Plan Investments and Exercising Shareholder Rights".

Party summary[edit]

Resignations and new members are discussed in the "Changes in membership" section:


Senate membership
Overview of Senate membership by party
(shading shows control)
Total Vacant
Democratic Independent Republican
End of previous Congress[a] 48 2 50 100 0
Begin (January 3, 2023) 48 3 49 100 0
January 8, 2023[b] 48 99 1
January 23, 2023[b] 49 100 0
Latest voting share 51.0% 49.0%  

House of Representatives[edit]

Democrats hold 213 seats to republican's 222
Overview of House membership by party
(shading shows control)
Total Vacant
Democratic Republican
End of previous Congress 216 213 429 6
Begin (January 3, 2023)[c] 212 222 434 1
March 7, 2023[d] 213 435 0
Latest voting share 49.0% 51.0%
Non-voting members 3 3[e] 6 0


Note: Democrats refer to themselves as a "Caucus"; Republicans refer to themselves as a "Conference".


Senate President
Kamala Harris (D)
Senate President pro tempore
Patty Murray (D)


Majority (Democratic)[edit]

Minority (Republican)[edit]

House of Representatives[edit]

House Speaker
Kevin McCarthy (R)


Majority (Republican)[edit]

Minority (Democratic)[edit]



The numbers refer to their Senate classes. All class 3 seats were contested in the November 2022 elections. In this Congress, class 3 means their term commenced in 2023, requiring re-election in 2028; class 1 means their term ends with this Congress, requiring re-election in 2024; and class 2 means their term began in the last Congress, requiring re-election in 2026.

House of Representatives[edit]

All 435 seats were filled by election in November 2022. Additionally, six non-voting members were elected from the American territories and Washington, D.C.[h]

The numbers refer to the congressional district of the given state in this Congress. Eight new congressional districts were created or re-created, while eight others were eliminated, as a result of the 2020 United States census.[i][j]

Changes in membership[edit]

Senate changes[edit]

Senate changes
Vacated by Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation[l]
Ben Sasse
Incumbent resigned January 8, 2023, to become the president of the University of Florida.[6]
Successor was appointed January 12, 2023.[15][m]
Pete Ricketts
January 23, 2023

House of Representatives changes[edit]

House changes
District Vacated by Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation[l]
Virginia 4 Vacant Incumbent Donald McEachin (D) died November 28, 2022, before the beginning of this Congress.
A special election was held on February 21, 2023.[17]
Jennifer McClellan
March 7, 2023
Rhode Island 1 David Cicilline
Incumbent will resign by June 1, 2023, to become CEO of the Rhode Island Foundation.
A special election will be held on a date to be determined by Governor Dan McKee.[13]


Section contents: Senate, House, Joint

Senate Committees[edit]

Standing Committees[edit]

Committee Chair Ranking Member
Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry Debbie Stabenow (D-MI) John Boozman (R-AR)
Appropriations Patty Murray (D-WA) Susan Collins (R-ME)
Armed Services Jack Reed (D-RI) Roger Wicker (R-MS)
Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs Sherrod Brown (D-OH) Tim Scott (R-SC)
Budget Sheldon Whitehouse (D-RI) Chuck Grassley (R-IA)
Commerce, Science and Transportation Maria Cantwell (D-WA) Ted Cruz (R-TX)
Energy and Natural Resources Joe Manchin (D-WV) John Barrasso (R-WY)
Environment and Public Works Tom Carper (D-DE) Shelley Moore Capito (R-WV)
Finance Ron Wyden (D-OR) Mike Crapo (R-ID)
Foreign Relations Bob Menendez (D-NJ) Jim Risch (R-ID)
Health, Education, Labor and Pensions Bernie Sanders (I-VT) Bill Cassidy (R-LA)
Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Gary Peters (D-MI) Rand Paul (R-KY)
Judiciary Dick Durbin (D-IL) Lindsey Graham (R-SC)
Rules and Administration Amy Klobuchar (D-MN) Deb Fischer (R-NE)
Small Business and Entrepreneurship Ben Cardin (D-MD) Joni Ernst (R-IA)
Veterans' Affairs Jon Tester (D-MT) Jerry Moran (R-KS)

Select, Permanent Select & Special Committees[edit]

Committee Chair Ranking Member
Aging (Special) Bob Casey Jr. (D-PA) Mike Braun (R-IN)
Ethics (Select) Chris Coons (D-DE) James Lankford (R-OK)
Indian Affairs (Permanent Select) Brian Schatz (D-HI) Lisa Murkowski (R-AK)
Intelligence (Select) Mark Warner (D-VA) Marco Rubio (R-FL)
International Narcotics Control (Permanent Caucus) Sheldon Whitehouse (D-RI) Chuck Grassley (R-IA)

House of Representatives committees[edit]

Committee Chair Ranking Member
Agriculture Glenn Thompson (R-PA) David Scott (D-GA)
Appropriations Kay Granger (R-TX) Rosa DeLauro (D-CT)
Armed Services Mike Rogers (R-AL) Adam Smith (D-WA)
Budget Jodey Arrington (R-TX) Brendan Boyle (D-PA)
Education and the Workforce Virginia Foxx (R-NC) Bobby Scott (D-VA)
Energy and Commerce Cathy McMorris Rodgers (R-WA) Frank Pallone (D-NJ)
Ethics Michael Guest (R-MS) Susan Wild (D-PA)
Financial Services Patrick McHenry (R-NC) Maxine Waters (D-CA)
Foreign Affairs Michael McCaul (R-TX) Gregory Meeks (D-NY)
Homeland Security Mark E. Green (R-TN) Bennie Thompson (D-MS)
House Administration Bryan Steil (R-WI) Joe Morelle (D-NY)
Intelligence (Permanent Select) Mike Turner (R-OH) Jim Himes (D-CT)
Judiciary Jim Jordan (R-OH) Jerry Nadler (D-NY)
Natural Resources Bruce Westerman (R-AR) Raúl Grijalva (D-AZ)
Oversight and Reform James Comer (R-KY) Jamie Raskin (D-MD)
Rules Tom Cole (R-OK) Jim McGovern (D-MA)
Science, Space and Technology Frank Lucas (R- OK) Zoe Lofgren (D-CA)
Small Business Roger Williams (R-TX) Nydia Velázquez (D-NY)
Transportation and Infrastructure Sam Graves (R-MO) Rick Larsen (D-WA)
Veterans' Affairs Mike Bost (R-IL) Mark Takano (D-CA)
Ways and Means Jason Smith (R-MO) Richard Neal (D-MA)

Joint committees[edit]

Committee Chair Vice Chair Ranking Member Vice Ranking Member
Taxation[n] TBD TBD TBD TBD

Officers and officials[edit]

Congressional officers[edit]

Senate officers[edit]

House of Representatives officers[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b In Arizona: Kyrsten Sinema left the Democratic Party to become an independent politician on December 9, 2022. Effective January 3, 2023, Sinema does not participate in either political party caucus but keeps her seniority and continues to receive committee assignments through the Democrats.[4][5]
  2. ^ a b c d In Nebraska: Ben Sasse (R) resigned on January 8, 2023, to become President of the University of Florida.[6] Pete Ricketts (R) was appointed to fill the vacancy on January 12, 2023, and took office on January 23.
  3. ^ a b In Virginia's 4th district: Donald McEachin (D) died November 28, 2022, before the new Congress started.[7]
  4. ^ a b In Virginia's 4th district: Jennifer McClellan (D) won a special election on February 21, 2023. She was sworn in on March 7.[8]
  5. ^ Includes a New Progressive Party member who is also affiliated as a Republican.
  6. ^ Since 1920, the Senate Democratic Leader has also concurrently served as the Democratic Caucus Chairperson; this is an unwritten tradition.
  7. ^ a b c d e f The Minnesota Democratic–Farmer–Labor Party (DFL) is the Minnesota affiliate of the U.S. Democratic Party and its members are counted as Democrats.
  8. ^ a b Puerto Rico's non-voting member, the Resident Commissioner, is elected every four years. Jenniffer González was last elected in 2020.
  9. ^ The new districts created were: Colorado's 8th; Florida's 28th; North Carolina's 14th; Oregon's 6th; Texas's 37th; Texas's 38th. The districts re-created were: Montana's 1st; Montana's 2nd.
  10. ^ The eliminated districts were: California's 53rd; Illinois's 18th; Michigan's 14th; Montana's at-large; New York's 27th; Ohio's 16th; Pennsylvania's 18th; West Virginia's 3rd.
  11. ^ In Rhode Island's 1st district: David Cicilline (D) will resign on June 1, 2023.[13]
  12. ^ a b When seated or oath administered, not necessarily when service began.
  13. ^ Ricketts serves as senator on an interim basis, until a special election, which will be held on November 5, 2024, concurrently with the presidential election and the general election for Nebraska's class 1 senator. The winner of the special election will complete the remainder of Sasse's term, which expires on January 3, 2027, when the winner of the 2026 regular election will commence a full term.[16]
  14. ^ The Joint Taxation Committee leadership rotate the chair and vice chair and the ranking members between the House and Senate at the start of each session in the middle of the congressional term. The first session leadership is shown here.


  1. ^ "Republicans win control of the House, NBC News projects, overtaking Democrats by a slim margin". NBC News. Retrieved November 17, 2022.
  2. ^ "House Speaker Election Coverage: House adjourns after McCarthy suffers defeat on third ballot". The Hill. January 3, 2023. Retrieved January 3, 2023.
  3. ^ McCartney, Allison; Parlapiano, Alicia; Wu, Ashley; Zhang, Christine; Williams, Josh; Cochrane, Emily; Murphy, John-Michael (January 6, 2023). "Vote Count: McCarthy Elected House Speaker After 15 Ballots". The New York Times. Retrieved January 9, 2023.
  4. ^ "Sinema leaving the Democratic Party and registering as an independent". CNN. December 9, 2022. Retrieved December 25, 2022.
  5. ^ 2023 Congressional Record, Vol. 169, Page S22 (January 3, 2023)
  6. ^ a b Hammel, Paul (December 5, 2022). "Ben Sasse makes it official, will resign U.S. Senate seat Jan. 8". Nebraska Examiner. Retrieved December 6, 2022.
  7. ^ LeBlanc, Paul (November 29, 2022). "Virginia Rep. Donald McEachin dies at age 61". cnn.com. CNN. Retrieved November 29, 2022.
  8. ^ "On our radar: Jennifer McClellan will be sworn in to Congress next week". The Washington Post. March 2, 2023.
  9. ^ Gutman, David (November 16, 2022). "Patty Murray to be first female Senate president pro tempore, third in line for presidency". The Seattle Times. Retrieved November 16, 2022.
  10. ^ Treene, Andrew Solender,Alayna (November 16, 2022). "McConnell re-elected as Senate GOP leader". Axios. Retrieved November 16, 2022.
  11. ^ LeVine, Marianne. "McConnell breaks Senate record for longest-serving leader". Politico. Retrieved January 4, 2023.
  12. ^ Mizelle, Shawna (January 4, 2023). "Hakeem Jeffries to make history as the first Black lawmaker to lead a party in Congress". CNN. Retrieved January 4, 2023.
  13. ^ a b Garrity, Kelly. "Rhode Island Rep. David Cicilline to leave Congress". politico.com. Politico. Retrieved February 21, 2023.
  14. ^ Gilbert, Haidee Eugenio (November 8, 2022). "Moylan defeats Won Pat in delegate race". Pacific Daily News. Retrieved November 8, 2022.
  15. ^ "Nebraska Gov. Jim Pillen to announce US Senator Ben Sasse's replacement on Thursday". KETV. January 11, 2023. Retrieved January 11, 2023. The appointment, which will be announced at 9 a.m., will be effective on Thursday.
  16. ^ "Nebraska Revised Statute 32-565". nebraskalegislature.gov. Nebraska Legislature. Retrieved November 17, 2022.
  17. ^ Flynn, Meagan (December 12, 2022). "Youngkin announces special election to fill late Rep. McEachin's seat". The Washington Post. Retrieved December 12, 2022.