Outline of wine
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to wine:
Wine – alcoholic beverage typically made of fermented grape juice. The natural chemical balance of grapes is such that they can ferment without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes or other nutrients. Wine is produced by fermenting crushed grapes using various types of yeast. Yeast consumes the sugars found in the grapes and converts them into alcohol. Different varieties of grapes and strains of yeasts are used depending on the type of wine being produced.
- 1 What type of thing is wine?
- 2 What is wine made of?
- 3 Types of wine
- 4 Grape varieties
- 5 Wine by country and region
- 6 Wine industry
- 7 Wine production
- 8 Wine selecting
- 9 Wine in culture
- 10 Wine and health
- 11 History of wine
- 12 Organizations and institutions
- 13 Publications
- 14 Other
- 15 Persons influential in the field of wine
- 16 Wine-related films and television
- 17 See also
- 18 References
- 19 External links
What type of thing is wine?
- Drink – liquid which is specifically prepared for human consumption. In addition to fulfilling a basic need, drinks form part of the culture of human society.
- Alcoholic beverage – a beverage containing alcohol.
What is wine made of?
Wine includes the following ingredients:
- Ethanol – the type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages. It is a volatile, flammable, colorless liquid. It is also a psychoactive drug and one of the oldest recreational drugs.
- Fermented grape juice – what wine is made from
- Fermentation – catalyst function that turns grape juice into an alcoholic beverage. During fermentation yeast interact with sugars in the juice to create ethanol, commonly known as ethyl alcohol.
- Grape – non-climacteric fruit that grows on the perennial and deciduous woody vines of the genus Vitis. Grapes can be eaten raw or used for making jam, juice, jelly, vinegar, wine, grape seed extracts, raisins, and grape seed oil.
- Juice – the liquid that is naturally contained in fruit or vegetable tissue.
Types of wine
- Amber wine – Amber wine gets its name from its deep orange color. This wine is made by leaving white wine grapes in contact with the skins, stems, and seeds during fermentation.
- Aromatized wine
- Dessert wine –
- Fortified wine – Fortified wine is a wine that has had a distilled spirit added to it in order to end fermentation, help preservation, or influence flavor. The addition of additional ethanol kills yeast, leaving a wine that is high in sugar and alcohol content.
- Fruit wine – Fruit wine is a fermented alcoholic beverage made from a variety of base ingredients and can be made from virtually any plant matter that can be fermented. The fruits used in winemaking are fermented using yeast and aged in wood barrels to improve the taste and flavor quality.
- Ice wine – Ice wine is a type o dessert wine made from frozen grapes. Grapes are frozen on the vine around 20 °F (-7 °C), and late crushed in a grape press. The sugars in the grape do not frozen, thus creating wine with higher sugar concentrations. Ice wine production is risky because many grapes do not survive the cold temperatures—resulting in ice wines being generally expensive.
- Mead – Mead is an alcoholic beverage that is created by fermenting honey with water and other ingredients including fruits, grains, spices, or hops. The alcoholic content of the drink ranges from 3.5% ABV to over 20%. The defining characteristic of the drink is that the majority of the drink’s fermentable sugar comes from honey.
- Red wine –
- Rosé – Rosé is a style of wine that is made by juicing red grapes and allowing them to macerate for a short period to give the juice a pinkish hue. The maceration step only lasts two to three days and after that, the skins are removed, and the juice is allowed to ferment. Provence, France is the region that is most famous for the best rosés in the world.
- Sparkling wine – Sparkling wine is made by fermenting wine twice. During the second fermentation, the wine is aged with lees at the bottom of the wine barrel. While the wine is being aged, the autolysis of yeast occurs which gives the wine the sparkling component.
- Straw wine – Straw wines are made from a centuries-old method of laying grapes out on straw mats for long periods to be dehydrated by the sun. The dehydration results in more concentrated flavors and sugars in the grapes, leading to typically sweeter wines. They are often paired with desserts, fruit, and charcuterie, or served as an aperitif.
- Table wine –
- White wine –
Grape varieties – below are some examples of grape varieties from which wine is made, arranged by variety:
- Chardonnay –
- Chenin blanc –
- Gewürztraminer –
- Muscat –
- Riesling –
- Sauvignon blanc – As of 2018, Sauvignon Blanc is the eighth most widely grown grape variety in the world, covering 299,000 acres of land globally. It is produced from green skin grapes that can grow in a range of climates. Sauvignon Blanc is typically crisp with high acidity. It also has a high pyrazine concentration, leading to grassy or herbal characteristics. Warmer climates often produce Sauvignon Blanc that have more fruity characteristics, such as grapefruit, passionfruit, and guava.
- Cabernet Franc – Cabernet Franc is a grape that is used to make light to medium body red wines with less tannins than Cabernet Sauvignon. It is a parent of both Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot, and carmenère.
- Cabernet Sauvignon – Cabernet Sauvignon is the mix of the red Cabernet Franc grape and the white Sauvignon Blanc grape. This wine is a very full-body, durable red that can be found mostly in France, more specifically the Bordeaux region. The Cabernet Sauvignon has become one of the most popular wines on earth now and is consumed everywhere around the world.
- Merlot – Merlot, or "The Little Blackbird", is the second most popular red grape in America. This wine is considered a very elegant wine, a soft and ripe red, and is recommended to people who are first-time red wine drinkers, as it is smooth and easy to drink. The wine has a plummy taste with hints of chocolate.
- Pinot noir –
- Syrah/Shiraz –
- Albariño –
- Aligoté –
- Arneis –
- Assyrtiko –
- Furmint –
- Garganega –
- Grüner Veltliner –
- Marsanne –
- Müller-Thurgau –
- Pedro Ximénez
- Pinot blanc –
- Pinot gris/Pinot grigio –
- Ribolla Gialla –
- Roussanne –
- Silvaner –
- Torrontés –
- Ugni blanc/Trebbiano –
- Verdejo –
- Verdicchio –
- Vermentino –
- Viognier –
- Aglianico –
- Baco noir
- Barbera –
- Blaufränkisch –
- Bobal –
- Carignan –
- Carmenère –
- Cesanese Comune
- Cinsaut –
- Corvina –
- Dolcetto –
- Douce noir/Charbono/Bonarda
- Frappato –
- Gamay –
- Grenache/Garnacha –
- Gros Manseng
- Lagrein –
- Malbec – This grape variety is native to Cahors in southwestern France, although it can be found now in Bordeaux, Argentina, and even Napa California. A hybrid of magdeleine noire des Charentes and prunelard, it is one of the five main grapes in France that can be combined to make red Bordeaux wine. In Argentina, it is more commonly used to make varietal bottles, producing a wine with low acid, full body, and robust tannins (although lower than Cabernet Sauvignon). It contains plum, mocha, and earthy aromas, and is commonly paired with fattier dark meats and sharp cheeses.
- Mencía –
- Mourvèdre/Monastrell/Mataro –
- Nebbiolo –
- Negroamaro –
- Nero d'Avola –
- Petite sirah/Durif –
- Petit verdot –
- Pinot Meunier –
- Pinotage –
- Poulsard –
- Sagrantino –
- Sangiovese –
- St. Laurent –
- Tannat –
- Tempranillo –
- Touriga Nacional –
- Uhudler –
- Zinfandel/Primitivo –
- Zweigelt –
Wine by country and region
- Mendoza – Prominent for Malbec, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Tempranillo
- San Juan – Argentina's second largest wine producer, with Syrah, Bonardo, sherry-style wines, brandies, and vermouth.
- La Rioja – The small region produces Moscatel de Alexandrias and Torrontés made from a local sub-variety known as Torrontés Riojano.
- Northwestern regions –
- Patagonia – The source for much of Argentina's sparkling wine
- Alsace Grand Cru AOC(France) –
- American Viticultural Areas –
- ονομασία προελεύσεως ελεγχομένη (Greece) –
- Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée (France) –
- Australian Geographical Indications –
- Bordeaux Wine Official Classification of 1855 (France) –
- Classification of Graves wine (France) –
- Classification of Saint-Émilion wine (France) –
- Denominação de Origem Controlada (Portugal) –
- Denominación de Origen (Spain) –
- Denominazione di Origine Controllata (Italy) –
- Districtus Austria Controllatus –
- Label Integrity Program or LIP (Australia) –
- List of Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée wines (France) –
- Protected Designation of Origin (European Union) –
- Qualitätswein bestimmter Anbaugebiete (Germany) –
- Vintners Quality Assurance (Canada) –
- Wine of Origin (South Africa) –
Wine professions and qualifications
Trends and impacts
- Winery –
- Vineyard –
- Viticulture –
- Winemaking –
- Harvest –
- Pressing (wine)
- Must – freshly pressed fruit juice (usually grape juice) that contains the skins, seeds, and stems of the fruit.
- Pomace – solid remains of grapes, olives, or other fruit after pressing for juice or oil. It contains the skins, pulp, seeds, and stems of the fruit. In winemaking, the length of time that the pomace stays in the juice is critical for the final character of the wine.
- Fermentation –
- Maceration – the soaking of fruit skins and other material in must that is an important process by which phenolics and volatiles present in the unprocessed fruit may be extracted. Maceration time has a primary role in the appearance and sensory attributes of the finished wine.
- Malolactic fermentation –
- Oak in wine production –
- Storage of wine –
- Aging of wine –
Wine in culture
- Christianity and wine –
- Cocktails with wine, sparkling wine, or port –
- Comité Régional d'Action Viticole –
- Cult wines –
- Drinking culture –
- Dionysus –
Wine and health
- Alcohol –
- Short-term effects of alcohol –
- Long-term effects of alcohol –
- Recommended maximum intake of alcoholic beverages –
- French Paradox –
- Phenolic compounds in wine –
- Red wine headache –
History of wine
- Neolithic Period – The earliest marks of viticulture can be traced back to Georgia, where archaeologists found grape pips similar to those of vitis vinifera sativa from as early as the 6th millennium B.C. Wine production during this period was most likely done through the use of kvevri, large earthenware pottery used for fermentation and storage.
- Ancient Greece and wine – The ancient Greeks pioneered new methods of viticulture and wine production which they shared with early winemaking communities in what are now France, Italy, Austria and Russia, as well as others through trade and colonization.
- Ancient Rome and wine –
- Champagne Riots –
- Ancient Scandinavia – The Ancient Scandinavians produced a grog that was an alcoholic mixture of grains, honey, herbs, fruits, and occasionally even grape wine. Grog has been dated to the years 1500-200 BC, and Ancient Greek and Roman texts have dismissed grog as "barley rotted in water" rather than actual wine.
- North America
Organizations and institutions
- Academie du Vin –
- American Society for Enology and Viticulture –
- APCOR (Portugal) –
- ASDW Association of Small Direct Wine Merchants (United Kingdom) –
- Assembly of European Wine-producing Regions –
- Australian Society of Viticulture and Oenology –
- Australian Wine Research Institute –
- Comite Interprofessionnel du Vin de Champagne –
- Comité Régional d'Action Viticole –
- Cool Climate Oenology and Viticulture Institute (Canada) –
- Garagistes (France) –
- Geilweilerhof Institute for Grape Breeding (Germany) –
- Geisenheim Grape Breeding Institute (Germany) –
- Institut National des Appellations d'Origine –
- L'Academie du Vin –
- Missouri Valley Wine Society –
- Wine Institute (California) –
- Wine Institute of New Zealand –
- Wine Research Centre (Canada) –
- Wine and Spirit Trade Association (United Kingdom) –
- Beaujolais Day –
- The Berthomeau Report –
- Fighting varietals –
- House wine –
- Plan Bordeaux –
- Prohibition –
- Riesling Trail –
- Semi-generic –
- Sake –
- Super Tuscans –
- Temperance movement –
- Terroir –
- Wine defect –
- Wine list –
- Wine Parkerization –
Persons influential in the field of wine
- Oz Clarke –
- Antonio Galloni –
- James Halliday –
- Robert Mondavi –
- Russ Moss –
- Kathy Arnink –
- Robert M. Parker, Jr. –
- Jancis Robinson –
- Michel Rolland –
- Kermit Lynch –
- Mauseth, James D. (2013). Plants & people (1st ed.). Burlington: Jones & Bartlett Learning. p. 366. ISBN 9780763785505. Retrieved 3 September 2015.
- Johnson, H. (1989). Vintage: The Story of Wine. Simon & Schuster. pp. 11–6. ISBN 0-671-79182-6.
- Wakawaka, Hawk. "Understanding orange wines 2: Georgian amber wines; pheasant's tears rkatsiteli, vinoterra kisi". Hawk wakawaka wine reviews. Retrieved 5/2/2019. Check date values in:
- Jackson, Ron (2000). Wine Science (Second ed.). Academic Press. pp. 609–619. ISBN 9780123790620.
- Kosseva, Maria; Joshi, V.K.; Panesar, P.S. (2017). Science and Technology of Fruit Wine Production. Elsevier Inc. ISBN 978-0-12-800850-8.
- Puckette, Madeline. "Ice Wine, You're So Fine". winefolly.com. Retrieved 5 May 2019.
- Template:Cite Fitch, Edward (1990). Rites of Odin. St. Paul, Minnesota: Llewellyn Worldwide. p. 290. ISBN 9780875422244.
- Template:Lichine, Alexis. Alexis Lichine’s New Encyclopedia of Wines & Spirits (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1987), 328.
- Staff, Vinepair. "What is Rose Wine?". vinepair.com. Retrieved 5 May 2019.
- Torresi, Sara; Maria, Frangipane; Gabriele, Anelli (1 December 2011). "Biotechnologies in sparkling wine production. Interesting approaches for quality improvement: A review". Food Chemistry. 129 (3): 1232–1241. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.05.006.
- "The Last Straw". turkeyflat.com. Retrieved 7 May 2019.
- Karlsson, Per & Britt (24 January 2018). "The Top Ten Grape Varieties In The World". Forbes. Forbes. Retrieved 30 April 2019.
- "Your Guide to Sauvignon Blanc". Wine Enthusiast. Wine Enthusiast. 17 December 2018. Retrieved 30 April 2018.
- "Cabernet Franc". Winemag. Wine Enthusiast. Retrieved 05/07/19. Check date values in:
- MacNeil, Karen (13 Oct 2015). The Wine Bible (Revised Second ed.). New York: Workman Publishing. p. 125. ISBN 9780761180838.
- Santos-Buch, Greig. "The Essential Guide to Malbec Food Pairing". Winetraveler. Retrieved 5 May 2019.
- Liu, Shuxun; Liu, Enchao; Zhu, Baoqing; Chai, Bowen; Liu, Ruojin; Gao, Qiong; Zhang, Bolin (January 2018). "Impact of maceration time on colour-related phenolics, sensory characteristics and volatile composition of mulberry wine". Journal of the Institute of Brewing. 124 (1): 45–56. doi:10.1002/jib.476. Retrieved 7 May 2019.