Obesity in India
Obesity in India has reached epidemic proportions in the 21st century, with morbid obesity affecting 5% of the country's population. India is following a trend of other developing countries that are steadily becoming more obese. Unhealthy, processed food has become much more accessible following India's continued integration in global food markets. This, combined with rising middle class incomes, is increasing the average caloric intake per individual among middle class and high income households. Obesity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and NGOs such as the Indian Heart Association have been raising awareness about this issue.
While studying 22 different SNPs near to MC4-R gene, scientists have identified a SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) named rs12970134 to be mostly associated with waist circumference. In this study more than two thousand individuals of Indian origin participated and the aforementioned SNP is highly prevalent in this group.
Internationally, a BMI over 25 kg/m2 is considered overweight. Due to genetic tendency of Indians towards abdominal obesity and its associated risk of related lifestyle diseases such as diabetes and heart disease, guidelines for diagnosis of obesity and abdominal obesity for India have been published in JAPI (2009) that a BMI over 23 kg/m2 is considered overweight. Further definitions: Normal BMI: 18.0-22.9 kg/m2, Overweight: 23.0-24.9 kg/m2, Obesity: >25 kg/m2.
This is a list of the states of India ranked in order of percentage of people who are overweight or obese, based on data from the 2007 National Family Health Survey.
|States||Males (%)||Males rank||Females (%)||Females rank|
|Jammu and Kashmir||8.7||18||11.1||17|
- "India facing obesity epidemic: experts". The Hindu. 2007-10-12.
- Gulati, S; Misra, A (2017). "Abdominal obesity and type 2 diabetes in Asian Indians: Dietary strategies including edible oils, cooking practices and sugar intake". European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 71 (7): 850–857. doi:10.1038/ejcn.2017.92. PMID 28612831. S2CID 23766777.
- Indian Heart Association Webpage 26 April 2015. <http://indianheartassociation.org/>
- Chambers, John C; Elliott, Paul; Zabaneh, Delilah; Zhang, Weihua; Li, Yun; Froguel, Philippe; Balding, David; Scott, James; Kooner, Jaspal S (2008). "Common genetic variation near MC4R is associated with waist circumference and insulin resistance". Nature Genetics. 40 (6): 716–8. doi:10.1038/ng.156. PMID 18454146. S2CID 12331736.
- Misra, A; Chowbey, P; Makkar, B. M; Vikram, N. K; Wasir, J. S; Chadha, D; Joshi, S. R; Sadikot, S; Gupta, R; Gulati, S; Munjal, Y. P (2009). "Consensus statement for diagnosis of obesity, abdominal obesity and the metabolic syndrome for Asian Indians and recommendations for physical activity, medical and surgical management". The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India. 57: 163–70. PMID 19582986.
- "National Family Health Survey, 2005-06". Mumbai: International Institute for Population Sciences. 2007. Cite journal requires
- Praween Kumar Agrawal (2002-05-23). "Emerging Obesity in Northern Indian States: A Serious threat for Health" (PDF). IUSSP Conference, Bankik, June 10–12 2002.
- Yajnik, C. S (2007). "Obesity epidemic in India: Intrauterine origins?". Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. 63 (3): 387–96. doi:10.1079/PNS2004365. PMID 15373948.
- Misra, A (2002). "Erratum: High prevalence of diabetes, obesity and dyslipidemia in urban slum population of northern India". International Journal of Obesity. 26 (9): 1281. doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.0802030.
- Yoon, Kun-Ho; Lee, Jin-Hee; Kim, Ji-Won; Cho, Jae Hyoung; Choi, Yoon-Hee; Ko, Seung-Hyun; Zimmet, Paul; Son, Ho-Young (2006). "Epidemic obesity and type 2 diabetes in Asia". The Lancet. 368 (9548): 1681–8. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(06)69703-1. PMID 17098087. S2CID 6075746.