Paris Saint-Germain F.C.
|Full name||Paris Saint-Germain Football Club|
|Nickname(s)||Les Parisiens (The Parisians) Les Rouge-et-Bleu (The Red and Blues)|
|Short name||PSG, Paris SG, Paris|
|Founded||12 August 1970|
|Ground||Parc des Princes|
|Owner||Qatar Sports Investments|
|2015–16||Ligue 1, 1st|
|Website||Club home page|
Paris Saint-Germain Football Club (French pronunciation: [paʁi sɛ̃ ʒɛʁmɛ̃]) is a French professional association football club based in Paris, whose first team play in the highest tier of French football, the Ligue 1. The club was formed in 1970 by the merger of Paris FC and Stade Saint-Germain.
Paris Saint-Germain remain the only club to have never been relegated from Ligue 1. The Parisian side is also one of only two French clubs to win a European title – the other being arch-rivals Olympique de Marseille. PSG is the most successful French club in terms of trophies won.
The capital club has won 31 titles in its history. Domestically, Paris SG have won six Ligue 1 titles, a record ten Coupes de France, a record six Coupes de la Ligue, six Trophées des Champions and one Ligue 2 title. In international club football, Paris have won one UEFA Cup Winners' Cup and one UEFA Intertoto Cup.
PSG have always represented both Paris and nearby Saint-Germain-en-Laye. The Red and Blues play their games in Paris at the Parc des Princes. However, the Camp des Loges (the club's training complex since 1970) is located in Saint-Germain-en-Laye. Paris SG spent their formative years using the Stade Municipal Georges Lefèvre, located in front of the Camp des Loges, before moving into the Parc des Princes in 1974.
PSG shares an intense rivalry with Marseille and contest the most notorious football match in France, known as Le Classique. Paris SG is the second-highest supported football club in France after Marseille. Red, blue and white are the club's traditional colours.
The Parisians have hosted the Tournoi de Paris at the Parc des Princes since 1975. During the tournament's 2010 edition, PSG unveiled "Allez Paris Saint-Germain", to the tune of "Go West" by Village People, and Germain the Lynx as the club's official anthem and mascot, respectively. "Ici, c'est Paris!" ("Here is Paris!") and "Paris est magique!" ("Paris is magic!") are PSG's most popular mottos.
Qatar Sports Investments (QSI) has been the club's owner since 2011. The takeover made Paris Saint-Germain the richest club in France and amongst the richest in the world. Currently, PSG have the sixth-highest revenue in the footballing world with an annual revenue of €520.9 million, and are the world's thirteenth most valuable football club, worth $814 million.
- 1 History
- 2 Crest evolution
- 3 Kit evolution
- 4 Grounds
- 5 Support
- 6 Rivalries
- 7 Tournoi de Paris
- 8 Ownership and finances
- 9 Honours
- 10 Players
- 11 Management
- 12 Youth section
- 13 Female section
- 14 See also
- 15 References
- 16 External links
Towards the end of the 1960s, an ambitious group of businessmen decided to create a major club in the French capital. After a petition was signed by 20,000 people, Paris Saint-Germain Football Club were founded on 12 August 1970 with the merger of Paris FC and Stade Saint-Germain (the latter team having existed since 1904). PSG are today the city's largest club by far. The Parisian side is also France's most successful club in terms of trophies won.
Paris SG won the Ligue 2 title in their inaugural season and celebrated their first birthday in Ligue 1. PSG have never formally been relegated from Ligue 1. However, in 1972 the club split into two. The professional arm of the club continued life in the top-flight under the name of Paris FC, while PSG assumed amateur status and had to restart in Division 3. Paris returned to Ligue 1 in 1974, ironically the same year that Paris FC were relegated, and moved into the Parc des Princes. Since then, PSG have always played in the French first division.
The club's trophy cabinet welcomed its first major silverware in the shape of the Coupe de France in 1982. The following season, Paris SG made it back-to-back cups. Manager Gérard Houllier then led the club to their maiden league success in 1986, with Safet Sušić pulling the strings in midfield. These successes in turn led to European involvement. The best result was a quarter-final appearance in the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup in 1983, against Belgian outfit Waterschei. But competition for recognition as the capital's No1 sporting entity came from Matra Racing between 1984 and 1989, and PSG went into decline.
The takeover by broadcaster Canal+ in 1991 revitalised the club. An avalanche of trophies followed as PSG entered their golden age. PSG's crowning glory came with triumph in the 1996 UEFA Cup Winners' Cup Final. The club became one of only two French clubs to win a major European title – the other being arch-rivals Olympique de Marseille. Domestically, PSG celebrated their second league title in 1994, three Coupes de France, two Coupes de la Ligue and two Trophées des Champions.
PSG launched the new millennium by claiming the 2001 UEFA Intertoto Cup, followed by three French Cups and one League Cup. Cup successes notwithstanding, the 2000s were tough for PSG, who flirted with relegation on occasion as a combination of high expectations and intense media pressure. After two years of solid progress and stability under the stewardship of manager Antoine Kombouaré and president Robin Leproux, the club was purchased by Qatar Sports Investments (QSI) in 2011.
Reinforced by star signing Zlatan Ibrahimović and famous manager Carlo Ancelotti, PSG secured the club's first Ligue 1 title in 19 years, and third overall in 2013. Ancelotti left but the titles kept coming under Laurent Blanc. In 2014, the Red and Blues clinched a maiden domestic treble (Ligue 1, Coupe de la Ligue and Trophée des Champions). Paris SG then left their mark on French and European football in 2015 and 2016. The club claimed an unprecedented domestic quadruple twice in a row (Ligue 1, Coupe de France, Coupe de la Ligue and Trophée des Champions).
The first crest of the club (also known as Paris FC logo), surfaced in 1970 and was used during the following two seasons. It consisted of a ball and a vessel, two powerful symbols of Paris. After the split from Paris FC in 1972, Paris Saint-Germain created their historical crest, known as the Eiffel Tower logo. It consisted of a red silhouette of the Eiffel Tower with the cradle of French King Louis XIV and the fleur de lys in white between its legs on a blue background with white edging.
Red, blue and white are the club's traditional colours. The red of the Eiffel Tower and the blue of the background represent the two colours of Paris. The white is a hint to the coat of arms of Saint-Germain-en-Laye and it is also the colour of royalty. The cradle and the fleur-de-lis recall that Louis XIV was born in Saint Germain-en-Laye in 1638.
According to former PSG manager Robert Vicot, club president Daniel Hechter introduced the Eiffel Tower in the crest. However, it was a draftsman called Mr. Vallot who had the idea of placing the birthplace of Louis XIV between the legs of the tower. Former PSG shareholder Canal+ was the first to replace the historical crest in 1994. The new model had the acronym "PSG" and underneath it "Paris Saint-Germain." But, under pressure from supporters, the historical crest returned in 1995.
The historical crest received a makeover in 2013. PSG president Nasser Al-Khelaifi approved a renovated and modern design. PSG shareholder Qatar Sports Investments wanted to take full advantage of the city's global appeal and the new crest clearly brought to the fore the name "PARIS," which is written in large bold letters. On top of that, the cradle which marked the birth of Louis XIV was discarded and in place the fleur-de-lis sits solely under the Eiffel Tower. Also, the founding year 1970 made way with "Saint-Germain" taking its place at the bottom.
|Period||Kit manufacturer||Shirt partner|
|1970–1972||Le Coq Sportif||None|
|1976–1977||Le Coq Sportif|
|1978–1986||Le Coq Sportif|
Following their foundation in 1970, Paris Saint-Germain adopted a red shirt with white shorts and blue socks to meet the three club colours: the red and the blue of Paris and the white of Saint-Germain-en-Laye. However, the club's traditional shirt was conceived by fashion designer Daniel Hechter in 1973 upon his arrival as PSG president.
The so-called Hechter shirt was blue with a red central and vertical band framed by white edgings. Hechter draw inspiration from his own design of the Eiffel Tower logo to create the famous shirt that premiered in the 1973–74 season. Hechter also designed the away shirt. It was white with a fine blue band on the heart framed by red and white edgings.
The 1980s were characterised by the establishment of the white home shirt decorated with a fine red and blue vertical band on the heart from the 1981–82 season onwards. It stood as home shirt during nine seasons. Meanwhile, the Hechter home design remained as the away outfit.
The 1990s started with a few fantasies from new kit supplier Nike. However, under pressure from supporters, the Hechter home shirt returned in 1994 and remained until 2000. The away shirt was white with a red central and vertical band framed by blue edgings. It stood until 1999–2000, when the away shirt became grey.
Nike continued their attempts to drift PSG away from their traditional shirt during the 2000s. It all began with the disappearance of the white edgings in 2000–01. A season later, the red band of the home shirt was reduced and moved to the heart. Meanwhile, the away shirt changed several times (grey, 1980s white home shirt, American baseball shirt lookalike chocolate brown). The Hechter shirt briefly returned in 2005–06, only to reappear in 2008–09 thanks to the protests of fans. However, during 2009–10, a blue shirt with red pinstripes surfaced, accompanied by a white away shirt featuring blue and red dotts.
The 2010s began with a nod to the past. Paris SG were celebrating their 40th anniversary in the summer of 2010 and presented a red shirt reminiscent to the one worn in the 1970–71 season. Away games were played with the Hecther design. The latter took its rightful place as home shirt in 2011–12, while the away jersey was white with a horizontal red band on the chest.
Parc des Princes
The Parc des Princes (French pronunciation: [paʁk de pʁɛ̃s], literally "Princes’ Park" in English) is an all-seater football stadium in Paris, France. The venue is located in the south-west of the French capital, inside the 16th arrondissement of Paris, in the immediate vicinity of the Stade Jean-Bouin (rugby venue) and within walking distance from the Stade Roland Garros (tennis venue).
The stadium, with a seating capacity of 48,583 spectators, has been the home pitch of Paris Saint-Germain since 1974. Before the opening of the Stade de France in 1998, it was also the home stadium of the French football and rugby national teams.
The current stadium is the third to have been built on the site, the first opening its doors in 1897 and the second following in 1932. Conceived by architect Roger Taillibert, the Parc des Princes officially opened on 4 June 1972, at a cost of 80–150 million francs.
The Parisian side recorded their highest average home attendance during the 2015–16 season, with 46,160 spectators per game. Meanwhile, the club's record home attendance was registered in 1983, when 49,407 spectators witnessed PSG's 2–0 win over Waterschei in the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup quarter-finals. However, the stadium's attendance record is the 50,370 spectators that watched the French rugby team beat Wales 31–12 in the 1989 Five Nations Championship.
Camp des Loges
The Camp des Loges, also known as the Ooredoo Training Centre for sponsorship reasons, is the training centre of PSG. Located in Saint-Germain-en-Laye, it was inaugurated on 4 November 2008. The current sports complex is the second to have been built on the site, the first opening its doors in 1904. In July 2016, PSG chose Poissy as the site of their future performance centre, which is scheduled to open at the start of the 2019–20 season.
Stade Municipal Georges Lefèvre
The Stade Municipal Georges Lefèvre is a sports complex located in the forest of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France, just across the street from the Camp des Loges, the training centre of PSG. It has a seating capacity of 2,164 spectators provided by 3 stands. The artificial turf and grass football fields of the facility currently host training sessions and home matches for the Paris Saint-Germain Academy.
Paris Saint-Germain is the second-most popular football club in France after arch-rivals Olympique de Marseille. Former French President Nicolas Sarkozy is one of the club's most prominent supporters. Since the emergence of the Boulogne Boys in the 1980s, PSG fan groups or ultras have been linked to football hooliganism.
PSG's Boulogne Boys, considered one of the oldest hooligan groups in France, took their British neighbours as dubious role models. In contrast to the post-Heysel clampdown in Britain, the violence escalated in the early 1990s. PSG owner Canal+, France's premium pay channel, even tried to break up the Boulogne Boys without success.
The feared French riot police were expelled by the Boulogne Boys and other minor fan groups in the Boulogne stand during a game against Caen in 1993. Incidents occurred wherever PSG travelled, and only multiplied with the emergence of the Supras Auteuil in the Autueil stand as a rival to Boulogne's hegemony.
Things came to a head in February 2010 shortly after Marseille beat PSG 3-0 at Parc des Princes. PSG supporter Yann Lorence was involved in a violent exchange outside the Parc des Princes between the Boulogne Boys and their counterparts in the Auteuil stand at the other end of the stadium.
The 37-year-old was left in a critical condition and hospitalised but was pronounced clinically dead the following month because of the injuries he sustained that night. Lorence's death forced then PSG president Robin Leproux to take action to avoid the risk of a repeat event in future. Therefore, all season tickets at Parc des Princes were revoked and all ultra groups were exiled in what was known as "Plan Leproux." The incident led to the dissolution of the Supras Auteuil that same year.
The death of Yann Lorence was not even the first in recent memory. Julien Quemener, a Boulogne Boys member, was shot dead by an off-duty policeman during violence following PSG's UEFA Cup tie with Hapoel Tel Aviv in November 2006. During the 2008 League Cup Final, the Boulogne Boys also unfurled a banner which referred to Lens fans as incestuous, jobless paedophiles. The episode led to the dissolution of the Boulogne Boys.
Before "Plan Leproux" came into effect, Parc des Princes was one of the most intimidating stadiums to visit in Europe. Since then, the club has paid the price both in its pocket and in terms of atmosphere, with one of Ligue 1's most feared venues now subdued. However, the ultras are slowly returning. In late October 2016, the club and the Paris Ultras Collective (CUP) first agreed a Parc des Princes return for PSG's 0-0 home draw with Marseille in Le Classique.
Le Classique (French pronunciation: [lə klasik], The Classic), also known as the Derby de France, is a football match contested between French clubs Paris Saint-Germain and Olympique de Marseille. Unlike most derbies, the rivalry is not a product of close proximities—it involves the two largest cities in France. The PSG vs. OM rivalry transcends the boundaries of the pitch in France. It features the hub of French society and style in Paris against the port city of the working class in Marseille. North against south and the kingpin of the southern provinces against the political center of the capital city adds the political dimension to this rivalry.
The duo are the only two French clubs to have won European trophies and were the dominant forces in the land prior to the emergence of Olympique Lyonnais at the start of the millennium. Yet despite their recent travails, Paris SG and l'OM remain, along with AS Saint-Étienne, the only French clubs with a big history pre-millennium, adding to the appeal of the country's biggest fixture. They are the two most popular clubs in France, and are also the most followed French clubs outside the country. Both teams are at or near the top of the attendance lists every year as well.
Since their first meeting in 1971, these two clubs have squared off in what many believe is France's biggest rivalry. PSG vs. OM is also considered to be one of the greatest in club football. At the very least, it is France’s most violent. Le Classique increased in importance and ferocity during the late 1980s as PSG and Marseille battled each other for the Ligue 1 title. The rivalry grew into the national spotlight as PSG owners Canal + and Marseille's Bernard Tapie promoted the matches between these clubs to a confrontational level. Important security measures are taken to prevent confrontations between the fans, but violent episodes still often occur when the duo meet.
Tournoi de Paris
The Tournoi de Paris, also known as Trophée de Paris, is a pre-season association football invitational competition hosted by French club Paris Saint-Germain at their home ground Parc des Princes, in Paris, France. The competition was founded in 1957 by former hosts Racing Paris to celebrate their 25h anniversary.
Regarded as French football's most prestigious friendly tournament, the Tournoi de Paris was held annually each summer between 1957 and 1966 by Racing Paris. It briefly returned in 1973 with new hosts Paris FC. In 1975, current hosts Paris Saint-Germain successfully relaunched the competition. After an almost uninterrupted 18-year spell (the 1990 edition was not held), PSG abandoned the tournament in 1993 for financial reasons.
However, Paris SG revived the Tournoi de Paris in 2010 to commemorate the club's 40th anniversary. To mark the occasion, PSG also unveiled "Allez Paris Saint-Germain", to the tune of "Go West" by Village People, and Germain the Lynx as the club's official anthem and mascot, respectively.
From 1957 to 1993, the Tournoi de Paris was played in knockout format. Four teams (including the hosts) participated in the competition, which featured two semi-finals, a third-place play-off, and a final. Modeled off Arsenal's Emirates Cup, the competition switched to a group-stage format for the 2010 edition. Not held in 2011, PSG renamed it Trophée de Paris in 2012. It featured a single prestigious match. This was the tournament's last edition to date.
Brazilian team Vasco da Gama won the inaugural Tournoi de Paris in 1957. Paris Saint-Germain are the most successful club in the competition's history, having lifted the trophy on seven occasions. The Parisian side won their first title in 1980 and their most recent success came in 1993.
Belgian outfit Anderlecht are next on the title count with three, while fellow French club Racing Paris and Brazilian sides Santos and Fluminense are the only other teams to have won the competition more than once. PSG arch-rivals Olympique de Marseille are among a group of clubs to have won the tournament once. Girondins de Bordeaux (2010) and Barcelona (2012) won the last two editions. Since the tournament's inception, the winners have received different trophies.
Ownership and finances
Presided over by a group of wealthy businessmen, including Pierre-Étienne Guyot, Guy Crescent and Henri Patrelle, Paris Saint-Germain was formed in 1970. The club grew at an astounding pace early on and the Parisians were Ligue 2 winners in their first year of existence. However, the capital side has rarely been profitable.
In 1973, president Henri Patrelle, looking for new backing, made way for Daniel Hechter and the club attained professional status. In January 1978, Hechter was banned for life from football by the French Football Federation following the scandal of double ticketing at the Parc des Princes. Francis Borelli replaced him as club president. The club's first domestic honours of note arrived in the 1980s.
A decade later, Paris SG were again looking for new backers to confront mounting debts. The takeover by broadcaster Canal+ in 1991 revitalised the club. Canal+ managed the club through delegated-president Michel Denisot. An avalanche of trophies followed as PSG entered their golden age in the 1990s, not to mention the first wave of world-class players to grace the hallowed Parc des Princes turf thanks to the investment of their owners.
Paris SG then went into decline following years of mismanagement and eventually, a split from owners Canal+ became inevitable. That divorce arrived in 2006 after years of underachievement. Canal+ sold PSG to investment firms Colony Capital, Butler Capital Partners and Morgan Stanley for €41 million. Colony Capital purchased the majority of Butler Capital Partners' shares in 2008, though the latter retained a 5% stake in the club. Colony Capital then bought out Morgan Stanley's shares in 2009 to become 95% owners, but it wasn't until 2011 that PSG finally restored a sense of balance.
After two years of solid progress and stability under the stewardship of manager Antoine Kombouaré and president Robin Leproux, the club was purchased by Qatar Sports Investments (QSI) in 2011. Club legend Leonardo was brought back in a sporting director capacity and oversaw a spending spree that has so far been unprecedented in Ligue 1 history. Prior to the Qatar buyout the club had recorded losses for over a decade. The year prior to the takeover Paris SG recorded a loss of $37M.
QSI became the majority shareholder of PSG after buying a controlling 70% of the shares. Colony Capital (29%) and Butler Capital Partners (1%) remained minority shareholders. QSI bought the club in a deal worth €50 million, which covered an estimated €15–20 million in debt and €19 million in losses from the 2010–11 season. In 2012, QSI purchased the remaining 30% stake for €30 million to become PSG's sole shareholder.
The takeover made Paris Saint-Germain the richest club in France and amongst the richest in the world. Currently, PSG have the sixth-highest revenue in the footballing world with an annual revenue of €520.9 million, and are the world's thirteenth most valuable football club, worth $814 million.
- Coupe de France 
- As of the 2016–17 season.
Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.
Out on loan
Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.
|Assistant coaches||Juan Carlos Carcedo, Zoumana Camara, Pablo Villanueva|
|Goalkeeping coach||Nicolas Dehon|
|Physical trainers||Julien Masach, Denis Lefebve, Nicolas Mayer, Simon Colinet|
|Video analyst||Victor Mañas|
|Head doctor||Éric Rolland|
|Performance manager||Martin Buchheit|
|Physiotherapists||Bruno Le Natur, Jérôme Andral, Marcelo Costa, Gaël Pasquer, Cyril Praud|
|General manager||Jean-Claude Blanc|
|Administration and finances||Philippe Boindreux|
|Commercial activities||Frédéric Longuépée|
|Director of football||Patrick Kluivert|
|Sporting director||Olivier Létang|
|Association president||Benoît Rousseau|
|Ticketing director||Nicolas Arndt|
|Security director||Jean-Philippe d'Hallivillée|
|Marketing director||Michel Mimran|
|Head of communication||Jérôme Touboul|
|Head of medias||Yann Guérin|
|Academy director||Jean-François Pien|
Paris Saint-Germain Academy is the youth system of Paris Saint-Germain. The Camp des Loges in Saint-Germain-en-Laye, near Paris, serves as the home facility for the capital club's youth sides, which play their home matches at the Stade Georges Lefèvre.
Since the founding of the academy in 1974, a number of graduates have gone on to sign professional contracts with Paris Saint-Germain or other clubs. Recognized by the French Football Federation as one of the best in the country, the PSG Academy received Category 1 and Class A rating in recent seasons by the Direction Technique Nationale.
The objective of the PSG Academy is to produce elite football players while offering them an adapted and complete scholarly education. Thanks to a series of partnerships with clubs in the Île-de-France region, the academy regularly accepts promising new footballing talents at the Camp des Loges.
Domestically, the PSG Academy has won four Championnat National U19 titles, three Coupes de Paris, two Championnat National U17 titles, one Coupe Gambardella and one Championnat National des Cadets U16 title. In international club football, the U19 side reached the final of the 2015–16 UEFA Youth League.
The first team, managed by Patrice Lair, participates in Division 1 Féminine for the 12th consecutive season. PSG Féminines operates at the CSLBF de Bougival (training centre) and for home games, the team plays at the Stade Sébastien Charléty.
Domestically, PSG have won one Division 2 Féminine title and one Coupe de France Féminine. In international club football, the Parisian side reached the 2015 UEFA Women's Champions League Final. Meanwhile, the Under-19 side won the Challenge National Féminin (D1 equivalent) in the 2015–16 season.
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