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The heart of Malwa region
Qila Mubarak,the landmark of Bathinda City
Qila Mubarak,the landmark of Bathinda City
Bathinda is located in Punjab
Coordinates: 30°13′48″N 74°57′07″E / 30.23000°N 74.95194°E / 30.23000; 74.95194Coordinates: 30°13′48″N 74°57′07″E / 30.23000°N 74.95194°E / 30.23000; 74.95194
Country India
State Punjab
District Bathinda
 • Body Municipal Corporation
 • Commissioner Sh. Anil Garg
 • Member of Parliament Harsimrat Kaur Badal (Shiromani Akali Dal)
 • Mayor Sh. Balwant Rai Nath
Elevation 210 m (690 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total 285,788
 • Rank 5th in Punjab
 • Official Punjabi
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 151001
Telephone code +91-164-XXX XXXX
Vehicle registration PB 03
Railways Stations in City Bathinda railway station,Bathinda Cantt, Behman Dewana Railway Station, Goniana Railway Station, Bhucho Mandi Railway Station

Bathinda or Bhatinda (Punjabi: ਬਠਿੰਡਾ) (Hindi: बठिंडा) (Hindi: भटिंडा )(previously known as Tabar-e-Hind or Tabarhindh meaning the Gateway to India) is a city and Municipal Corporation in Southern part of Punjab.The city, named after the Bhati kings, is one of the oldest cities in Punjab, India and the current administrative headquarters of Bathinda District. It is in northwestern India in the Malwa Region, 225 km west of the capital city of Chandigarh and is the fifth largest city of Punjab. Bathinda is nicknamed the 'City of Lakes', courtesy of the artificial lakes in the city.The first empress of India, Razia Sultan was imprisoned in the Qila Mubarak fort in Bathinda.[1]

Bathinda is a home of Central University of Punjab and upcoming AIIMS. Bathinda is home to two modern thermal power plants, Guru Nanak Dev Thermal Plant and Guru Hargobind Thermal Plant at Lehra Mohabbat.[2] The city has a fertilizer plant,[3] a large oil refinery,Bathinda is home of two cement plants, Ambuja Cements and UltraTech Cement Limited. A zoo,[2] and a historic Qila Mubarak fort.[4] Bathinda is one of the largest food grain and cotton markets in northern India; the area around Bathinda is a prolific grape growing area. It is one of the leading cities in education in Punjab.[5] It is one of the fastest growing major cities of Punjab.

Three national highways,NH 15 (connecting Samakhiali in Gujarat with Pathankot in Punjab) NH-7 (Fazilka - Badrinath National Highway) and NH-54 (Jaipur - Pathankot National Highway)(according to the new numbering of highways) pass through the city.[6] The city is also one of the largest railway junctions of India with six lines emanating from it. The army cantonment of Bathinda is also one of the largest in Asia. The city is the economic and cultural hub of the region.City bus service has also introduced in the city


The etymology of "Bathinda" is uncertain. According to Khalifa Muhammad Hassan, author of History of Patiala, the ancient name of the city was Bikramgarh. According to Ibn Battuta it was known as Batrind. It is generally believed that Bathinda was built by Bhati rajput kings, who were the rulers of Punjab in 6th century AD. They called the city Whatinda or Bitunda after their surname which finally become known as Bhatinda. Bhatinda was changed to Bathinda to conform to the phonetical expression as locally pronounced.[7] According to Henry George Raverty, Bathinda was known as Tabarhindh (Labb-ut-Twarikh). The earliest mention of Tabarhindh occurs in the Jami-Ul-Hakayat written about 607 Hijri or 1211 AD.

In 1004, Mahmud of Ghazni besieged the local fort, which was located on the route from the northwest into the rich Ganges valley.

In 1189, Muhammad Ghori attacked and occupied the fort of Bathinda. Prithvi Raj Chauhan, the ruler of this region, managed to recover possession of the fort thirteen months later in 1191 after the first battle of Tarain.

After the death of Muhammad Ghori, Delhi Sultanate was established. The fourth Emperor - Iltutmish, on his death-bed nominated his daughter Raziya as his heiress. Raziya became the next and the first Empress of India and was known as Razia Sultan. Her childhood friend named Malik Altunia, the governor of Bathinda, joined a rebellion by other provincial governors who refused to accept Razia's authority. She was imprisoned at the Bathinda fort in April, 1240. She was released in August and later died in October 1240. While in prison Razia Sultan was allowed to go to Hajirattan mosque to offer prayers on Fridays in a special palki.

The city later came under the control of the Sidhu-Brars, who were thrown out of Bathinda during Lodhi's rule but were restored to the area by Babur. A few years later, Chaudhary Roop Chand Brar, a Jatt Sikh, came into the scene. Chaudhary Phul Brar, the second son of Chaudhary Roop Chand, started the practice of langar (community kitchen) for the people in the Lakhi jungle area. The city of Bathinda was visited by the tenth Sikh guru Guru Gobind Singh. He halted at the mausoleum of Haji Rattan, a celebrated Muslim saint, which was 2 km outside the city. He visited and surveyed the strategic importance of the Bathinda Fort.

In circa 1754, the town was conquered by Maharaja Ala Singh, the Maharaja of Patiala and since then it followed the history of erstwhile princely state of Patiala. With the dawn of independence and merger of Patiala and East Punjab States into a division called PEPSU, Bathinda become a full-fledged district with headquarters at Bathinda city.[7]


As per provisional reports of Census India, population of Bathinda city in 2011 is 285,813; male and female are 151,782 and 134,031 respectively. The sex ratio of Bathinda city is 883 per 1000 males.

The number of literate people in Bathinda city are 211,318 of which 118,888 are males while 92,430 are females, average literacy rate is 82.84 percent of which male and female literacy is 87.86 and 77.16 percent respectively.

Total children (ages 0 to 6) in Bathinda city are 30,713: 16,472 boys and 14,241 girls. Child sex ratio of girls is 865 per 1000 boys.[8]

Religion in Bathinda[9]
Religion Percent

Geography and climate[edit]

Bathinda is in the northwestern region of India and is a part of the Indo-Gangetic alluvial plains. The exact cartographic co-ordinates of Bathinda are 30°12′N 74°57′E / 30.20°N 74.95°E / 30.20; 74.95.[10] It has an average elevation of 201 metres (660 ft).

Climate chart (explanation)
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: MSN World Weather

Bathinda's climate correspond to semi arid with high variation between summer and winter temperatures. Average annual rainfall is in a range of 20 mm to 40 mm.[11]

In recent times, Summer temperaures of 49 °C (120 °F)[12] and winter temperatures of 1 °C (about 33 °F)[13] were not unknown in Bathinda, lowest being -1.4 °C (29.48 °F) in the winter of 2013[14] The weather is generally dry but is very humid from mid-May to the end of August. Rainfall is primarily from the south-west due to monsoon weather and is concentrated in the period July to mid-September. Some light winter showers are also experienced in the region due to Western disturbances.

The region is very dusty and dust-laden winds often interrupt the normal life during the hot summer evenings. The vegetation is scanty and, due to improper planning and lopsided growth; traffic jams often take the most of ones evening time. The surrounding districts are of sri Muktsar sahib, Faridkot, Mansa, Moga and Barnala in Punjab and Sirsa in Haryana. The boundary of the state of Rajasthan is also under an hour's drive from Bathinda.


Bathinda is surrounded by 14 small and medium towns, making the city a hub of most industrial activities in the region. Bathinda cantonment is said to be the largest in Asia. Bathinda has one of the biggest food-grain and cotton markets in India. The Multinational CorporationBathinda processes horticultural products grown in Bathinda.

Major industries in Bathinda include National Fertilizers Plant,Bathinda is home of two cement plants, Ambuja Cements and UltraTech Cement Limited. Two power plants (Guru Nanak Dev Thermal Plant and Guru Hargobind Thermal Plant) (Lehra Mohabbat), Petrochemical Plants, Yarn & Textiles Plants, Citrus Fruit Belts and Sugar Mills. HMEL is building a Grassroots oil refinery [15] in Bathinda.

As part of a massive development programme to make Bathinda a model city of Punjab, the government has proposed to set up a special economic zone (SEZ) for textile, a flying school, an international cricket stadium and academy, Bathinda Airport and an air-conditioned bus stand within three years. Besides, private players are also building new Shopping malls.

Bathinda is also an Educational Hub of this region, especially for competitive exams preparations, which in turn is a source of income for the local residents.

Tourism sector in the region has also grown manifold, as Bathinda has some of the oldest monuments, some of them even dating back to 3,000 B.C. to the Harappan period.

  • Guru Gobind Singh Refinery

Guru Gobind Singh Refinery (GGSR) is a refinery owned by HPCL Mittal Energy Limited (HMEL) a joint venture between Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Ltd and Mittal Energy Limited, a company owned by L N Mittal (HMEL). It is located in village Phulokheri near to town raman, Bathinda, Punjab, India.

  • Ambuja Cements

Ambuja Cements Ltd (ACL), a part of a global conglomerate Holcim, is one of India’s leading cement manufacturers and has completed over 25 years of operations. Ambuja Cements Ltd, a part of the global conglomerate LafargeHolcim, is one of the leading cement companies in the Indian cement industry. Operating for over 25 years, Ambuja has proved to be the best cement for construction and the best cement manufacturing company in India with its uniquely sustainable development projects.

It is located on Malout Road, Near Tharmal Plant, Bathinda, Punjab, India.

  • UltraTech Cement

UltraTech Cement Limited is India's biggest cement company and India’s largest exporter of cement clinker based in Mumbai, India. The company is part of the Aditya Birla Group and division of Grasim Industries. It has an annual capacity of 64 million tonnes. UltraTech cement has been awarded the Superbrand status.

It is located in village Lehra Mohabbat and 20 km from Bathinda, Punjab, India.

  • National Fertilizers Limited (N.F.L)

NFL was established in 1974, as a public-sector undertaking of the Government of India. NFL initially operated two plants in Bathinda and Panipat. In 1978, the ownership and operations of the Nangal plant of FCI was transferred to NFL. It is located on Sivian Road,Bathinda, Punjab, India.


Bathinda is well connected by air, road and rail as Bathinda railway station is on main Delhi-Fazilka line route and is an important railway junction with lines going to Ambala, Bikaner, Sri Ganganagar Ferozepur, Hisar and Delhi. The city is very well connected with daily or weekly trains to most places in India including the major cities of Jammu, Amritsar, Jalandhar, Patiala, Pathankot, Kanpur, Jaipur, Delhi, Mumbai and Kolkata. For administrative reasons the station is under Ferozepur Railway Division.

  • Bathinda ISBT

Bathinda Bus Stand or Bathinda ISBT is located in the center of the city on the NH 64 therefore very well connected to the road network. Daily bus services from Bathinda to Patiala, Chandigarh, Amritsar, Ferozepur, Fazilka, Sri Ganganagar, Sirsa, Hisar, Dehradun, Shimla, Ludhiana, Lalandhar, Jaipur, Rohtak and Delhi.

The government has proposed to set up an air-conditioned Inter State Bus Terminal (ISBT) on Ring Road Phase 1.

  • Railway junction

Bathinda is well connected by rail to almost all major cities like New Delhi,Chandigarh,Kolkata,Lucknow,Jaipur,Patna,Ahmedabad,Guwahati,Jammu,Udhampur,Amritsar. Bathinda railway station is the main terminal station is located on the Delhi-Fazilka line of Northern Railway. Six rail routes extend from it.The Shatabdi Express connects New Delhi to Bathinda on Saturday and Monday.

  • Bathinda Airport

UP, ICAO: VIBT) is a civil enclave at the Bhisiana Air Force Station of the Indian Air Force. The domestic air terminal is being built near Virk Kalan village, 20 kilometres northwest of Bhatinda, Punjab, India.

The Airports Authority of India has constructed the Bathinda civil enclave at a cost of Rs 25 crore on 42 acres of land. The apron will accommodate two ATR 42 type of aircraft simultaneously while the glass and steel terminal building will feature a VIP lounge, two check-in counters, a 30-seater security hold and two conveyor belts. A parking lot for 25 cars is also being constructed.

  • City Transportation

Bathinda is connected with other cities of Punjab and also with other states by Bus service. Several major National Highways, NH 15, NH 64 pass through the city. The transportation services are provided by state owned PEPSU Road Transport Corporation (PRTC) and private bus operators.

For transportation within Bathinda city, rickshaws, auto rickshaws, taxis and City Buses are easily available.

Ring Road Phase I - The road which will connect the Chandigarh Highway to Mansa road to Dabwali Road with to help reduce traffic congestion in the city.

Ring Road Phase II - The road which will connect the Bathinda - Malout road with the Bathinda - Badal village road is expected to help reduce traffic congestion in the city as the vehicles plying from Badal village towards Malout road and vice versa will no longer need to enter the city after the road becomes functional. Besides this, the road will also connect the Bathinda airport with the Guru Gobind Singh refinery.

Suburbs In Bathinda[edit]

Bhucho Mandi (Municipal Council)10 km

Goniana (Municipal Council)10 km

Maur Mandi (Municipal Council) 35 km

Rampura Phul (Municipal Council)20 km

Talwandi Sabo (Nagar Panchayat)28 km

Raman (Municipal Council) 34 km


There has been increasing incidence of various types of cancer in and around Bathinda. It is attributed to the presence of polluting industries and the indiscriminate use of modern pesticides and other toxic materials in farming. A 2007 epidemiological study found that the surface waters of Bathinda are contaminated with arsenic, cadmium, chromium, selenium and mercury primarily due to the discharge of untreated waste water from surrounding industries. Unscientific farming practices, that emerged after the introduction of Green Revolution, are also alleged to be a reason for growing incidence of not just cancer but also, high rates of spontaneous abortions, reproductive aliments, genetic deformities, anaemia, diarrhoea, vomiting, fluorosis and a host of skin ailments including rashes and boils. Many young couples are also reported to be migrating out to save their children from adverse effects. Hence the government has completey banned the use of ground water in the city for drinking purposes.[16]


School Education[edit]

The city has many prestigious school chains too S.S.D. Senior Secondary School (Boys) is one of the oldest educational institutes and many English medium schools have also come up in the city during the last 30 years. The city also has DAV College which offers various Graduation and Post Graduation Courses.[17] St. Paul's High School is one and only school affiliated to ICSE board. DAV Public School and Delhi Public School have opened their branches in the city. Many missionary schools are being run in the city including St. Xavier's Sr. Sec. School,Police Public School, St. Joseph Sr. Sec. School and Delhi Public School.The Government Girls' Senior Secondary School, at Goniana Mandi is also a well known school of the area and has contributed a lot towards the education of the girls in the area.The establishment of Rajindera Govt. College in 1956 and St. Joseph’s Convent School in 1961 were the educational institutional which played a dominating role in the region

Bathinda is often considered to be an educational hub of the region. Many students from the neighboring towns who intend to pursue medical or engineering come here to prepare for their entrance exams. There are many well known private institutes in the city preparing students for various engineering and medical entrance examinations. There is one government funded and nearly ten private colleges in the city.


AIIMS All India Institute of Medical Science will be set up at Bathinda with the Union health ministry granting an approval for the same.

The institute will come up on 175 acres of land of the Punjab Agricultural University (PAU) regional research centre identified by the Punjab government on the outskirts of Bathinda city on the Dabwali road.

The Advanced Cancer Diagnostic Treatment & Research Centre located in the Industrial Growth Center on the Mansa road Bathinda.

Max Super Speciality Hospital, Bathinda is one of its kind multi-speciality hospital based on internationally accepted practices with world-class 'man & machine'. Located at NH-64, Mansa Road, Bathinda, it is a multi-speciality hospital.

Adesh University is a Private Medical University located in Bhucho Mandi on Bathinda Chandigarh Highway. Adesh institute of medical science and research (AIMSR) is a 750-bed hospital and has 150 M.B.B.S. annual seat intake. College located in Bhucho Khurd village of district Bathinda of Punjab. The campus is surrounded in a 100 acre of land. The college was established in 2006 under Adesh Institutions.[1] AIMSR is approved by Medical Council of India. It is affiliated to Baba Farid University of Health Sciences, Faridkot and permitted by Ministry of Health & Family Welfare.

Civil Hospital A Government run hospital Located at NH-64, Mansa Road, Bathinda


Bathinda is home of state technical university Maharaja Ranjit Singh State Technical University

Maharaja Ranjit Singh State Technical University (MRSSTU) (formerly part of Punjab Technical University (PTU)) is a State technical university of Punjab located in Bathinda.[2][3] It was established in 2014 to promote technical, management and pharmaceutical education in the state of Punjab at the degree level and above. Being an education and research university, it has a mandate to set up centers of excellence in emerging technologies for promoting training and research & development in these areas.[4] This University has jurisdiction up to 11 districts i.e. Bathinda, Ferozepur, Moga, Faridkot, Sri Muktsar Sahib, Barnala, Mansa, Sangrur, Patiala, Fatehgarh Sahib, Fazilka.[5] University will function from upgraded Giani Zail Singh Punjab Technical University Campus.

Giani Zail Singh Campus College of Engineering and Technology Bathinda is the first institute in Punjab established with the full funding of state government in the year 1989 when the Hon’ble Governor of Punjab Sh. S.S.Ray laid the foundation stone on 23 October 1989. Initially set up as Government Engineering College, it was converted to an autonomous institute as Giani Zail Singh College of Engineering and Technology (GZSCET) in year 1992 and a “Board of Governors” was constituted to manage the affairs of the College. The Chairman of “Board of Governors” is the Hon’ble Minister of Technical Education and the other members of “Board of Governors” includes industrialists, academicians and representatives of the State Government. Since December 2011, the status of the College has been elevated to that of MRSSTU Campus. The Campus provides an academic environment under the guidance of faculty. It is named after Giani Zail Singh, the seventh President of India.

Guru Kashi University is a private university in Damdama Sahib Talwandi Sabo, Bathinda. GKU is offering a wide range of programmes in Engineering, Management, Education, Agriculture, Languages, Life Sciences and Applied Sciences. A barren patch of 45 acres of land has been turned into a lush green most modern and high tech educational campus.

Akal University is a private university in Damdama Sahib Talwandi Sabo, Bathinda.

Baba Farid Group of Institutions runs under the aegis of Baba Farid Vidayak Society founded in 1993 under the encouraging patronage of prominent educationists from India, UK, USA and Canada.The group is being managed by its chairman Dr. Gurmeet Singh Dhaliwal (Bharat Jyoti Awardee), an eminent educationist. BFGI aims at providing quality education along with preparing the employable young minds to face the competitive world on all fronts. BFGI campus, lush green and spread across 50 acres, is situated 4 km. away, from the municipal limits of Bathinda city. The campus offers a host of hi-tech ultra modern facilities to ensure good quality & well-planned education to its students.

Baba Farid College of Engg. & Tech,Baba Farid College of Mgt. & Tech,Baba Farid College,Baba Farid College of Education,Baba Farid Sr. Sec. School,Baba Farid Public Sr. Sec. School,School of International Studies,School of Skill Development,School of Competitive Studies

It is located on Muktsar Road,Near Deon Village Bathinda, Punjab, India.

Central University of Punjab[edit]

The Central University of Punjab Bathinda (Punjab) has been established through the Central Universities Act 2009 which received the assent of the President of India on 20 March 2009. Its territorial jurisdiction extends to the whole State of Punjab.

It started its functioning from Camp Office in April, 2009, which happens to be the residence of the Vice Chancellor, and from November 2009 it shifted to its City Campus spread over an area of 35 acres. Construction of the main campus has started on 500 acres of land in Ghuda Village (21.5 K.M from Bathinda ISBT) on Badal Road. Engineers India Limited, a Navratna Public Sector Undertaking, is providing PMC services for the project.[18]

The Institute of Hotel Management Catering Technology & Applied Nutrition[edit]

The Institute of Hotel Management Catering Technology & Applied Nutrition, Bathinda (Punjab) was established in 2009 by Ministry of Tourism, Govt. of India and Dept. of Tourism, Punjab Govt. It is affiliated to National Council for Hotel Management (An apex Body under Ministry of Tourism, Govt. of India), Noida. The institute is sponsored by Dept. of Tourism, Punjab Govt.

The institute is easily approachable from the city center of Bathinda on Mansa Road. Away from the bustle of the city and just near enough for all facilities such as the bus stand, market and railway station.

Places of interest[edit]

Bathinda has a rich religious and cultural heritage. There are a number of places worth visiting in and around the city. Many of them are deeply associated with various religious beliefs. Damdama Sahib

Damdama Sahib is one of the Five Takhts or Seat of Temporal Authority of Sikhism. It has been built at the site where Guru Gobind Singh, the tenth Sikh Guru, prepared the full version of the Sikh Scriptures, called Sri Guru Granth Sahib, in 1705. Located in village of Talwandi Sabo, 28 km to the southeast of Bathinda, the gurdwara was officially recognized as the Fifth Takht of Sikhism, on November 18, 1966.

  • Maiser Khana Mandir

Maiser Khana Mandir is located 29 km from Bhatinda on Bhatinda-Mansa Road. According to a legend, it was here that the Jyoti of Mata Jawala (the divine apparition of a Mother Goddess) appeared to a poor devotee, who could not reach the temple at Jawala. Each year, two fairs are held here, visited by lakhs of devotes across the globe.

  • Qila Mubarak - This is one of the oldest and highest small brick monument. It also contains two gurudwaras as the tenth Sikh guru Gobind Singh visited the place.
Qila Mubarak.
  • Bahia Fort — This was built in 1930 in front of the main Fort by S. Balwant Singh Sidhu. It belongs to a group of 22 villages, so called Bahia Sahib. It was as official residence of armed forces of Maharaja Bhupinder Singh of Patiala State. Now it has been converted into a Four Star Hotel.
  • Lakhi Jungle - This is situated 15 km away from Bathinda and on the way to Muktsar. A forest having old Gurudwara enjoyed the touches of Shri Guru Nanak Dev who recited one lakh holy Paths of Shri Japuji Sahib. Therefore, it was called Lakhi Jungle. Tenth Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh also visited this place.
  • Rose Garden — This garden boasts of large number of varieties of Roses. It is very near the city and is visited by large number of people on weekends. The 10-acre (40,000 m2) garden is located close to Thermal Plant. It has a vast variety of rose plants and is a good picnic spot.
  • Zoological garden — It is a plant nursery of the forest department located approximately 10 km away from the Cantonment and is a popular picnic spot. This place is a small zoo in the midst of a small forest.
  • Chetak Park — A beautiful garden built in Bathinda Cantonment is popular among children's and others. It has a lake and boating facility.
  • Mazaar of Peer Haji Rattan — It is one of the most revered place of worship in the city. There is something unique about this place. At this place a mosque and a Sikh gurudwara share the same wall and a temple is also very close by. It exhibits the religious harmony among the people of this city.

Shopping and Entertainment Center[edit]

    • City Center Mall — Built by Amravati Infrastructure in collaborated with the Satya Group, this is the city's first mall.[19] It is designed by India 's ace architect Mr. Mohit Gujral.[20] The mall is spread across 1,00,000 sqr. ft. space.[21]
    • Mittal's City Mall — Built by Ganpati Township ltd is considered to be an entertainment and retail project.[22] City Mall is spread over 3 lakh square feet and it has 8 floors.[23]
    • Peninsula Mall — Built by HBN group the mall consists of around 2,50,000 sq. ft of retail space, sprawling across 5 floors with a view of lakes.[24]
    • Pearls City Walk Mall — The mall, which is under construction, once complete, will become the largest mall in the city. The mall is located on the prime location of Mall road, close to the Bathinda Railway Station.
    • Fun Cinemas (Mittal's City mall) - 4 screen multiplex[25]
    • Big Cinemas (City Center mall) - 4 screen multiplex[26]
    • Q Cinemas (Peninsula mall) - 4 screen multiplex, out of which one screen is 3d.
    • Dhobi Bazaar — It is the shopping hub of Bathinda and houses several brands.
    • Boating in the Thermal Lake — The boats have been modeled on 'Kashmir-style shikaras[27]
    • Banks of Serhind Canal.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Raziya Sultan". 
  2. ^ a b
  3. ^
  4. ^
  5. ^
  6. ^
  7. ^ a b
  8. ^ "Census 2011". 
  9. ^
  10. ^ Falling Rain Genomics, Inc - Bathinda
  11. ^ maps/india/annualrainfall.htm
  12. ^ under the section 'historical monthly average for may', subsection 'temperature',
  13. ^ under the section 'historical monthly average for Jan', subsection 'temperature',
  14. ^ A news report,
  15. ^
  16. ^ Cancer: Bathinda's dubious distinction
  17. ^
  18. ^
  19. ^
  20. ^
  21. ^
  22. ^
  23. ^
  24. ^
  25. ^
  26. ^
  27. ^ "Shikaras come to Bhatinda". hindustantimes. 30 October 2011. Retrieved December 29, 2011. 

External links[edit]