Remittances to India

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Remittances to India are money transfers from Non-resident Indians (NRIs), employed outside the country to family, friends or relatives in India. India is the world's leading receiver of remittances, claiming more than 12% of the world's remittances in 2015.[1][2]

Remittances to India stood at US$72.2 billion in 2015, accounts for over 4% of the country's GDP.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7] As per the Ministry of Overseas Indian Affairs (MOIA), remittance is received from the approximately 25 million members of the Indian diaspora.[6]


Under the Foreign Exchange Management Act (FEMA) of 1999, Non Resident Indians (NRIs) and Persons of Indian Origin (PIOs) can open and maintain three types of accounts namely, Non-Resident Ordinary Rupee Account (NRO Account), Non-Resident (External) Rupee Account (NRE Account) and Foreign Currency Non Resident (Bank) Account – FCNR (B) Account.[8]

Since 1991, India has experienced sharp remittance growth. In 1991 Indian remittances were valued at 2.1 billion USD;[5][9] in 2006, they were estimated at between $22 billion[10] and $25.7 billion.[4] which grew to $67.6 billion in 2012-13, up from $66.1 billion the fiscal year, 2011-2012,[6] when the remittance exceed the foreign direct investment(FDI) inflow of $46.84 billion into India.[11]

Money is sent to India either electronically (for example, by SWIFT) or by demand draft. In recent years many banks are offering money transfers and this has grown into a huge business. Around 40% of the India's remittances flow to the states of Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh which are among the top international remittance-dependent economies of the world.[11][12] Research work on remittances to India is listed in the India Migration Bibliography.[13]

A 2012 study, by Reserve Bank of India revealed 30.8% of total foreign remittances was from West Asia, compared to 29.4% from North America and 19.5% from Europe.[11]

Remittance by fiscal year[edit]

The following table illustrates the remittances to India as percent of GDP, 1990–1991 to 2005–2010.[14][15][16]

Remittance by fiscal year
Year Remittances Percent GDP
1990–1991 US$2.10 bn 0.70%
1995–1996 US$8.50 bn 3.22%
1999–2000 US$12.07 bn 2.72%
2000–2001 US$12.85 bn 2.84%
2001–2002 US$15.40 bn 3.29%
2002–2003 US$16.39 bn 3.39%
2003–2004 US$21.61 bn 3.69%
2004–2005 US$20.25 bn 3.03%
2005–2006 US$24.55(projected) bn 3.08%
2006–2007 US$29.10 bn
2007–2008 US$37.20 bn
2008–2009 US$51.60 bn
2009–2010 US$55.06 bn
2011–2012 US$66.10 bn 4.00% [11]
2012–2013 US$67.60 bn [6]
2013-2014 US$70.39 bn [3][7]
2014-2015 US$66.30 bn [16]

Remittance Source Countries[edit]

Remittance Source Countries[17][18]
Remittances source country Remittance amount
UAE US$14,255 mn
United States US$10,844 mn
Saudi Arabia US$7,621 mn
United Kingdom US$3,904 mn
Bangladesh US$3,716 mn
Canada US$3,145 mn
Nepal US$3,220 mn
Qatar US$2,084 mn
Australia US$1,245 mn
Singapore US$1,113 mn
Bahrain US$690 mn
Italy US$572 mn
Malaysia US$493 mn

Top Remittance Receiving Countries[edit]

India was the top remittance receiving country in the world for the year 2014. The following table lists the top countries in the world based on the remittance received

Top Remittance Receiving Countries in 2014[3]
Country Remittance amount
India US$70.39 bn
China US$64.14 bn
Philippines US$28.40 bn
Mexico US$24.87 bn
France US$24.76 bn
Nigeria US$20.92 bn
Pakistan US$17.06 bn
Germany US$15.80 bn
Vietnam US$12.00 bn
Spain US$10.99 bn
Lebanon US$8.90 bn
Indonesia US$8.55 bn

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b "International Migration at All-Time High". The World Bank. 18 December 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2016. 
  2. ^ a b "Pakistan 4th largest source of remittances to India". The Business Standard. 24 December 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2016. 
  3. ^ a b c "India Wins the Remittance Race Again". The Wall Street Journal. 2015-04-15. Retrieved 2015-09-10. 
  4. ^ a b "Remittances from Indians abroad push India to the top". 2007-10-22. Retrieved 2009-03-14. 
  5. ^ a b Gupta, Poonam (2005-12-01). Macroeconomic Determinants of Remittances: Evidence from India. International Monetary Fund. ISBN 9781451862430. Retrieved 2009-03-14. 
  6. ^ a b c d "Remittances from Indian diaspora on the rise". The Economic Times. Feb 19, 2014. Retrieved 2014-02-23. 
  7. ^ a b "India tops global remittances list; received $70 billion in 2013: World Bank". The Economic Times. 11 April 2014. Retrieved 2014-04-12. 
  8. ^ "Facilities for Non Resident Indians (NRIs) and Persons of Indian Origin (PIOs)". Reserve Bank of India. Retrieved 2014-02-23. 
  9. ^ Chishti, Muzaffar (February 2007). "The Rise in Remittances to India: A Closer Look". Migration Policy Institute. Retrieved 2009-03-14. 
  10. ^ "Remittances to India touch $22 billion". The Financial Express. 2006-10-26. Retrieved 2009-03-14. 
  11. ^ a b c d "NRIs beat FDI, keep the money coming". Hindustan Times. October 8, 2012. Retrieved 2014-02-23. 
  12. ^ Tumbe, Chinmay (March 2011). "Remittances in India: Facts and Issues". IIMB Working Paper No. 331. Retrieved 2012-11-05. 
  13. ^ Tumbe, Chinmay (July 2012). "India Migration Bibliography". Indian Institute of Management Bangalore. Retrieved 2012-11-05. 
  14. ^ Chishti, Muzaffar (February 2007). "The Rise in Remittances to India: A Closer Look". Migration Information Source. Archived from the original on 2010-12-04. Retrieved 2011-07-28. 
  15. ^ "Figure 4. Remittances to India, 1970 to 2008". Migration Information Source. Archived from the original on 2010-12-04. Retrieved 2011-07-28. 
  16. ^ a b "India world's largest remittance recipient in 2015: World Bank". The Times of India. Retrieved 2016-04-14. 
  17. ^ <>
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External links[edit]