Messier 86

Coordinates: Sky map 12h 26m 11.7s, +12° 56′ 46″
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Messier 86
Galaxy Messier 86 in Virgo, imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope
Observation data (J2000 epoch)
Right ascension12h 26m 11.7s[1]
Declination+12° 56′ 46″[1]
Redshift-0.000814 ± 0.000017 (-244 ± 5 km/s)[1]
Distance52 ± 3 Mly (15.9 ± 1.0 Mpc)[2]
Apparent magnitude (V)8.9[3]
Apparent size (V)8.9 × 5.8[1]
Notable featuresdisplays a rare blue shift
Other designations
NGC 4406,[1] UGC 7532,[1] PGC 40653,[1] VCC 0881[1]

Messier 86 (also known as M86 or NGC 4406) is an elliptical or lenticular galaxy in the constellation Virgo. It was discovered by Charles Messier in 1781. M86 lies in the heart of the Virgo Cluster of galaxies and forms a most conspicuous group with another large galaxy known as Messier 84. It displays the highest blue shift of all Messier objects, as it is, net of its other vectors of travel, approaching the Milky Way at 244 km/s. This is due to both galaxies falling roughly towards the center of the Virgo cluster from opposing ends.[4]

Messier 86 is linked by several filaments of ionized gas to the severely disrupted spiral galaxy NGC 4438, indicating that M86 may have stripped some gas and interstellar dust from the spiral.[5] It is also suffering ram-pressure stripping as it moves at high speed through Virgo's intracluster medium, losing its interstellar medium and leaving behind a very long trail of X ray-emitting hot gas that has been detected with the help of the Chandra space telescope.[6]

Messier 86 has a rich array of globular clusters, with a total number of around 3,800.[7] Its halo also has a number of stellar streams interpreted as remnants of dwarf galaxies that have been disrupted and absorbed by this galaxy.[8]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i "NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database". Results for NGC 4406. Retrieved 2006-11-14.
  2. ^ Jensen, Joseph B.; Tonry, John L.; Barris, Brian J.; Thompson, Rodger I.; et al. (2003). "Measuring Distances and Probing the Unresolved Stellar Populations of Galaxies Using Infrared Surface Brightness Fluctuations". Astrophysical Journal. 583 (2): 712–726. arXiv:astro-ph/0210129. Bibcode:2003ApJ...583..712J. doi:10.1086/345430. S2CID 551714.
  3. ^ "Messier 86". SEDS Messier Catalog. Retrieved 30 April 2022.
  4. ^ Jacoby, G. H.; Kenney, G. H.; Tal, J. D. P.; Crowl, H. H.; et al. (2005). "Imaging and Spectroscopy of Large Scale H-alpha Filaments in M86". Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society. 37: 1392. Bibcode:2005AAS...20713806J.
  5. ^ Gomez, H. L.; Baes, M.; Cortese, L.; Smith, M. W. L.; Boselli, A.; Ciesla, L.; et al. (2010). "A Spectacular Hα Complex in Virgo: Evidence for a Collision between M86 and NGC 4438 and Implications for the Collisional ISM Heating of Ellipticals". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 518: L45. arXiv:1005.1597. Bibcode:2010A&A...518L..45G. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201014530. S2CID 14563125. L45.
  6. ^ Randall, S.; Nulsen, P.; Forman, W. R.; Jones, C.; Machacek, M.; Murray, S. S.; et al. (2008). "Chandra's View of the Ram Pressure Stripped Galaxy M86". The Astrophysical Journal. 518 (1): 208–223. arXiv:0806.0866. Bibcode:2008ApJ...688..208R. doi:10.1086/592324. S2CID 15688704.
  7. ^ "Globular Cluster Systems in Galaxies Beyond the Local Group". NASA-IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED). Retrieved 2012-07-21.
  8. ^ Janowiecki, Steven; Mihos, J. Christopher; Harding, Paul; Feldmeier, John J.; et al. (2010). "Diffuse Tidal Structures in the Halos of Virgo Ellipticals". The Astrophysical Journal. 715 (2): 972–985. arXiv:1004.1473. Bibcode:2010ApJ...715..972J. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/715/2/972. S2CID 119196248.

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