Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from fermentation of grape juice. The natural chemical balance of grapes is such that they can ferment without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, or other nutrients. Although fruits other than grapes can also be fermented, the resultant wines are normally named after the fruit from which they are produced (for example, apple wine) and are known as fruit wine (or country wine). Others, such as barley wine and rice wine (e.g. sake), are made from starch-based materials and resemble beer more than wine; ginger wine is fortified with brandy. In these cases, the use of the term "wine" is a reference to the higher alcohol content, rather than the production process. The commercial use of the word "wine" (and its equivalent in other languages) is protected by law in many jurisdictions. Wine is produced by fermenting crushed grapes using various types of yeast which consume the sugars found in the grapes and convert them into alcohol. Various varieties of grapes and strains of yeasts are used depending on the types of wine produced.
Wine stems from an extended and rich history dating back about 8,000 years and is thought to have originated in present-day Georgia or Iran. Wine is thought to have appeared in Europe about 6,500 years ago in present-day Bulgaria and Greece and was very common in ancient Greece and Rome; the Greek god Dionysos, and his Roman counterpart Liber represented wine. Wine continues to play a role in religious ceremonies, such as Kiddush in Judaism and the Eucharist in Christianity.
Some Wikipedians have formed a project to better present and organize information in articles related to Wine. This project contains their suggestions; it is hoped that this collaboration will help to focus the efforts of other Wikipedians on the subject of wine. If you wish to learn more about wine and get involved, please visit the Wine Wikiproject page to see how you can help!
The state of Oregon in the United States has established an international reputation for its production of wine. Oregon has several different growing regions within the state's borders which are well-suited to the cultivation of grapes; additional regions straddle the border between Oregon and the states of Washington and Idaho. Wine making dates back to pioneer times in the 1840s, with commercial production beginning in the 1960s.
American Viticultural Areas entirely within the state include the Willamette Valley, Southern Oregon, Umpqua Valley, and Rogue Valley AVAs. Parts of the Columbia Gorge, Walla Walla Valley, and Snake River Valley AVAs lie within Oregon. Pinot Noir and Pinot Gris are the top two grapes grown, with over 16,000 tons (14,515 metric tons) harvested in 2005. As of 2005, Oregon wine makers produced over 1.5 million cases combined.
With 303 wineries in Oregon, a tourism industry has developed around wine tasting. Much of the tourism focuses on the wineries and tasting rooms in and around the Yamhill Valley southwest of Portland. In 2004, it was estimated that wine tourism contributed USD $92 million to the state economy, excluding winery and tasting room sales.
B. 18 June 1913 – d. 16 May 2008
Robert Gerald Mondavi was a leading American vineyard operator whose technical improvements and marketing strategies brought worldwide recognition for the wines of the Napa Valley in California. From an early period, Mondavi aggressively promoted labeling wines varietally rather than generically. This is now the standard for New World wines. The Robert Mondavi Institute (RMI) for Wine and Food Science at the University of California, Davis opened October 2008 in his honor.
is a Canadian winery
located in Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario
. Inniskillin, which is mainly noted for their icewine
production, has played an important pioneering role in the modern Canadian wine
industry. Since 1994, Inniskillin also operates a winery in Okanagan
, British Columbia
(Inniskillin Okanagan) in addition to their original location (Inniskillin Niagara).
Inniskillin was founded by Donald Ziraldo and Karl Kaiser and saw its beginnings in 1974. Before embarking on the Innskillin project, Ziraldo was running a grapevine nursery and Karl Kaiser, a trained chemist, was a home wine maker. The first vines were planted in 1974, and since the duo had the ambition to make better-quality wines, their vineyard was planted with traditional European grape varieties, of the Vitis vinifera species, chosen from those cultivated in colder European regions. Their first vineyard, of 32 acres (13 ha) was planted with Riesling, Chardonnay and Gamay.
is a variety of red grape
planted in over 10 percent of California wine
vineyards. DNA fingerprinting has revealed that it is genetically equivalent to the Croatian grape Crljenak Kaštelanski
, and also the Primitivo
variety traditionally grown in the region of Apulia
, the "heel" of the Italian boot.
Zinfandel is typically made into a robust red wine, but in the USA a semi-sweet rosé wine called White Zinfandel has six times the sales of the red wine. Zinfandel has such high sugar levels that in the USA the grapes were originally grown for eating as fruit, and this sugar can be fermented into high levels of alcohol, sometimes 15% or more.
The taste of the red wine depends on the ripeness of the grapes from which it is made. Red berry fruits like raspberry predominate in wines from cooler areas such as the Napa Valley, whereas blackberry, anise and pepper notes are more common in wines made in warmer areas such as Sonoma County, and in wines made from the earlier-ripening Primitivo clone.
Decauville narrow gauge railway in Champagne cellars
The entire subject and Wikipedia's coverage of it is intended to be summarized in the Outline of wine. It in turn is part of Wikipedia's outline system which is one of Wikipedia's main contents systems.
Please look it over and fill-in missing topics. If Wikipedia has an article or article section about those topics, please add links to them.
While analyzing the outline, please answer the following questions (and fix the outline as needed):
- What's missing?
- Is the structure of the outline (sections and indents) representative of the subject?
- Does the outline help understand the relationships between the topics presented in the best way possible?
The overall purpose of the outline is to help readers comprehend the subject by showing what belongs to it, and within the subject what belongs to what.
The outline is a taxonomy of the subject, and also serves as a table of contents and navigation aid to browse Wikipedia's articles (and article sections) about the subject.
It is also a useful tool for the WikiProject to analyze, plan, develop, and revise wine-related material. It is a hub from which to organize related topics.
It was built as a "reverse outline", a structural model of an existing work, which in addition to being a summary of the work, can reveal the gaps and other weaknesses for revision purposes.
Please help improve it.
It's our bird's eye view.
This list is transcluded from the tasks page, to edit this section click here.
Here are some tasks you can do for WikiProject Wine:
- Articles to GA: Wine, Australian wine, Bordeaux wine, Burgundy wine, California wine, Champagne (wine), Chianti, Dessert wine, French wine, German wine, Grenache, Italian wine, Merlot, Pinot gris, Pinot noir, Rioja (wine), Spanish wine, Sparkling wine, Syrah, Tempranillo, Winemaking
- Photo request: Just about all of them! Any pictures of wine regions, grape varieties or wine would be useful. In particular we need wine region maps that can be licensed for Wikipedia.
The following entries are categories relating to Wine: