Serbian diaspora

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The world map of the Serbian Diaspora

Serbian diaspora refers to Serbian emigrant communities in the diaspora. The existence of a numerous Serbian diaspora are mainly consequences of either economic or political (coercion or expulsion) reasons.

There were different waves of Serbian migration, characterized into:[1]

  1. Economic emigration (end of 19th–beginning of 20th c.)
  2. Political emigration (1941–47) of anti-Communist regime members
  3. Economic emigration (1960s–1980s) of mostly labourers with low-level education
  4. Political-economic emigration (1990s) of highly educated people, resulting in brain drain, and a number of refugees of the Yugoslav Wars.

As of 2005, there were 2,298,352 emigrants from Serbia, which is 4.9% of the population.[2] In 2006, 174,027 had refugee status, and 21,151 were asylum seekers.[2] In 2002, 414,839 were labour migrants.[2] The main countries of destination were Germany, Austria, Switzerland, United States, Turkey, Croatia, Sweden, Italy, Canada and Australia.[2] Based on a 2007 estimate, there were 3.2 to 3.8 million Serbians or person of Serbian origin in the diaspora.[3] The Ministry of Diaspora (MoD) estimated in 2008 that the Serbian diaspora numbered 3,908,000 to 4,170,000, the numbers including not only Serbian citizens but people who view Serbia as their nation-state regardless of the citizenship they hold; these could include second- and third-generation Serbian emigrants or descendants of emigrants from other former Yugoslav republics who never obtained Serbian citizenship but are ethnic Serbs.[3] By continent or region, it was estimated that 2,705,000–2,765,000 lived in Europe (excluding former Yugoslavia), 1–1,2 million in North America, 130,000 in Australia, 25,000 in Africa, 20,000 in Middle and South America, 8,000 in Asia, 5,000–7,000 in New Zealand, 5,000 in the Middle East.[4] There were c. 1,000 diaspora associations, registered in 191 countries.[1]

In 2014 it was estimated based on diplomatic-consular posts that the Serbian diaspora numbered 5.1 million in about 100 states.[5] The term "Serbs in the region" is used for ethnic Serbs of Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, R. Macedonia, Romania, Albania and Hungary, estimated to number 2,120,000.[5] The latter group may or may not be included in estimates.

Serbian diaspora by countries[edit]

Europe[edit]

List of countries and territories by Serbian population
Country Official data Estimates Notes
 Germany 313,198 (2015) Serbian immigrant background.[6]
216,628 (2013) Serbian citizens, residents.[7]
580,000 (2007 MoD est.) Serbian diaspora.[8] 700,000 ethnic Serbs (incl. ancestry),[9][10] see Serbs in Germany
 Austria 137,057 (2016) Serbian-born Austrian citizens.[11]
116,626 (2016) Serbian nationals.[12]
250,000–300,000 (2007 MoD est.) Serbian diaspora.[8] c. 300,000 (est.)[13][14] 320 000+ Serbs in Austria (Domestic numbers)[15]
  Switzerland 64,490 (2016)[16] 120,000 (2007 MoD est.) Serbian diaspora.[8] 150,000 Serbian and Montenegrin immigrants (2000 est.).[17] 200,000 Serbian immigrants (2008 est.).[18] Unknown number of ethnic Serbs in Switzerland.
 Sweden 83,735 (2016) Serbian-born (excl. Kosovo) Swedish citizens.[19]
6,409 (2013) Serbian citizens, residents.[7]
75,000 (2007 MoD est.) Serbian diaspora.[8] 80,000 (2003),[20] 120,000 Serbs in Sweden (2008)[citation needed]
 France 116,793 (2011) Serbian ancestry[21][22] 120,000 (2007 MoD est.) Serbian diaspora.[8] 120,000-190,000 Serbs in France[citation needed]
 Italy 42,264 (2016) "Foreign citizens" from Serbia (excl. Kosovo)[23] 50,000 (2007 MoD est.) Serbian diaspora.[8] 41,678 (2013) Serbian citizens, residents.[7] 109,474 Serbian immigrants (2014).[24] Unknown number of Serbs in Italy
 Slovenia 7,784 (2013) Serbian citizens, residents.[7] 38,000 (2007 MoD est.) Serbian diaspora.[8] 38,964 self-declared "Serb(ian)" community (2011).[25]
 United Kingdom 8,161 "Serbian" "Usual residents" in England and Wales (2011)[26] 80,000 (2007 MoD est.) Serbian diaspora.[8] Serbian Embassy estimated 70,000 ethnic Serbs (2001)[27]
 Romania 6,937 (2013) Serbian citizens, residents.[7] 22,000 (2007 MoD est.) Serbian diaspora.[8] 18,076 ethnic Serbs (Serbs in Romania) (2011 census)[28] Estimated 23,000 Serbs.
 Netherlands 2,116 (2013) Serbian citizens, residents.[7] 20,000 (2007 MoD est.) Serbian diaspora.[8] 53,845 (2005) Serbian and Montenegrin immigrants.[29]
 Hungary 4,894 (2013) Serbian citizens, residents.[7] 10,000 (2007 MoD est.) Serbian diaspora.[8] The census records a "Serbian (ethnic) minority", 7,210 (2011),[30] which does not include Serbian nationals in Hungary.
 Norway 6,396 (2017) Serbian (post-2006) immigrants and Norwegian-born descendants.[31] 2,500 (2007 MoD est.) Serbian diaspora.[8]
 Denmark 1,786 (2017)[a] 7,000 (2007 MoD est.) Serbian diaspora.[8]
 Greece 25,835 (2014) non-resident Serbian nationals (incl. Kosovo).[32]
5,200 Serbian-born Greek citizens (2001).
15,000 (2007 MoD est.) Serbian diaspora.[8] 15,000 (est.) Serbs in Greece
 Luxembourg 7,000 (2015)[33] 3,000 (2007 MoD est.) Serbian diaspora.[8]
 Spain 3,456 (2017) Serbian citizens, residents.[34]
1,010 (2017) Spanish citizens.[34]
1,000 (2007 MoD est.) Serbian diaspora.[8]
7,000 (January 2012 est.).[35]
3,173 (2013) Serbian citizens, residents.[7]
 Russia 29,499 (2015) Serbian nationals, temporary residents.[36] 30,000 (2007 MoD est.) Serbian diaspora.[8] 3,510 Russian nationals of Serb ethnicity (2010 census).[37]
 Turkey N/A 15,000 (2007 MoD est.) Serbian diaspora.[8] The 1965 census registered over 65,000 Serbian-speakers.[38]
 Belgium 6,937 (2013) Serbian citizens, residents.[7] 5,000 (2007 MoD est.) Serbian diaspora.[8]
 Czech Republic 2,253 (2013) Serbian citizens, residents.[7] 3,000 (2007 MoD est.) Serbian diaspora.[8]
 Cyprus 712 (2011)[39] 5,000 (2007 MoD est.) Serbian diaspora.[8]
 Finland 832 (2013) Serbian citizens, residents.[7] 4,000 (2007 MoD est.) Serbian diaspora.[8] 462 (2015) Serbian speakers.[40]
 Ireland 725 (2002)[41] 2,000 (2007 MoD est.) Serbian diaspora.[8] Higher estimate of ethnic Serbs.
 Poland 252 (2013) Serbian citizens, residents.[7] 1,000 (2007 MoD est.) Serbian diaspora.[8]
 Slovakia 716 (2013) Serbian citizens, residents.[7] 500 (2007 MoD est.) Serbian diaspora.[8]
 Ukraine 623 (2001) Serbian nationals[42] 15,000 (2007 MoD est.) Serbian diaspora.[8]
 Bulgaria 645 (2013) Serbian citizens, residents.[7] 2,000 (2007 MoD est.) Serbian diaspora.[8]
 Malta 541 (2011) Serbian-born.[43]
 Iceland 732 (2016)[b]
 Liechtenstein 267 (2014)[44]
 Portugal 192 (2015)[45] 500 (2007 MoD est.) Serbian diaspora.[8]
 Belarus 83 (1989)[46] 500 (2007 MoD est.) Serbian diaspora.[8]
 Latvia 40 (2015) Serbian nationals[47]
 Estonia 20 (2011) Serbian nationals.[48]
 Moldova 21 (2014)[49]
 Lithuania 10 (2011)[50]

Elsewhere[edit]

List of countries and territories by Serbian population
Country Official data Estimates Notes
 United States 750,000–1,000,000 (2007 MoD est.) Serbian diaspora[3] 191,400 Serbian Americans (2015).[51] It is highly likely that among the citizens who declared Yugoslavian ethnicity (328,547 in 2010; 310,682 in 2012 estimation), are siblings to or offshoots of American Serbs.[52]
 Canada 200,000–250,000 (2007 MoD est.) Serbian diaspora[3] 80,320 of "Serbian descent" (2011)[53]
 Australia 130,000 (2007 MoD est.) Serbian diaspora[3] 69,544 (2011) Serbian ancestry.[54][55] 55,114 (0.3%) English and Serbian-speakers (2011 census[54]); 9,857 only Serbian-speakers;[54] the 2011 census recorded 69,544 people of Serbian ancestry from which 20,267 born in Serbia.[54]
 Argentina 5,000 (2010) Serbian nationals.[56] 5,000–7,000 (2007 MoD est.) Serbian diaspora in Argentina and Chile.[3] 30,000 Argentines of Serb descent.[57]
 Chile 5,000–7,000 (2007 MoD est.) Serbian diaspora in Argentina and Chile.[3]
 United Arab Emirates 6,500 (2012 est.)[58]
 Brazil 3,107 (2012) Serbian immigrant residents.[59] 6,000–8,000 (2007 MoD est.) Serbian diaspora[3]
 Venezuela 1,000 (2007 MoD est.) Serbian diaspora[3] 2,000 Venezuelans of Serb descent[60]
 New Zealand N/A 5,000–7,000 (2007 MoD est.) Serbian diaspora[3] 1,059 (2013) "Serbian ethnic group", residents[61]
 Libya N/A 2,000 (2007 MoD est.) Serbian diaspora[3]
 Syria N/A 200 Serbians prior to 2012 evacuation.[62]
 South Africa 153 (2013) Serbian immigrants (excl. Kosovo)[63] 20,000 (2007 MoD est.) Serbian diaspora[3] c. 30,000 ethnic Serbs (including by ancestry)[64]
 Mexico 98 (2009) Serbian residents[65] 1,000 (2007 MoD est.) Serbian diaspora[3]
 Kazakhstan 183 (1989)[66]
 Georgia 46 (1989)[67]
 Uzbekistan 26 (1989)[68]
 Kyrgyzstan 10 (1989)[69]
 Armenia 8 (1989)[70]
 Turkmenistan 8 (1989)[71]
 Azerbaijan 6 (1989)[72]
 Tajikistan 4 (1989)[73]
 Zambia N/A 24 Serbian Orthodox families (May 2009).[74]

Serbian diaspora by cities[edit]

See also[edit]

Annotations[edit]

  1. ^ The 2017 Danish census listed 279 Danish citizens with Serbia as 'country of origin', 1,507 residents with Serbia as 'country of origin', 255 Danish citizens with Serbia and Montenegro as 'country of origin', 632 residents with Serbia and Montenegro as 'country of origin', 766 Danish citizens with FR Yugoslavia as 'country of origin', 1,070 residents with FR Yugoslavia as 'country of origin', 8,679 Danish citizens with Yugoslavia as 'country of origin', 6,411 residents with Yugoslavia as 'country of origin'.[85]
  2. ^ 309 (2016) Serbian-born (excl. Kosovo) immigrants,[86] 61 (2016) Serbian citizens,[87] 362 (2006–15) former Serbian, Icelandic citizens.[88] Not including data for Serbia and Montenegro and Yugoslavia.

References[edit]

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  2. ^ a b c d IOM 2008, p. 15.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m IOM 2008, p. 23.
  4. ^ IOM 2008, pp. 23–24.
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Sources[edit]

External links[edit]

Serbian diaspora organizations
Other