Sierra Leone (1961–1971)

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Sierra Leone

1961–1971
Motto: Unity, Freedom, Justice
Sierra Leone in its region.svg
CapitalFreetown
GovernmentConstitutional monarchy
Queen 
• 1961–1971
Elizabeth II
Governor-General 
• 1961–1971
See list
Prime Minister 
• 1961–1971
See list
Historical eraDecolonisation of Africa
• Independence
27 April 1961
• Republic
19 April 1971
Population
• 1963
2,180,355[1]
• 1965
2,473,294[2]
• 1970
2,692,259[2]
CurrencyBritish West African pound (until 1964)
Leone (after 1964)
ISO 3166 codeSL
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Sierra Leone Colony and Protectorate
Sierra Leone
Today part ofSierra Leone

Sierra Leone was a sovereign state with Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state between independence on 27 April 1961 and becoming the Republic of Sierra Leone on 19 April 1971.[3]

When British rule ended in April 1961, the British Crown Colony of Sierra Leone was given independence under the Sierra Leone Independence Act 1961.[4] The British monarch, Elizabeth II, remained the head of state of Sierra Leone[5] and was represented in Sierra Leone by a Governor-General.[6] Sierra Leone shared the Sovereign with other countries, including the United Kingdom.

History[edit]

On 27 April 1961 Sierra Leone gained independence.[7]

In 1962 general elections were won by the Sierra Leone People's Party (SLPP). The All People's Congress (APC) emerged as the most organised opposition.[7]

In March 1964 Njala University opened. On April 28 1964 Prime Minister Milton Margai died. His brother, Albert Margai, was appointed as new prime minister. On August 4 1964 Sierra Leone currency, the Sierra Leonean leone, was established.[8]

In 1967 general elections were held in Sierra Leone. The APC won by a narrow margin. Brigadier John Lansana, head of the military, seized control of government immediately after swearing in of the new APC prime minister, Siaka Stevens. Lansana was ousted a few days later by junior military officers who invite Andrew Juxon-Smith, a senior officer on leave, to return and head a provisional government, the National Reformation Council (NRC).[8]

In 1968 NRC was overthrown by warrant officers of the army. John Bangura, a formerly dismissed senior officer, invited to head the army. Bangura turned over government to the APC, led by Siaka Stevens.[8]

In 1969 University of Sierra Leone was set up, comprising Fourah Bay College and Njala University.[8]

On 19 April 1971 Sierra Leone became a republic with Siaka Stevens as executive president.[8]

Governors-General[edit]

The Governors-General of Sierra Leone were:[3]

  1. Sir Maurice Henry Dorman (27 April 1961 – 27 April 1962)
  2. Sir Henry Josiah Lightfoot Boston (27 April 1962 – April 1967)
  3. Andrew Juxon-Smith (April 1967 – 18 April 1968) (acting)
  4. John Amadu Bangura (18–22 April 1968) (acting)
  5. Sir Banja Tejan-Sie (22 April 1968 – 31 March 1971)
  6. Christopher Okoro Cole (31 March – 19 April 1971) (interim)

Prime Ministers[edit]

The Prime Ministers (and heads of government) of Sierra Leone during this period were:[3]

  1. Milton Margai (27 April 1961 – 30 April 1964)
  2. Albert Margai (30 April 1964 – 17 March 1967)
  3. Siaka Stevens (first term) (17 March 1967 – 21 March 1967)
  4. David Lansana (21 March 1967 – 24 March 1967)
  5. Ambrose Patrick Genda (24 March 1967 – 27 March 1967)a
  6. Andrew Juxon Smith (27 March 1967 – 19 April 1968)a
  7. Patrick Conteh (19 April 1968 – 26 April 1968)b
  8. Siaka Stevens (second term) (26 April 1968 – 19 April 1971)

a. As Chairman of the National Reform Council.
b. As Chairman of the National Interim Council.

Transition to a Republic[edit]

Standard of the Governor-General of Sierra Leone, 1961–1971

Elizabeth II visited Sierra Leone from 25 November to 1 December 1961, shortly after independence.[9]

The link with the British monarchy was abolished on the promulgation of the 1971 constitution and Prime Minister Siaka Stevens became the first President of Sierra Leone. Sierra Leone became a republic within the Commonwealth.[10]

References[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Kargbo, Michael S. (2006). British Foreign Policy and the Conflict in Sierra Leone, 1991–2001. Google Books. Peter Lang. p. 70. Retrieved 19 November 2017.
  • Fyle, Magbaily C. (2006). Historical Dictionary of Sierra Leone. Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press. pp. XVII–XXII. ISBN 978-0-8108-5339-3.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "FINAL RESULTS 2004 POPULATION AND HOUSING CENSUS" (PDF). Sierra-leone.org. Retrieved 15 August 2018.
  2. ^ a b "Sierra Leone Population". Worldometers. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  3. ^ a b c "Sierra Leone". WorldStatesmen.org. Retrieved 19 November 2017.
  4. ^ "Sierra Leone Independence Act 1961". Legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 19 November 2017.
  5. ^ "Sierra Leone Heads". Worldwide Guide to Women in Leadership. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
  6. ^ Kargbo 2006, p. 70.
  7. ^ a b Fyle 2006, p. XXII.
  8. ^ a b c d e Fyle 2006, p. XXIII.
  9. ^ "Commonwealth Tours: 1960s". British Pathé. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
  10. ^ "Sierra Leone". The Commonwealth. Retrieved 20 November 2017.

External links[edit]