Timeline of the Göktürks

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

This is a timeline of the Göktürks from the origins of the Turkic Khaganate to the end of the Second Turkic Khaganate.

5th century[edit]

Year Date Event
460 A group of Xiongnu tribes known as the Ashina residing around modern Turpan are subjugated by the Rouran Khaganate, who resettle them in the Altai Mountains[1]

6th century[edit]

Year Date Event
534 Bumin of the Ashina becomes chieftain of the Turks, who migrate further east to the Yellow River[1]
545 The Turks establish an alliance with the Western Wei[1]
546 Bumin of the Turks quells a Tiele revolt for the Rouran Khaganate and asks for a Rouran princess for his service but is denied, after which he declares independence[2]
551 Bumin declares himself Khagan and supreme ruler of the Turks[1]
Bumin Qaghan marries Princess Changle of the Western Wei[2]
552 Bumin Qaghan defeats Anagui of the Rouran Khaganate and Anagui commits suicide; Bumin declares himself Illig Khagan of the Turkic Khaganate after conquering Otuken; Bumin dies soon after and his son Issik Qaghan succeeds him[2][3]
553 Issik Qaghan continues attacking the Rouran Khaganate and dies; his brother Muqan Qaghan succeeds him[2]
554 Muqan Qaghan defeats the Rouran Khaganate[2]
557 Battle of Bukhara: Istämi (brother of Bumin) of the western Turkic Khaganate makes an alliance with the Sasanian Empire[4]
563 Istämi of the Turkic Khaganate defeats the Hephthalite Empire in battle[1]
568 Envoys reach the Byzantine Empire asking for them to hand over the Avars, slaves of the Turkic Khaganate [5]
572 Muqan Qaghan dies and is succeeded by his brother Taspar Qaghan[6]
580 Taspar Qaghan marries Princess Qianjin of Northern Zhou[6]
581 Göktürk civil war: Taspar Qaghan dies and his designated heir Apa Qaghan, son of Muqan Qaghan, goes to war with Ishbara Qaghan, son of Issik Qaghan; Amrak, son of Taspar Qaghan, renounces his claim to the throne[7]
582 Ishbara Qaghan conducts raids on China[8]
583 Göktürk civil war: Apa Qaghan is defeated by Ishbara Qaghan and flees to Tardu, son of Istämi, of the Western Turkic Khaganate[7]
584 Göktürk civil war: Tardu of the Western Turkic Khaganate defeats Ishbara Qaghan of the Eastern Turkic Khaganate[9]
585 Ishbara Qaghan of the Eastern Turkic Khaganate is defeated by the Sui dynasty[10]
587 Ishbara Qaghan of the Eastern Turkic Khaganate dies and is succeeded by his brother Bagha Qaghan, who captures Apa Qaghan[7][11]
588 First Perso-Turkic War: Bagha Qaghan of the Eastern Turkic Khaganate invades Herat but is defeated and dies from a stray arrow; he is succeeded by Tulan Qaghan, son of Ishbara Qaghan[12][1]
597 Tulan Qaghan of the Eastern Turkic Khaganate attacks Yami Qaghan, son of Bagha Qaghan, and forces him to flee to the Sui dynasty[13]
599 Tulan Qaghan of the Eastern Turkic Khaganate is killed by his subordinates and is succeeded by Yami Qaghan, son of Bagha Qaghan, while Tardu of the Western Turkic Khaganate declares himself ruler of all Turks[14]
Tardu of the Western Turkic Khaganate attacks the Sui dynasty[15]

7th century[edit]

Year Date Event
600 Tardu of the Western Turkic Khaganate attacks the Sui dynasty[15]
602 Tardu of the Western Turkic Khaganate attacks Yami Qaghan of the Eastern Turkic Khaganate in Ordos [13]
603 Tardu of the Western Turkic Khaganate is ousted and flees to the Tuyuhun;[16] he is succeeded by Heshana Khagan, great-grandson of Tardu[17]
605 Yami Qaghan of the Eastern Turkic Khaganate attacks the Khitans on behalf of the Sui dynasty[18]
610 Heshana Khagan of the Western Turkic Khaganate is defeated by Sheguy, grandson of Tardu, who succeeds him[17]
611 Yami Qaghan of the Eastern Turkic Khaganate is succeeded by his son Shibi Khan[19]
Heshana Khagan flees to the Sui dynasty[17]
615 Shibi Khan of the Eastern Turkic Khaganate attacks the Sui dynasty.[19]
617 Shibi Khan of the Eastern Turkic Khaganate aids Emperor Gaozu of Tang in his rebellion against the Sui dynasty[20]
Sheguy of the Western Turkic Khaganate is succeeded by his brother Tong Yabghu Qaghan[21]
618 Heshana Khagan is killed by envoys from the Eastern Turkic Khaganate[17]
619 Shibi Khan of the Eastern Turkic Khaganate is succeeded by his brother Chuluo[17]
620 Chuluo of the Eastern Turkic Khaganate is succeeded by his brother Illig Qaghan[17]
622 Illig Qaghan of the Eastern Turkic Khaganate attacks the Tang dynasty[22]
624 Illig Qaghan of the Eastern Turkic Khaganate and his nephew Tölis Qaghan invade the Tang dynasty but Li Shimin contacts Tölis and persuades him not to attack, forcing the invasion to a halt[23]
625 Illig Qaghan of the Eastern Turkic Khaganate conducts raids on the Tang dynasty but is repulsed[24]
626 Illig Qaghan of the Eastern Turkic Khaganate invades the Tang dynasty and the newly crowned Emperor Taizong of Tang agrees to payments of tribute[24]
627 Third Perso-Turkic War: Tong Yabghu Qaghan of the Western Turkic Khaganate attacks the Sasanian Empire and captures Derbent and Tbilisi[1]
The Karluks revolt against the Western Turkic Khaganate[25]
Tang and Uyghur forces engage in battle with the Turks and Tibetans.[26][27]
630 Tang campaign against the Eastern Turks: Illig Qaghan of the Eastern Turkic Khaganate is defeated by Li Jing of the Tang dynasty and captured by Li Shiji but released; the Eastern Turkic Khaganate becomes a vassal of Tang[28]
Xuanzang visits the court of Tong Yabghu Qaghan of the Western Turkic Khaganate[29]
Tong Yabghu Qaghan of the Western Turkic Khaganate is murdered by his uncle Külüg Sibir[21]
Külüg Sibir of the Western Turkic Khaganate is killed by Irbis Bolun Cabgu, son of Tong Yabghu Qaghan[30]
The Western Turkic Khaganate disintegrates into two loose tribal confederations, the western Nushibi and eastern Dulu Turks, collectively known as the On Oq (Ten Arrows)[25]
632 Irbis Bolun Cabgu of the Western Turkic Khaganate is ousted; he is succeeded by Dulu Khan, son of Bagha Shad, a close kinsman of Tong Yabghu Qaghan[31]
634 Dulu Khan of the Western Turkic Khaganate abdicates and is succeeded by his brother Ishbara Tolis[32]
638 Ishbara Tolis of the Western Turkic Khaganate is ousted in favor of Yukuk Shad, son of Illig Qaghan[33]
642 Yukuk Shad of the Western Turkic Khaganate flees west and is replaced by Irbis Seguy, grandson of Ishbara Tolis[33]
649 Irbis Seguy of the Western Turkic Khaganate flees west and is replaced by Ashina Helu, a descendant of Istämi[10]
656 Karluk and Turgesh forces of the Western Turkic Khaganate are defeated by Cheng Yaojin[34]
657 Battle of Irtysh River: Ashina Helu of the Western Turkic Khaganate is defeated by Su Dingfang of the Tang dynasty[35]
658 Conquest of the Western Turks: Ashina Helu of the Western Turkic Khaganate is defeated by Su Dingfang of the Tang dynasty and lives out the rest of his days in Chang'an; the Western Turkic Khaganate is annexed by Tang[36]
660 Remnants of the Western Turkic Khaganate join the Tibetan Empire in attacking Shule (Kashgar)[37]
665 Remnants of the Western Turkic Khaganate join the Tibetan Empire in attacking Yutian (Hotan)[38]
677 Remnants of the Western Turkic Khaganate join the Tibetan Empire in capturing Qiuci (Kucha)[37]
679 Ashide Wenfu and Ashide Fengzhi of the Chanyu Protectorate make Ashina Nishufu a Khagan and revolt against Tang dynasty.[39]
680 Pei Xingjian defeats Ashina Nishufu and Ashina Nishufu is killed by his men.[39]
Ashide Wenfu makes Ashina Funian a Khagan and revolts against Tang dynasty.[39]
681 Ashide Wenfu and Ashina Funian surrender to Pei Xingjian.[39]
Ilterish Qaghan revolts with the remnants of Ashina Funian's men.[40]
682 Ilterish Qaghan declares the Second Turkic Khaganate[40]
Ilterish Qaghan of the Second Turkic Khaganate attacks the Tang dynasty[41]
683 Ilterish Qaghan of the Second Turkic Khaganate attacks the Tang dynasty[41]
684 Ilterish Qaghan of the Second Turkic Khaganate attacks the Tang dynasty[41]
685 Ilterish Qaghan of the Second Turkic Khaganate attacks the Tang dynasty[41]
687 Ilterish Qaghan of the Second Turkic Khaganate attacks the Tang dynasty[41]
692 Ilterish Qaghan of the Second Turkic Khaganate dies and is succeeded by his brother Qapaghan Qaghan[40]
693 Qapaghan Qaghan of the Second Turkic Khaganate conducts raids against the Tang dynasty[42]
694 Qapaghan Qaghan of the Second Turkic Khaganate conducts raids against the Tang dynasty[43]
696 Qapaghan Qaghan of the Second Turkic Khaganate defeats the Khitans to the east and raids the Tang dynasty[42]
697 Qapaghan Qaghan of the Second Turkic Khaganate conducts raids against the Tang dynasty[43]
698 Qapaghan Qaghan of the Second Turkic Khaganate conducts raids against the Tang dynasty[42]

8th century[edit]

Year Date Event
702 Qapaghan Qaghan of the Second Turkic Khaganate conducts raids against the Tang dynasty[42]
706 Qapaghan Qaghan of the Second Turkic Khaganate conducts raids against the Tang dynasty[42]
707 Qapaghan Qaghan of the Second Turkic Khaganate conducts raids against the Tang dynasty[44]
711 Battle of Bolchu: Qapaghan Qaghan of the Second Turkic Khaganate defeats the Turgesh[45]
713 Qapaghan Qaghan of the Second Turkic Khaganate sends an army to aid Soghd against the Umayyad Caliphate but is defeated and retreats the following year[46]
716 Qapaghan Qaghan of the Second Turkic Khaganate is killed in an ambush and Bilge Khagan, son of Ilterish Qaghan, succeeds him[40]
720 Bilge Khagan of the Second Turkic Khaganate invades the Tang dynasty and extracts tribute[40]
734 Bilge Khagan of the Second Turkic Khaganate is assassinated and his son Yollıg Khagan succeeds him only to die in the same year; he is replaced by his brother Tengri Qaghan under the care of his mother Po Beg[40]
741 Tengri Qaghan of the Second Turkic Khaganate is murdered by Pan Kültiğin, one of his shads (governor), who is then defeated by the Basmyl, and Kutluk Yabgu Khagan, son of Ilterish Qaghan succeeds him[47]
742 The Basmyl, Uyghurs, and Karluks revolt against the Second Turkic Khaganate and Kutluk Yabgu Khagan is killed; Özmiş Khagan, son of Pan Kültiğin, succeeds him[48]
744 The Uyghurs dismantle the Second Turkic Khaganate, establishing the Uyghur Khaganate; Özmiş Khagan is killed[47]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Bregel 2003, p. 14.
  2. ^ a b c d e Barfield 1989, p. 132.
  3. ^ Xiong 2009, p. ciii.
  4. ^ Golden 1992, p. 127.
  5. ^ Golden 1992, p. 128.
  6. ^ a b Xiong 2008, p. 516.
  7. ^ a b c Xiong 2008, p. 37.
  8. ^ Barfield 1989, p. 136.
  9. ^ Barfield 1989, p. 137.
  10. ^ a b Xiong 2008, p. 433.
  11. ^ Xiong 2008, p. 365.
  12. ^ Xiong 2008, p. 138.
  13. ^ a b Barfield 1989, p. 138.
  14. ^ Xiong 2008, p. 407.
  15. ^ a b Skaff 2012, p. 302.
  16. ^ Xiong 2008, p. 69.
  17. ^ a b c d e f Xiong 2008, p. 95.
  18. ^ Barfield 1989, p. 139.
  19. ^ a b Xiong 2008, p. 452.
  20. ^ Xiong 2008, p. 453.
  21. ^ a b Xiong 2008, p. 507.
  22. ^ Skaff 2012, p. 303.
  23. ^ Barfield 1989, p. 144.
  24. ^ a b Xiong 2008, p. cviii.
  25. ^ a b Golden 1992, p. 135.
  26. ^ Latourette 1964, p. 144.
  27. ^ Haywood 1998, p. 3.2.
  28. ^ Xiong 2008, p. 579.
  29. ^ Golden 1992, p. 40.
  30. ^ Xiong 2008, p. 464.
  31. ^ Xiong 2008, p. 139.
  32. ^ Xiong 2008, p. 122.
  33. ^ a b Xiong 2008, p. 629.
  34. ^ Xiong 2009, p. cix.
  35. ^ Xiong 2008, p. cix.
  36. ^ Xiong 2008, p. 434.
  37. ^ a b Bregel 2003, p. 17.
  38. ^ Bregel 2003, p. 16.
  39. ^ a b c d Sima Guang, Zizhi Tongjian, Vol. 202
  40. ^ a b c d e f Barfield 1989, p. 149.
  41. ^ a b c d e Skaff 2012, p. 308.
  42. ^ a b c d e Barfield 1989, p. 147.
  43. ^ a b Skaff 2012, p. 309.
  44. ^ Skaff 2012, p. 311.
  45. ^ Bregel 2003, p. 18.
  46. ^ Bregel 2003, p. 19.
  47. ^ a b Barfield 1989, p. 150.
  48. ^ Ahmet Taşağıl:Göktürkler, AKDTYK yayınları, ISBN 978-975-16-2460-4, p. 358-9

Bibliography[edit]

  • Andrade, Tonio (2016), The Gunpowder Age: China, Military Innovation, and the Rise of the West in World History, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0-691-13597-7 .
  • Asimov, M.S. (1998), History of civilizations of Central Asia Volume IV The age of achievement: A.D. 750 to the end of the fifteenth century Part One The historical, social and economic setting, UNESCO Publishing 
  • Barfield, Thomas (1989), The Perilous Frontier: Nomadic Empires and China, Basil Blackwell 
  • Barrett, Timothy Hugh (2008), The Woman Who Discovered Printing, Great Britain: Yale University Press, ISBN 978-0-300-12728-7  (alk. paper)
  • Beckwith, Christopher I (1987), The Tibetan Empire in Central Asia: A History of the Struggle for Great Power among Tibetans, Turks, Arabs, and Chinese during the Early Middle Ages, Princeton University Press 
  • Biran, Michal, The Empire of the Qara Khitai in Eurasian History: Between China and the Islamic World, Cambridge University Press 
  • Bregel, Yuri (2003), An Historical Atlas of Central Asia, Brill 
  • Drompp, Michael Robert (2005), Tang China And The Collapse Of The Uighur Empire: A Documentary History, Brill 
  • Ebrey, Patricia Buckley (1999), The Cambridge Illustrated History of China, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-66991-X  (paperback).
  • Ebrey, Patricia Buckley; Walthall, Anne; Palais, James B. (2006), East Asia: A Cultural, Social, and Political History, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, ISBN 0-618-13384-4 
  • Golden, Peter B. (1992), An Introduction to the History of the Turkic Peoples: Ethnogenesis and State-Formation in Medieval and Early Modern Eurasia and the Middle East, OTTO HARRASSOWITZ · WIESBADEN 
  • Graff, David A. (2002), Medieval Chinese Warfare, 300-900, Warfare and History, London: Routledge, ISBN 0415239559 
  • Graff, David Andrew (2016), The Eurasian Way of War Military Practice in Seventh-Century China and Byzantium, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-46034-7 .
  • Haywood, John (1998), Historical Atlas of the Medieval World, AD 600-1492, Barnes & Noble 
  • Latourette, Kenneth Scott (1964), The Chinese, their history and culture, Volumes 1-2, Macmillan 
  • Lorge, Peter A. (2008), The Asian Military Revolution: from Gunpowder to the Bomb, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-60954-8 
  • Millward, James (2009), Eurasian Crossroads: A History of Xinjiang, Columbia University Press 
  • Needham, Joseph (1986), Science & Civilisation in China, V:7: The Gunpowder Epic, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-30358-3 
  • Rong, Xinjiang (2013), Eighteen Lectures on Dunhuang, Brill 
  • Shaban, M. A. (1979), The ʿAbbāsid Revolution, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-29534-3 
  • Sima, Guang (2015), Bóyángbǎn Zīzhìtōngjiàn 54 huánghòu shīzōng 柏楊版資治通鑑54皇后失蹤, Yuǎnliú chūbǎnshìyè gǔfèn yǒuxiàn gōngsī, ISBN 957-32-0876-8 
  • Skaff, Jonathan Karam (2012), Sui-Tang China and Its Turko-Mongol Neighbors: Culture, Power, and Connections, 580-800 (Oxford Studies in Early Empires), Oxford University Press 
  • Wang, Zhenping (2013), Tang China in Multi-Polar Asia: A History of Diplomacy and War, University of Hawaii Press 
  • Whiting, Marvin C (2002), Imperial Chinese Military History, Writers Club Press 
  • Wilkinson, Endymion (2015). Chinese History: A New Manual, 4th edition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center distributed by Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674088467. 
  • Yuan, Shu (2001), Bóyángbǎn Tōngjiàn jìshìběnmò 28 dìèrcìhuànguánshídài 柏楊版通鑑記事本末28第二次宦官時代, Yuǎnliú chūbǎnshìyè gǔfèn yǒuxiàn gōngsī, ISBN 957-32-4273-7 
  • Xiong, Victor Cunrui (2000), Sui-Tang Chang'an: A Study in the Urban History of Late Medieval China (Michigan Monographs in Chinese Studies), U OF M CENTER FOR CHINESE STUDIES, ISBN 0892641371 
  • Xiong, Victor Cunrui (2009), Historical Dictionary of Medieval China, United States of America: Scarecrow Press, Inc., ISBN 0810860538 
  • Xue, Zongzheng (1992), Turkic peoples, 中国社会科学出版社