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Progressive Party (South Korea, 2017)

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Progressive Party
LeaderYoon Hee-suk
Secretary-GeneralSong Yeong-joo
Floor LeaderYoon Jong-oh
See list
  • Jang Jin-suk
  • Jung Tae-heung
  • Jung Hee-sung
  • Kim Bong-yong
  • Lee Kyung-min
  • Jang Ji-hwa
  • Hong Hee-jin
Chair of the Policy Planning CommitteeJung Tae-heung
Founded15 October 2017 (2017-10-15)
Merger of
Headquarters130 Sajik-ro, Jongno District, Seoul
Political positionLeft-wing[A]
National affiliationDemocratic Alliance of Korea
  •   Red[a]
  •   Orange[b]
SloganAlways reliable at our side (Korean: 든든한 우리편)
National Assembly
3 / 300
Metropolitan Mayors and Governors
0 / 17
Municipal Mayors
1 / 226
Provincial and Metropolitan Councillors
4 / 872
Municipal Councillors
18 / 2,988

^ A: The Progressive Party is often described as "far-left" in South Korea due to its sympathies toward North Korea, opposition to the U.S. military presence in South Korea, and political similarities to the defunct Unified Progressive Party.[1][2]
Progressive Party
Revised RomanizationJinbodang
Former name
Revised RomanizationMinjungdang

The Progressive Party (Korean진보당), known as the Minjung Party (Korean: 민중당, lit. People's Party) until June 2020,[3] is a left-wing[4][5][6] progressive and nationalist political party in South Korea.[7] The party was formed by the merger of the New People's Party and People's United Party on 15 October 2017.[8]


Party headquarters

The party initially had two members in the National Assembly, both from Ulsan, but was reduced to one on 22 December 2017 when the supreme court convicted Yoon Jong-oe for breaking the campaign law.[9]

In July 2018, members of the Minjung Party met with members of the North Korean Social Democratic Party in China. The meeting was not authorized by the Ministry of Unification which could have punished the party for violations of South Korea's National Security Act. Jung Tae-heung, the co-chair of the Minjung Party, stated that he was warned the party may be fined for the meeting.[10]

In August 2019, the party held events related to nationwide protests against Japanese prime minister Shinzo Abe and boycott against Japanese products.[11]

In January 2020, the Minjung Party surveyed at 1.5% approval rating ahead of parliamentary elections.[12]

The party lost its remaining seat in the 2020 legislative election.

The Minjung Party tried to participate in the Platform Party, a proportional party of the Democratic Party of Korea (DPK). However, the Democratic Party of Korea refused to join forces with the Minjung Party.[13]

In June 2020, the party renamed itself from the Minjung Party to the Progressive Party.

Some members of the Progressive Party were investigated for planning anti-American and anti-government activities by contacting North Korean spies and receiving orders from North Korea. The Progressive Party protested that it was a crackdown on progressive camps.[14] Some media outlets, such as the liberal Kyunghyang Shinmun, expressed concerns through editorials that the (right-wing Yoon Suk-yeol) government was pressuring labor unions and civic groups, as well as creating a public security state through counterintelligence investigations.[15]

In the by-election held on 5 April 2023, the Progressive Party secured one seat and became a parliamentary party. Kang Seong-hee was elected in Jeonju B district, which was the dominant area of the Democratic Party. The Democratic Party of Korea does not run candidates in by-elections if the Democratic politician was removed from office due to breaking the law. Former Jeonju B Parliamentarian, Lee Sang-jik, was arrested and removed from Parliament for bribing voters with cash handouts. The election was held as a six-way contest between a Progressive Party candidate, the conservative People Power Party and four independents, including two Democrats who ran as independents.

The Progressive Party's entry into Parliament drew intense criticism from right-wing conservative media. In particular, the Chosun Ilbo criticized in articles and editorials that some of the members of the Progressive Party were suspected of pro-North Korea espionage and that the party was the successor of the Unified Progressive Party.[16][17]

Meanwhile, media outlets with a liberal/progressive stance, such as Hankyoreh, gave a positive assessment. They suggested that the party's candidate would secure a seat, largely due to the Democratic Party of Korea employing 'color theory' tactics.[18]

In the 2024 legislative election, the party gained three seats.

Political positions[edit]

Although the party has never officially claimed to be socialist or anti-capitalist, it is classified by some media outlets as being "far-left" (Korean극좌; Hanja極左)[1][2][19] or "radical left"[20][21] in the context of South Korean politics. The Progressive Party maintains "progressivism" as its official ideology rather than "socialism".[22][23]

The Progressive Party opposes restricting the labor of senior citizens over the age of 60. Their justification is that, because South Korea is not a European welfare state, there is a livelihood problem for the elderly.[7] Some socialists in South Korea consider it a liberal party, instead of a left-wing party.[24]

In regards to North Korea, the party adopts the ideology of minjokjuui (Korean민족주의; Hanja民族主義; lit. [Korean ethnic] nationalism). They support both immigrant rights and multiculturalism, employing a civic nationalist stance toward immigrants and naturalized citizens. They believe that minjokjuui is a non-racist ideology because it is "anti-imperialist" and that it can coexist with multiculturalism. According to them, kukkajuui (Korean국가주의; Hanja國家主義; lit. Statism or State-aligned nationalism), which is advocated by the conservative camp in South Korea, has historically been linked to pro-Japanese colonialism ("國家主義"), with pro-American colonialism being more prevalent today.[7]

The Progressive Party strongly supports direct democracy so that the Minjung could actively participate in politics.[7][25]

Economic policy[edit]

The party supports the redistribution of wealth and economically progressive positions such as imposing a 90% tax rate on more than 3 billion won (roughly US$2,500,000).[2]

In addition, the party sees chaebol very negatively and sees "decomposing the monopoly economy of transnational capital and chaebols" (Korean초국적 자본 및 재벌의 독점경제를 해체) as its official party theory.[26][7]

Foreign policy[edit]

The Progressive Party is an anti-imperialist party.[27][28] The party generally shows a strong left-wing nationalism tendency and is much more conciliatory to North Korea than mainstream left-liberals in South Korea, and the party argues that the remnants of colonialism from the Japanese imperialist era should be liquidated and unequal South Korea-U.S. relations should be dismantled to establish national sovereignty.[7][29]

The Progressive Party issued an anti-Japan joint statement with the Korean Social Democratic Party in 2019. The Progressive Party has the most resistant nationalist and anti-Japanese tendencies among South Korea's major political parties.[30]

The Progressive Party opposes supplying lethal aid to Ukraine in the Russian invasion of Ukraine. The Progressive Party accused the Yoon Suk-yeol government of engaging in diplomacy to antagonize Russia.[31]

North Korea[edit]

They oppose all forms of sanctions against North Korea. The party's politicians say only the complete lifting of sanctions on North Korea brings peace on the Korean Peninsula.[32] In March 2022, suspicions arose that some party officials were operating in South Korea while receiving orders from North Korea, and an investigation was launched. The Progressive Party denied that they had ever received orders.[33]

International exchange with American left-wing figures[edit]

The Progressive Party is known as an anti-American party, but they had stated they do not oppose everything related to the US and argue that what they call "반미" means "against American imperialism".

On 13 October 2017, when the founding ceremony of the Minjung Party was held, several left-wing American political figures such as Ramsey Clark and Noam Chomsky expressed their sympathy for the cause, especially with respect to attitudes regarding Korean reunification, and policy towards North Korea.[34] This party also contacted certain American politicians such as Jesse Jackson[35] and Bernie Sanders[36] in 2018 to draw support for the declaration of the end of the Korean War.

The Progressive Party has liaison support with the Green Party of the United States in policies concerning inter-Korean relations, for example the symbolic goal of a formal end to the Korean War.

Social policy[edit]

Major politicians of the Progressive Party support a volunteer military system.[37] The party also supports women's rights, LGBT rights, youth politics and labor-oriented politics.[38][39] The party actively supports the feminist movement in South Korea.[40] Kim Jae-yeon said the reason for running for the 2022 Korean presidential election was "to become a feminist president".[41]

Rights of immigrants and multiculturalism[edit]

The Progressive Party is a Korean nationalist party, but it shows support for multiculturalism and immigration, aiming for "resistance nationalism'" instead of "right-wing nationalism". In addition, the Progressive Party opposes neoliberalism, believing it promotes discrimination against immigrants.[39][42][43][29]

The Progressive Party, along with human rights groups, accused the Moon Jae-in government's COVID-19 quarantine policy in March 2021 of being discriminatory against foreign workers.[44]


The merger of the New People's Party and People's United Party has been controversial, due to their status as parties that were largely a continuation of the Unified Progressive Party, which was dissolved and banned in 2014 due to purported pro-North Korean and "anti-constitutional" activity by a Constitutional Court ruling.[45][46] Conservative critics of the party argued that the Minjung Party is merely an attempt to reestablish the Unified Progressive Party.[47]

Politicians affiliated with the liberal Democratic Party of Korea criticize the Progressive Party for its anti-American activities, although both the Democratic Party of Korea and the Progressive Party support the Sunshine Policy, a dovish policy toward North Korea. Unlike the Progressive Party, the Democratic Party of Korea supports a foreign policy that is somewhat friendly to the United States.[18]

Pro-North Korea argument[edit]

The Progressive Party has been criticized for taking a friendly stance toward North Korea. The centrist Hankook Ilbo called the Progressive Party 'pro-North Korea'.[48]

In the past, the Progressive Party, together with North Korea's political party, the Korean Social Democratic Party, issued a statement criticizing Japan. The right-wing newspaper Chosun Ilbo published an editorial urging an explanation for allegations that the party's former leader was linked to a pro-North Korea spy.[49]

Far-left label[edit]

The Progressive Party is usually classified as far-left in South Korean media; however, the Progressive Party does not officially advocate general far-left ideologies such as anti-capitalism, communism or anarchism in the context of international politics. The Progressive Party supports the restoration of South Korea's sovereignty and full "independence" in the international community. The term "independence" here means strong support for hostile foreign policies against Japan, active reunification policy with North Korea, opposition to free trade with neighboring powers, protectionism, and establishment of completely equal diplomatic relations between countries.[7]

The main reason why PP is classified as far-left in the South Korean political context is anti-Americanism. The PP sees South Korea's socio-economic contradictions as mainly due to the U.S. rather than China/Japan, and thus supports the anti-American struggle. This is therefore a crucial difference from mainstream liberals like DPK and JP, who are negative for China/Japan and are somewhat friendly to the United States to counter their China/Japan hegemonism. In particular, the PP argues for the dissolution of the U.S.-South Korea alliance.[50][51][52]

Democratic socialists in South Korea, including the Labor Party, criticize the Justice Party and Progressive Party as liberal, and being not progressive; however, due to the difference in diplomatic views between the two parties, the Labor Party is considered more moderate than the Progressive Party in the context of South Korean politics.[53] Some equate the Progressive Party's line with the Justice Party and the Labor Party's centre-left social democracy.[54]



  1. Kim Jong-hoon, Kim Chang-han (co-serving; 15 October 2017 - 25 August 2018)
  2. Lee Sang-kyu (26 August 2018 - 20 June 2020)
  3. Kim Jae-yeon (20 June 2020 - 31 July 2022)
  4. Yoon Hee-suk (1 August 2022 - present)

Floor leaders[edit]

  1. Yoon Jong-o (15 October 2017 - 22 December 2017)
  2. Kim Jong-hoon (22 December 2017 - 29 May 2020)
  3. Kang Sung-hee (6 April 2023 - 29 May 2024)
  4. Yoon Jong-o (30 May 2024 - present)

Election results[edit]


Election Candidate Votes % Result
2022 Kim Jae-yeon 37,366 0.11 Not elected


Election Leader Metropolitan mayor/Governor Provincial legislature Municipal mayor Municipal legislature
2018 Kim Jong-hoon
Kim Chang-han
0 / 17
0 / 824
0 / 226
11 / 2,927
2022 Kim Jae-yeon
0 / 17
3 / 824
1 / 226
17 / 2,927


Election Leader National Assembly Metropolitan mayor/governors Municipal mayor Provincial/metropolitan councillors Municipal councillors
April 2023 Yoon Hee-suk
1 / 1
0 / 1
0 / 2
0 / 4
October 2023
0 / 1
April 2024
0 / 2
1 / 17
1 / 26


See also[edit]


  1. ^ as Progressive Party
  2. ^ as Minjung Party


  1. ^ a b "Parcel delivery union to hold rally demanding CJ Logistics negotiates with striking workers". The Korea Herald. 21 February 2022. Retrieved 11 January 2023. "In Monday's rally, protesters plan to get around the antivirus rules, which only allow for a rally of up to 299 people, by having an official campaign vehicle of Kim Jae-yeon, presidential candidate of the far-left Progressive Party, at the scene as campaign events are exempt from COVID-19 restrictions."
  2. ^ a b c "[4·15 총선 앗싸①] '극좌'에서 '극우'까지 ... '배당금黨'에 '결혼당'도 출현" [[April 15 general elections] From 'far left' to 'far right' ... 'Dividend Party' and 'Marriage Party' have also emerged.]. 뉴스웍스. 26 January 2020.
  3. ^ Deok-ho, Son (20 June 2020). "민중당, 진보당으로 당명 변경 ... 김재연, 신임 당대표 선출 (Rename the Minjung Party to the Progressive Party ... Kim Jae-yeon Elects New Party Leader)". The Chosun Ilbo. Retrieved 7 July 2020.
  4. ^ Jae-hyuk, Park (17 August 2018). "CJ Logistics criticized for death of part-timer". The Korea Times. Retrieved 12 April 2019. The left-wing Minjung Party criticized CJ Group's logistics arm for shifting its responsibility for the death to the subcontractor.
  5. ^ Hincks, Joseph (25 May 2018). "Confusion and Protests. How Seoul Reacted to President Trump Quitting the North Korea Summit". Time. Retrieved 12 April 2019. In the city's Gwanghwamun Square Friday, a group of about 30 protesters holding the banners of South Korea's left-wing Minjung party had gathered to demonstrate against the cancellation of summit.
  6. ^ "North Korea repeats unfounded claims COVID came from South in new booklet". NK News. 21 February 2022. Retrieved 26 October 2022. Denouncing Park Sang-hak as "human scum," the booklet highlights opposition to his activities within South Korea, including among the left-wing Progressive Party.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g "강령·당헌·당규" [Platform, party constitution, party rules]. Progressive Party (in Korean). Archived from the original on 27 November 2023. Retrieved 18 January 2024.
  8. ^ 민중당 공식 출범 "민중 승리시대 열 것" 포부. Incheon Ilbo (in Korean). 15 October 2017. Retrieved 16 October 2017.
  9. ^ 울산 북구 단일화 양보했던 이상헌 "윤종오는 무죄". OhmyNews (in Korean). Naver. Retrieved 25 December 2017.
  10. ^ "Minjung Party may face fine for meeting NK party". The Korea Times. 26 July 2018.
  11. ^ "Anti-Abe rallies to sweep Seoul on Liberation Day". The Korea Herald. 14 August 2019.
  12. ^ "S.Korean political parties' approval ratings mixed ahead of April parliamentary election: poll". www.xinhuanet.com. 16 January 2020. Archived from the original on 16 January 2020. Retrieved 1 April 2021.
  13. ^ Kang, Nahum (18 March 2020). "비례의석 앞에 갈라진 汎與…중도층 이탈 우려" [Ji-seok split in front of the proportional seats...Concerns about leaving the middle class]. asiae.co.kr (in Korean). Archived from the original on 7 October 2022. Retrieved 18 January 2024.
  14. ^ "[단독] 대대적 '국가보안법' 수사 나섰다…"북한 지령받아 국내 활동"" [[Exclusive] A large-scale investigation into the National Security Act has begun... “Domestic activities under orders from North Korea”]. JTBC (in Korean). 5 January 2023. Archived from the original on 9 January 2023. Retrieved 18 January 2024.
  15. ^ "지금이 어느 때인데 간첩 사건으로 공안정국 꿈꾸나". Kyunghyang Shinmun (in Korean). 11 January 2023. Archived from the original on 28 January 2023. Retrieved 18 January 2024.
  16. ^ "[사설] 국회 진출 진보당, '간첩 당원' 입장부터 밝혀야" [[Editorial] Progressive Party entering the National Assembly must first clarify its position as a ‘spy member’]. The Chosun Ilbo (in Korean). 7 April 2023. Archived from the original on 23 October 2023. Retrieved 18 January 2024.
  17. ^ "인해전술로 지역 파고들었다… 통진당 후신 진보당, 7년만에 국회 입성" [Invasion of the area using humane tactics...Progressive Party, successor to the Unified Progressive Party, enters the National Assembly for the first time in 7 years]. The Chosun Ilbo (in Korean). 7 April 2023. Archived from the original on 23 October 2023. Retrieved 18 January 2024.
  18. ^ a b "무엇이 진보당을 '민주당 텃밭' 전주에 뿌리내리게 했나" [What made the Progressive Party take root in Jeonju, the 'Democratic Party's stronghold'?]. The Hankyoreh (in Korean). 6 April 2023. Archived from the original on 9 April 2023. Retrieved 18 January 2024.
  19. ^ "김영호, 민중당 비례대표 2번 받고 출마" [Kim Young-ho ran after being assigned the proportional representative No. 2 of the Minjung Party.]. 내포뉴스. 1 April 2020. Retrieved 14 December 2021. ... 극좌 성향의 진보정당으로서 정의당과 쌍벽을 이룰 정도로 뿌리가 튼튼한 데다 고정적인 지지층이 있어서 기호 2번은 당선 안정권에 속한다. ... [... Minjung Party is a far-left progressive party, and candidate No. 2 belongs to the stabilization of the election because the roots are strong enough to form a barrier with the Justice Party and there is a fixed support base. ...]
  20. ^ "대선후보 나선 김재연 진보당 상임대표 "무상급식, 무상교육, 기초노령연금, 아동수당 ... 우리 공약이었다"". Kyunghyang Shinmun. 23 August 2020. Retrieved 15 December 2021. 대선공약으로 주4일제 도입과 토지공개념 전면 실시, 1단계 연방통일공화국 진입 등을 내세웠어요. 급진적이라는 시선이 있어요.
  21. ^ "진보당 김재연 "이재명 오락가락, 윤석열 부자에 표 구걸 ... 자격 없다"" [Progressive Party Kim Jae-yeon said, "Lee Jae-myeong goes back and forth, and Yoon Seok-yeol begs for votes from the rich ... They are not qualified (to be president)".]. The Financial News. 15 November 2020. Retrieved 14 December 2021. 김 후보는 2012년 통합진보당 비례대표로 19대 국회에 진출했으나 '통진당 해산'명령으로 의원직을 상실한 급진 좌파 정치인이다. 이후 민중당을 거쳐 지난해 6월 진보당 상임대표로 선출됐다. [Candidate Kim entered the 19th National Assembly in 2012 as a proportional representative of the United Progressive Party, but is a radical left politician who lost his seat due to an order to dissolve the Unified Progressive Party. Since then, he has been elected as a standing representative of the Progressive Party in June last year after passing through the Minjung Party.]
  22. ^ "Minjung Party press conference". Yonhap News Agency. 11 October 2018. Retrieved 16 June 2020. Members of the progressive Minjung Party hold a press conference in front of former President Chun Doo-hwan's home in Seoul on May 18, 2020.
  23. ^ "South Korea Backtracks on Easing Sanctions After Trump Comment". The New York Times. 11 October 2018. "The dog barks, but the caravan moves on," Lee Eun-hae, a spokeswoman at the minor progressive Minjung Party, said in a statement about Mr. Trump and closer relations with North Korea.
  24. ^ Park, Jun-gyu (27 May 2022). "진보후보 단일화: 사이비 진보세력의 생존법" [Unification of progressive candidates: How pseudo-progressive forces survive]. socialist.kr (in Korean). Archived from the original on 18 January 2024. Retrieved 18 January 2024.
  25. ^ Song Young-hoon (14 April 2020). "민중당 비례후보 누가 나왔나 (Who's the proportional candidate for the Minjung Party?)". NEWSTOF.
  26. ^ "진보정당 첫 대선출마 김재연 "민주당 정부는 개혁 대상"" [Kim Jae-yeon, the first presidential candidate of a progressive political party, said, "The Democratic Party government is subject to reform".]. Media Today. 5 August 2020. Retrieved 14 December 2021. ... 그는 "최저임금부터 끌어올리겠다던 '소득주도성장'도 '재벌주도성장'으로 바뀐 지 오래이고 박근혜 정권만도 못한 최저임금 인상률과 무려 160조원을 재벌대기업에 쏟아 붓는 '한국판 뉴딜'이 오히려 'K양극화'를 부추기고 있다"며 "'노동존중 정부'의 약속도 '노조 탓하기 정부'로 변질됐다"고 비판했다. ... [... She said, "The 'income-led growth', which was intended to raise the minimum wage from the beginning, has long changed to 'chaebol-led growth'. The Park Geun-hye administration's minimum wage increase rate and the "Korean version of the (fake) New Deal", which pours as much as 160 trillion won into conglomerates, are rather encouraging (Economic) "polarization", he said, criticizing "the labor-respect government's promise has also turned into a "government to blame the union." Even the Democratic Party, which has survived on the basis of support for opposition to water polo forces, has become an vested group, he said. "The Democratic Party's government is not the subject of reform, but just the subject of reform." ...]
  27. ^ "민중당 "이란 슬픔 함께 할 것, 미국 강력 규탄"…한미방위조약 파기 요구도 (The Minjung Party "will share the sorrow of Iran, strong condemnation of the United States" ... Demands to Destroy the South Korea-U.S. Defense Treaty)". Korea Economic Daily. 8 January 2020. Retrieved 16 June 2020.
  28. ^ "아베의 화이트리스트 한국 배제 규탄 김종훈 원내대표 기자회견문". Minjung Party : Commentary/Briefing. 2 August 2019. 제국주의 망령에 사로잡힌 아베 정권을 규탄합니다. (The Abe administration is obsessed with the specter of imperialism.)
  29. ^ a b "[박노자의 한국, 안과 밖] 노래를 불렀다가 '죄인'이 되는 나라, 대한민국" [[Pak Noja's (South) Korea, inside and outside] A country where you sing song and then become a 'sinner'. (That's the) Republic of Korea.]. The Hankyoreh. 26 May 2020. Retrieved 14 December 2021. ... 민중당은 조직 노동자, 비정규직 노동자들의 지지를 받으며 좌파민족주의적 입장에서 신자유주의를 비판하는 정당이다. ... [... Minjung Party is a political party that is supported by organizational and non-regular workers and criticizes neoliberalism from a left-wing nationalist standpoint. ...]
  30. ^ "민중당, 北조선사회민주당과 반일공동성명 발표(전문)". 14 August 2019.
  31. ^ "尹진보당 "우크라이나 살상무기 지원 발언 철회하라" [포토]". 한겨레. 20 April 2023. Retrieved 22 April 2023.
  32. ^ "[보도자료] 김재연 후보, 유엔 총회 앞두고 "남북교류협력 가로막는 대북제재 해제하라"". Progressive Party.
  33. ^ "[단독] 대대적 '국가보안법' 수사 나섰다…"북한 지령받아 국내 활동"". 5 January 2023.
  34. ^ "노엄 촘스키, 램지 클라크 등 해외 진보인사 "민중당 출범은 민주화의 의미 있는 진전"". 13 October 2017.
  35. ^ Jackson, Jesse [@RevJJackson] (24 July 2018). "With Minjung party. #RPCSouthKorea #Peace #Reconciliation https://t.co/eCc4zyXGzo" (Tweet). Archived from the original on 9 March 2020. Retrieved 28 March 2023 – via Twitter.
  36. ^ "김종훈 의원, 연방 상하원 방문 버니 샌더스 등과 회담". NEWS M. 27 March 2018. Retrieved 3 March 2023.
  37. ^ "진보당 김재연 후보 공약 "징병제에서 모병제로 전면 전환하겠다"". OhmyNews. 12 December 2021. Retrieved 13 December 2021.
  38. ^ "진보당 김재연 "8만 당원 중 절반이 비정규직, 노동중심 정치 세우겠다"". Voice of the People. 12 September 2021. Retrieved 13 December 2021.
  39. ^ a b "특성화고 출신 만19세, 그가 지방선거 출사표 던진 이유". 미디어오늘. 30 January 2023. Retrieved 30 April 2022.
  40. ^ "진보당 인권위, '2023 페미싹수파릇파릇 페스타' 양일간 개최". 여성신문. 17 February 2023. Retrieved 19 February 2023.
  41. ^ "김재연 "페미니스트 대통령이 되기 위해 출마했다"" [Kim Jae-yeon said, "I ran to become a feminist president".]. OhmyNews. 24 December 2021. Retrieved 25 January 2022. 진보당 대선후보 "국민의힘-민주당, 경쟁적으로 이대남에 구걸" [Progressive Party presidential candidate said, "People Power Party and Democratic Party are competitively begging Angry Young Men".]
  42. ^ "진보당 인권위원회" [Progressive Party Human Rights Commission.]. Facebook (in Korean). 4 December 2018. Retrieved 14 December 2021. 2. Neoliberalism and immigrant human rights. [2강 신자유주의와 이민자 인권]
  43. ^ "[김능구의 20대 대선후보 직격인터뷰] 김재연 진보당 대선후보② "'노동중심성' 세워 진보정체성·진보단결 해내는 새로운 게임체인저 될 것"". 폴리뉴스. 8 December 2021. Retrieved 14 December 2021.
  44. ^ "'외국인 노동자'를 제물로 삼는 코로나19 전시행정 중단을 요구한다". People's Solidarity for Participatory Democracy. 21 March 2021.
  45. ^ "S Korea court orders dissolution of leftist party". San Diego Union-Tribune. 19 December 2014.
  46. ^ "Official court opinion (in Korean)". Constitutional Court of Korea.
  47. ^ 김, 경희 (15 October 2017). 민중당 오늘 출범 ... 옛 '통진당' 재건 논란도. Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 16 October 2017.
  48. ^ "'통진당 그림자' 짙어지는 민주당 비례 위성정당... 이재명 대표 의중인가" [The shadow of the Unified Progressive Party is deepening as the Democratic Party's proportional satellite party... Is this what Representative Lee Jae-myeong intends to do?]. Hankook Ilbo. 27 June 2022. Retrieved 10 March 2024. 더불어민주당 비례 위성정당인 더불어민주연합이 종북 성향이 강한 통합진보당(통진당) 세력의 국회 입성 길을 열어주고 있다는 비판이 제기된다. 반체제 활동으로 한 차례 해산됐던 세력에 대한 '민주당 숙주(宿主)' 논란이다. [Criticism is being raised that the Democratic Alliance for Democracy, a proportional satellite party of the Democratic Party of Korea, is paving the way for the United Progressive Party (Unified Progressive Party), which has strong pro-North Korea tendencies, to enter the National Assembly. This is a controversy over the ‘host of the Democratic Party’, a faction that was once disbanded due to anti-regime activities.]
  49. ^ "민중당, 北조선사회민주당과 반일공동성명 발표(전문)". 14 August 2019.
  50. ^ "[민중당 결의문] 한미동맹 파기하고 자주국가 건설하자".
  51. ^ "광화문에서 다시 울려 퍼진 '내정간섭 중단! 미군철수! 한미동맹 해체!' 함성". 14 December 2020.
  52. ^ "트럼프 방문에 '국회 철통경호'…지하철역 출구·지하주차장도 폐쇄". 20 July 2020.
  53. ^ ""준비된 사회주의 후보, 공약만으로 충분한 지지 얻을 수 있다"" [If you are a prepared socialist candidate, you will gain sufficient support with just a pledge.]. 참세상. 11 September 2021. Retrieved 13 December 2021. 정의당이나 진보당의 색깔은 우리와 같지 않다. ... 민주노동당에서 파생된 정의당과 진보당은 사회주의라는 용어를 다 뺐다. 진보를 포기한 거다. [The color of the Justice Party or the Progressive Party is not the same as ours. ... The Justice Party and the Progressive Party derived from the Democratic Labor Party do not use the term socialism. They are no different from giving up true progressivism.]
  54. ^ 탁양현 (11 January 2019). 진보주의 정치철학, 수운 최제우, 안토니오 그람시 (in Korean). e퍼플. p. 33. ISBN 9791163473008 – via Google Books.

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