Paris Saint-Germain F.C.
|Full name||Paris Saint-Germain Football Club|
|Nickname(s)||Les Rouge-et-Bleu (The Red and Blue) Les Parisiens (The Parisians)|
|Short name||PSG, Paris SG, Paris|
|Founded||12 August 1970|
|Ground||Parc des Princes|
|Owner||Qatar Sports Investments|
|2015–16||Ligue 1, 1st|
|Website||Club home page|
Paris Saint-Germain Football Club (French pronunciation: [paʁi sɛ̃ ʒɛʁmɛ̃]), commonly referred to as PSG, is a French professional association football club based in Paris, whose first team play in the highest tier of French football, the Ligue 1. The club was formed in 1970 by the merger of Paris FC and Stade Saint-Germain.
Having won 31 titles in its history, PSG is the most successful club in French football. The Parisian side is also one of only two French clubs to win a European title. Domestically, PSG have won six Ligue 1 titles, a record ten Coupes de France, a record six Coupes de la Ligue, six Trophées des Champions and one Ligue 2 title. In international club football, Paris have won one UEFA Cup Winners' Cup and one UEFA Intertoto Cup.
Paris Saint-Germain moved into the Parc des Princes in 1974, after spending their formative years using the Stade Municipal Georges Lefèvre, located in front of the Camp des Loges, the club's training complex since 1970. The Tournoi de Paris has been hosted by the capital club at the Parc des Princes since 1975.
PSG shares an intense rivalry with Olympique de Marseille and contest the most notorious football match in France, known as Le Classique. Paris is the second-highest supported football club in France after rivals Marseille. Qatar Sports Investments became the club's sole shareholder in 2012. The takeover made PSG the richest club in France and amongst the richest in the world.
The crest and shirt of the club were mainly designed by Daniel Hechter. The traditional shirt is blue with a red central vertical bar framed by white edgings. "Allez Paris Saint-Germain", to the tune of "Go West" by Pet Shop Boys, is the official anthem of PSG. However, "Ville Lumière" is considered by the fans to be one of PSG's most emblematic songs. Germain the Lynx is the club's mascot. "Ici, c'est Paris!" ("Here is Paris!") and "Paris est magique!" ("Paris is magic!") are the club's most popular mottos.
- 1 History
- 2 Crest evolution
- 3 Kit evolution
- 4 Grounds
- 5 Support
- 6 Rivalries
- 7 Ownership and finances
- 8 Players
- 9 Management
- 10 Honours
- 11 Other ventures
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 External links
Towards the end of the 1960s, an ambitious group of businessmen decided to create a major club in the French capital. After a petition was signed by 20,000 people, Paris Saint-Germain were founded on 12 August 1970 with the merger of Paris FC and Stade Saint-Germain (the latter team having existed since 1904). PSG won the Ligue 2 title in 1971 and celebrated their first birthday in Ligue 1. The 1971–72 term ended with an honourable 16th-placed finish. Their momentum was soon checked, however, and the club split in 1972. Paris FC remained in the top-flight while PSG were demoted to Division 3. However, PSG returned to Ligue 1 in 1974, ironically the same year that Paris FC were relegated, and moved into the Parc des Princes. PSG are today the city's largest club by far.
The club's trophy cabinet welcomed its first major silverware in the shape of the Coupe de France in 1981–82. PSG defeated Saint-Étienne and a certain Michel Platini in the final. The following year, the Parisian side made it back-to-back cups in beating Nantes. Manager Gérard Houllier then led the club to their maiden league success in 1986, with Safet Sušić pulling the strings in midfield. Success on the domestic front meant PSG flew France's colours on the European stage. The best result was a quarter-final appearance in the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup in 1983, against Belgian outfit Waterschei. But competition for recognition as the capital's No1 sporting entity came from Matra Racing between 1984 and 1989, and PSG went into decline.
The takeover by broadcaster Canal+ in 1991 revitalised the club. An avalanche of trophies followed as PSG entered their golden age, not to mention the first wave of world-class players to grace the Parc des Princes thanks to the investment of their owners. PSG's crowning glory came with triumph in the 1996 UEFA Cup Winners' Cup Final, with Bruno N'Gotty hitting the only goal as Rapid Wien were defeated 1–0. Paris and Olympique de Marseille are the only French teams to have lifted European titles. Domestically, PSG celebrated their second league title in 1994, lifting the Coupe de France three times, the Coupe de la Ligue twice and Trophée des Champions twice before the turn of the century.
PSG launched the new millennium by claiming the 2001 UEFA Intertoto Cup, followed by three French Cups and one League Cup. Cup successes notwithstanding, the 2000s were tough for PSG, who flirted with relegation on occasion as a combination of high expectations and intense media pressure. After that roller-coaster ride, PSG were bought by the Qatar Sports Investments group in 2011. Club legend Leonardo was brought back in a sporting director capacity and oversaw a spending spree that has so far been unprecedented in Ligue 1 history.
Reinforced by star signing Zlatan Ibrahimović and famous manager Carlo Ancelotti for the 2012–13 season, Paris secured the club's first Ligue 1 title in 19 years, and third overall. Ligue 1 top scorer Zlatan's 30-goal haul almost single-handedly led the capital side to the crown. Led by Laurent Blanc, who succeeded Ancelotti, Les Parisiens defended their title and secured a maiden domestic treble as they also clinched the Trophée des Champions and the Coupe de la Ligue. Paris then left their mark on French football in the 2014–15 season by claiming an unprecedented domestic quadruple: the Ligue 1, the Coupe de France, the Coupe de la Ligue and the Trophée des Champions. The capital club, once again, won all four national titles in the 2015–16 season.
The first crest of the club (also known as Paris FC logo), surfaced in 1970 and was used during the following two seasons. It consisted of a ball and a vessel, two powerful symbols of Paris. After the split from Paris FC in 1972, Paris Saint-Germain created their historical crest, known as the Eiffel Tower logo. It consisted of a red silhouette of the Eiffel Tower with the cradle of French King Louis XIV and the fleur de lys in white between its legs on a blue background with white edging.
The red of the Eiffel Tower and the blue of the background represent the two colours of Paris. The white is a hint to the coat of arms of Saint-Germain-en-Laye and it is also the colour of royalty. The cradle and the fleur-de-lis recall that Louis XIV was born in Saint Germain-en-Laye in 1638. The colours of PSG are the traces of the union between Paris and Saint-Germain-en-Laye.
According to former PSG manager Robert Vicot, fashion designer Daniel Hechter introduced the Eiffel Tower in the crest before a certain Mr. Vallot had the idea of placing the birthplace of Louis XIV underneath the tower. Former PSG shareholder Canal+ was the first to replace the historical crest in 1994. The new model had the acronym "PSG" and underneath it "Paris Saint-Germain." However, the supporters' anger caused the historical crest to return in 1995.
The historical crest received a makeover in 2013 under PSG President Nasser Al-Khelaifi's approval with a renovated and modern design. PSG shareholder Qatar Sports Investments wanted to take full advantage of the city's global appeal and the new crest clearly brought to the fore the name "PARIS," which is written in large bold letters. On top of that, the cradle which marked the birth of Louis XIV was discarded and in place the fleur-de-lis sits solely under the Eiffel Tower. Also, the founding year 1970 made way with "Saint-Germain" taking its place at the bottom.
|Period||Kit manufacturer||Shirt partner|
|1970–1972||Le Coq Sportif||None|
|1976–1977||Le Coq Sportif|
|1978–1986||Le Coq Sportif|
Following their foundation in 1970, Paris Saint-Germain adopted a red shirt with white shorts and blue socks to meet the three club colours: the red and the blue of Paris and the white of Saint-Germain-en-Laye. Upon the arrival of fashion designer Daniel Hechter as PSG president in 1973, he conceived the club's traditional shirt. The so-called Hechter shirt was blue with a red central and vertical band framed by white edgings. Hechter draw inspiration from his own design of the Eiffel Tower logo to create the famous shirt that premiered in the 1973–74 season. Hechter also designed the away shirt—it was white with a fine blue band on the heart framed by red and white edgings.
The 1980s were characterised by the establishment of the white home shirt decorated with a fine red and blue vertical band on the heart from the 1981–82 season onwards. It stood as home shirt during nine seasons. The Hechter home design, meanwhile, remained as the away outfit.
The 1990s began with a few fantasies from new kit supplier Nike. Under pressure from supporters, however, the Hechter home shirt returned in 1994 and remained until 2000. The away shirt was white with a red central and vertical band framed by blue edgings. It stood until 1999–2000, when the away shirt became grey.
Nike continued their attempts to drift PSG away from their traditional shirt during the 2000s. It all began with the disappearance of the white edgings in 2000–01. A season later, the red band of the home shirt was reduced and moved to the heart. The away shirt, meanwhile, went from grey to the 1980s white home shirt, then changed to an American baseball shirt lookalike and later was chocolate brown. Anecdotally, a third black jersey was used just once in a defeat away to Marseille. Five seasons of experiments later, the Hechter shirt briefly returned in 2005–06, only to reappear in 2008–09 thanks to the protests of fans. However, during 2009–10, a blue shirt with red pinstripes surfaced, accompanied by a white away shirt featuring blue and red dotts.
The current decade began with a nod to the past. PSG were celebrating their 40th anniversary in the summer of 2010 and presented a red shirt reminiscent to the one worn in the 1970–71 season. Away games were played with the Hecther design. The latter took its rightful place as home shirt in 2011–12, while the away jersey was white with a horizontal red band on the chest.
Parc des Princes
The Parc des Princes (French pronunciation: [paʁk de pʁɛ̃s], literally "Princes’ Park" in English) is an all-seater football stadium in Paris, France. The venue is located in the south-west of the French capital, inside the 16th arrondissement of Paris, in the immediate vicinity of the Stade Jean-Bouin (rugby venue) and within walking distance from the Stade Roland Garros (tennis venue).
The stadium, with a seating capacity of 48,583 spectators, has been the home pitch of Paris Saint-Germain since 1974. Before the opening of the Stade de France in 1998, it was also the home stadium of the French football and rugby national teams.
The current stadium is the third to have been built on the site, the first opening its doors in 1897 and the second following in 1932. Conceived by architect Roger Taillibert, the Parc des Princes officially opened on 4 June 1972, at a cost of 80–150 million francs.
The Parisian side recorded their highest average home attendance during the 2015–16 season, with 46,160 spectators per game. Meanwhile, the club's record home attendance was registered in 1983, when 49,407 spectators witnessed PSG's 2–0 win over Waterschei in the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup quarter-finals. However, the stadium's attendance record is the 50,370 spectators that watched the French rugby team beat Wales 31–12 in the 1989 Five Nations Championship.
Camp des Loges
The Camp des Loges, also known as the Ooredoo Training Centre for sponsorship reasons, is the training centre of PSG. Located in Saint-Germain-en-Laye, it was inaugurated on 4 November 2008. The current sports complex is the second to have been built on the site, the first opening its doors in 1904. In July 2016, PSG chose Poissy as the site of their future performance centre, which is scheduled to open at the start of the 2019–20 season.
Stade Municipal Georges Lefèvre
The Stade Municipal Georges Lefèvre is a sports complex located in the forest of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France, just across the street from the Camp des Loges, the training centre of PSG. It has a seating capacity of 2,164 spectators provided by 3 stands. The artificial turf and grass football fields of the facility currently host training sessions and home matches for the Paris Saint-Germain Academy.
Paris Saint-Germain is the second-most popular football club in France after arch-rivals Olympique de Marseille. Former French President Nicolas Sarkozy is one of the club's most prominent supporters. Since the emergence of the Boulogne Boys in the 1980s, PSG fan groups or ultras have been linked to football hooliganism. PSG's Boulogne Boys, considered one of the oldest hooligan groups in France, took their British neighbours as dubious role models. In contrast to the post-Heysel clampdown in Britain, the violence escalated in the early 1990s. PSG owner Canal+, France's premium pay channel, even tried to break up the Boulogne Boys without success.
The feared French riot police were expelled by the Boulogne Boys and other minor fan groups in the Boulogne stand during a game against Caen in 1993. Incidents occurred wherever PSG travelled, and only multiplied with the emergence of the Supras Auteuil in the Autueil stand as a rival to Boulogne's hegemony. Things came to a head in February 2010 shortly after Marseille beat PSG 3-0 at Parc des Princes. PSG supporter Yann Lorence was involved in a violent exchange outside the Parc des Princes between the Boulogne Boys and their counterparts in the Auteuil stand at the other end of the stadium.
The 37-year-old was left in a critical condition and hospitalised but was pronounced clinically dead the following month because of the injuries he sustained that night. Lorence's death forced then PSG president Robin Leproux to take action to avoid the risk of a repeat event in future. Therefore, all season tickets at Parc des Princes were revoked and all ultra groups were exiled in what was known as "Plan Leproux." The incident led to the dissolution of the Supras Auteuil that same year.
The death of Yann Lorence was not even the first in recent memory. Julien Quemener, a Boulogne Boys member, was shot dead by an off-duty policeman during violence following PSG's UEFA Cup tie with Hapoel Tel Aviv in November 2006. During the 2008 League Cup Final, the Boulogne Boys also unfurled a banner which referred to Lens fans as incestuous, jobless paedophiles. The episode led to the dissolution of the Boulogne Boys.
Before "Plan Leproux" came into effect, Parc des Princes was one of the most intimidating stadiums to visit in Europe. Since then, the club has paid the price both in its pocket and in terms of atmosphere, with one of Ligue 1's most feared venues now subdued. However, the ultras are slowly returning. In late October 2016, the club and the Paris Ultras Collective (CUP) first agreed a Parc des Princes return for PSG's 0-0 home draw with Marseille in Le Classique.
Le Classique (French pronunciation: [lə klasik], The Classic), also known as the Derby de France, is a football match contested between French top-flight clubs Paris Saint-Germain and Olympique de Marseille. Unlike most derbies, the rivalry is not a product of close proximities—it involves the two largest cities in France. The PSG vs. OM rivalry transcends the boundaries of the pitch in France. It features the hub of French society and style in Paris against the port city of the working class in Marseille. North against south and the kingpin of the southern provinces against the political center of the capital city adds the political dimension to this rivalry.
The duo are the only two French clubs to have won European trophies and were the dominant forces in the land prior to the emergence of Olympique Lyonnais at the start of the millennium. Yet despite their recent travails, PSG and l'OM remain, along with Saint-Étienne, the only French clubs with a big history pre-millennium, adding to the appeal of the country's biggest fixture. They are the two most popular clubs in France, and are also the most followed French clubs outside the country. Both teams are at or near the top of the attendance lists every year as well.
Since their first meeting in 1971, these two clubs have squared off in what many believe is France's biggest rivalry. PSG vs. OM is also considered to be one of the greatest in club football. At the very least, it is France’s most violent. Le Classique increased in importance and ferocity during the late 1980s as PSG and Marseille battled each other for the Ligue 1 title. The rivalry grew into the national spotlight as PSG owners Canal + and Marseille's Bernard Tapie promoted the matches between these clubs to a confrontational level. Important security measures are taken to prevent confrontations between the fans, but violent episodes still often occur when the duo meet.
Ownership and finances
Paris Saint-Germain were founded in 1970 thanks to the financial backing from local wealthy businessmen Guy Crescent, Pierre-Étienne Guyot and Henri Patrelle. However, since their inception, PSG have experienced some periodic economic difficulties. Despite a good debut during the 1970–71 season with a profit of 1.5 million francs, the trend reversed and the club's debt increased throughout the years.
PSG president Henri Patrelle, searching for financial support, made way for investor Daniel Hechter in 1973 and the club attained professional status. Hechter was later banned for life from football by the French Football Federation following the scandal of double ticketing at the Parc des Princes in 1978. Francis Borelli replaced him.
However, Borelli's old-style management didn't handle properly the emergent football business during the 1980s. Thus, by the early 1990s, PSG were in serious financial trouble with a debt of 50 million francs. For the first time, the Paris City Council, presided by the mayor of Paris, refused to wipe the slate clean.
French TV channel Canal+ gave reprieve to the ailing PSG after purchasing it in 1991. PSG received a whopping 40% of their income from televised games and became one of the richest clubs in France. Canal+ became the club's majority shareholder in 1997 and sole shareholder in 2005. Canal+ managed the club through delegated-president Michel Denisot during the 1990s and PSG maintained their finances healthy. Following the departure of Denisot in 1998, the club began to accumulate debts that reached €96 million in 2002. The net debt fell to €8 million in 2004 after recapitalising the club. PSG's finances, however, remained red. Between 2004 and 2006, PSG were the only French club with a large deficit, registering losses of €30 million. The club's turnover, however, increased from €69 million to €80 million.
Canal+ sold PSG to investment firms Colony Capital, Butler Capital Partners and Morgan Stanley for €41 million in 2006. The club's debt was wiped out by Canal+. Under their new owners, PSG's turnover reached €100 million and the losses gradually decreased to only €5 million in 2009. Colony Capital purchased the majority of the shares of Butler Capital Partners in 2008, though they retained a 5% stake in PSG. Colony Capital acquired all the shares of Morgan Stanley in 2009, becoming owners of 95% of the club, and revealed in 2010 they were looking for new investors to make PSG a true title contender for years to come.
In 2011, Qatar Sports Investments became the majority shareholder of PSG after buying a controlling 70% of the shares. Colony Capital (29%) and Butler Capital Partners (1%) remained minority shareholders. QSI bought the club in a deal worth €50 million, which covered an estimated €15–20 million in debt and €19 million in losses from the 2010–11 season. Consequently, PSG became the richest club in France and one of the richest clubs in the world. QSI later purchased the remaining 30% stake and became the sole shareholder of PSG in 2012. The transaction valued the entire club at €100m. By 2016, PSG had the fourth-highest revenue in the footballing world with an annual revenue of €480.8 million, and were the world's thirteenth most valuable football club, worth $720 million.
- Players and staff – 2016/2017 season.
French teams are limited to four players without EU citizenship. Hence, the squad list includes only the principal nationality of each player; several non-European players on the squad have dual citizenship with an EU country. Also, players from the ACP countries—countries in Africa, the Caribbean, and the Pacific that are signatories to the Cotonou Agreement—are not counted against non-EU quotas due to the Kolpak ruling.
Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.
Out on loan
Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.
|Assistant coaches||Juan Carlos Carcedo, Zoumana Camara, Pablo Villanueva|
|Goalkeeping coach||Nicolas Dehon|
|Physical trainers||Julien Masach, Denis Lefebve, Nicolas Mayer, Simon Colinet|
|Video analyst||Victor Mahas|
|Head doctor||Éric Rolland|
|Performance manager||Martin Buchheit|
|Physiotherapists||Bruno Le Natur, Jérôme Andral, Marcelo Costa, Gaël Pasquer, Cyril Praud|
|General manager||Jean-Claude Blanc|
|Administration and finances||Philippe Boindreux|
|Commercial activities||Frédéric Longuépée|
|Director of football||Patrick Kluivert|
|Sporting director||Olivier Létang|
|Association president||Benoît Rousseau|
|Ticketing director||Nicolas Arndt|
|Security director||Jean-Philippe d'Hallivillée|
|Marketing director||Michel Mimran|
|Head of communication||Jérôme Touboul|
|Head of medias||Yann Guérin|
|Academy director||Jean-François Pien|
- Ligue 1: (6) 
- Ligue 2: (1) 
- Coupe de France: (10) – Record 
- Coupe de la Ligue: (6) – Record 
- Trophée des Champions: (6) 
In October 2016, the team also launched Paris Saint-Germain eSports with presences in League of Legends and EA Sports FIFA and announced the signings of FIFA Interactive World Cup champion August Rosenmeier (Agge) for their FIFA division and Fnatic League legend Bora Kim (YellowStar) as their head of E-Sport. With the announcement, PSG joined Beşiktaş, Santos, Schalke and Valencia in acquiring League teams.
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- "New Office. New Challenge." with Bora "YellowStar" Kim and Lucas Moura Paris Saint-Germain E-Sports on YouTube
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