Solar power in Turkey

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Turkey is located in an advantageous position in the Middle East and Southeast Europe for solar energy. Solar potential is very high in Turkey, especially in South Eastern Anatolia and Mediterranean regions.[1] Compared to the rest of the region, insolation values are higher and conditions for solar power generation are comparable to Spain. 7.5 TWh was generated in 2018 which was 2.5% of Turkey's electricity.[2] Installed capacity was 5GW, with the Energy Ministry planning to have another 10GW installed in the 2020s.[3] However solar power in Turkey could increase far more quickly if the auction system was improved.[3]

Insolation[edit]

  • The annual average total insolation duration is 2640 hours (7.2 hours per day).
  • Average annual solar radiation is 1311 kW·h/(m²·yr) or 3.6 kW·h/(m²·d).

Covering one half of one percent of the land area of Turkey with solar panels would be sufficient to generate all of the electricity used.

Policies, laws and incentives[edit]

Turkey enacted its second Renewable Energy Law, namely Law No. 6094 Concerning the use of Renewable Energy Resources for the Generation of Electrical Energy, in 2010.[4] Turkish government is also encouraging expansion and the utilization of solar energy for electricity generation. To stimulate investment in renewables, various incentive schemes have been introduced For example, renewable energy plants with an installed capacity of 500 kW or less are exempt from licensing obligations [1] Solar energy sources are covered by this law, which decrees that facilities which generate electricity from renewable energy sources will be granted a renewable energy resources certificate (RER Certificate) which will entitle such facilities to benefit from the incentives provided by the Law. EMRA is the competent authority to grant the RER Certificates.

Systems producing up to 50KW (e.g. residential systems) are more lightly regulated than larger ones.[5]

Systems producing up to 1-megawatt (MW) of energy do not need a license, and plugged into the national grid are eligible for payments of US$0.133 per kilowatt-hour for 10 years.[6]

Systems producing over 1-megawatt (MW) of energy must be licensed, but only if they feed into the grid. Such licences often become mired in the bureaucracy which is meant to ensure the grid can cope.[7] As of May 2015 600MW of these larger installation tenders have been approved. The one off fee per MW varies considerably depending on the result of each tender.

Turkey has a fair feed in tariff.[8] Turkey is already at grid parity for private households and commercial users. In the coming years solar energy will be feasible without any feed-in-tariff mechanism,[9] however as of 2019 lower interest rates are the key to the expansion of solar power.[10]

Heating and hot water[edit]

The main solar energy utilizations in Turkey are the flat-plate collectors in domestic hot water systems. Turkey is one of the leading countries in the world with a total installed capacity of 10 GWth as of 2011 (129 kWth /1,000 inhabitants)[11] and 15,000 solar water heaters as of 2015.[12][unreliable source?]

The industry is well developed for hot water with high quality manufacturing and export capacity, but not so much for space heating, and is hampered by subsidies for coal heating.[13]

Photovoltaics[edit]

Photovoltaics (PV) growth is expected to be slow in 2019 due to financing challenges, but pick up again some time in the 2020s.[14] From May 2018 ‘unlicensed’ PV projects can have a generation capacity of up to 5 MW. Solar power plants are manufactured in Turkey. In 2016 PV produced 3755 TeraJoules,[15] about 1TWh of Turkey's 300TWh annual generation.

Solar PV deployment in MWp
1,000
2,000
3,000
4,000
5,000
6,000
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
Year Registered
PV capacity
Total
(MWp)
Generated
(GWh)
2008 0.75 4 n.a.
2009 1 5 n.a.
2010 1 6 n.a.
2011 1 7 n.a.
2012 5 12 n.a.
2013 6 18 n.a.
2014 40 58 n.a.
2015 191 249 n.a.
2016 583 832 n.a.
2017 2588,7 3420,7 n.a.
2018 1642,2 5062,9 n.a.
IEA-PVPS,[16] previous[17][18][19][20][21]

Rooftop small-scale PV[edit]

From May 2019 the EPDK allowed net metering for homeowners and businesses installing 3-10 kW of PV on rooftops, so they can sell up to half of the electricity they generate to their electricity company, and receive payments equal to the price they pay.

Concentrated Solar Power[edit]

The Greenway CSP Mersin Solar Tower Plant has an installed power of 5 MW constructed at Mersin by Greenway CSP.[22]

See also[edit]

Sources[edit]

  • "OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Turkey 2019". OECD. February 2019.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b DAWOOD, KAMRAN (2016). "Hybrid wind-solar reliable solution for Turkey to meet electric demand". Balkan Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering. 4 (2): 62–66. doi:10.17694/bajece.06954.2016.09.01.
  2. ^ "Solar:". Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources (Turkey). Retrieved 19 February 2019.
  3. ^ a b "Opportunities to strengthen the YEKA auction model for enhancing the regulatory framework of Turkey's power system transformation" (PDF). Retrieved 19 February 2019.
  4. ^ Renewable Energy Law
  5. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-09-25. Retrieved 2015-09-23.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  6. ^ http://www.solarnovus.com/policy-in-turkey-encourages-renewable-energy-generation_N7146.html
  7. ^ http://www.apricum-group.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/pv-magazine-September-2014_Turkish-solar-market.pdf
  8. ^ "Turkey Photovoltaic (Solar PV) Market: Outlook 2014 - 2025".
  9. ^ http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2013/10/why-should-investors-choose-the-turkish-solar-market
  10. ^ "Tax incentives for solar energy". Daily Sabah. 8 February 2019.
  11. ^ "SOLAR HEAT WORLDWIDE 2011" (PDF).
  12. ^ "How Turkey Can Ensure a Successful Energy Transition". Center for American Progress. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
  13. ^ OECD (2019), page 36
  14. ^ "Tender cancellation affirms view of near-term Turkey renewables slowdown – Fitch Solutions". Fitch. 8 February 2019.
  15. ^ "Supply, transformation and consumption of renewable energies - annual data (choose Solar and TeraJoule)". EuroStat. Retrieved 2019-05-24.
  16. ^ {{cite web |url=http://www.iea-pvps.org/index.php?id=6&eID=dam_frontend_push&docID=4827 |IEA-PVPS Annual Report 2018 |page=116 |website=http://www.iea-pvps.org/index.php?id=6 |publisher=International Energy Agency — Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme |date=20 May 2019}
  17. ^ Trends Report 2010
  18. ^ Trends Report 2008
  19. ^ Trends Report 2009
  20. ^ Global Market Outlook for Photovoltaics 2013-2017 Archived 2014-11-06 at WebCite
  21. ^ "Global Market Outlook for Photovoltaics 2014-2018" (PDF). epia.org. EPIA - European Photovoltaic Industry Association. p. 24. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 June 2014. Retrieved 12 June 2014.
  22. ^ "Solar tower at Mersin". Hurriet.

External links[edit]